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christianity
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  基督教
    Before 1925, the activity had made progress in preaching of Christianity in Sichuan.
    1925年以前,基督教在四川的传教活动进展顺利。
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    A brief discussion of Hong Xiuquan's selection and utilization of Christianity
    略论洪秀全对基督教的取舍与利用
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    On Chen Duxiu's Views on Christianity before and after the Great Revelutionary
    浅论大革命前后陈独秀的基督教
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    The Difference Between the Western Christianity and God-worship in the Heavenly Kingdom
    太平天国拜上帝教与西方基督教的差异
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    A New Exposition On the Relationship Between Hong Xiuquan's Early Thoughts and Christianity
    洪秀全早期思想与基督教关系新论
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  “christianity”译为未确定词的双语例句
    The Reasons Why the Authorities,the Gentry and the Populace Opposed Christianity in Taiwan in the Qing Dynasty and Their Interrelationship
    试析清季台湾教案中官绅民的反教原因及其关系
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    Gunboat policy and opposing christianity case during late Qing Dynasty
    炮舰政策与晚清教案
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    On Analysis of He Qi,Hu Liyuan's View on Christianity
    香港早期维新思想家何启、胡礼垣洋教观评析
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    The cultural factors with regard to the office holders' "tolerating Christianity" in the late Qing Dynasty
    晚清官绅“容教”论中的文化因素解析
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    Oppugnation on the Basis of the Convention that Modern Christianity Church's Purchase of Land and Construction of Churches in China's Interior
    近代基督教会在中国内地置产建堂条约根据质疑
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  christianity
From 1510 until 1961, Goa remained under the Portuguese and part of the originally Hindu population converted to Christianity.
      
Islam is perceived as "the other" of Western secular modernity, an identification that becomes superimposed upon the older image of Islam as "the other" of European Christianity.
      
Besides Islam, Iran is home to adherents of three of the world's oldest religions: Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Christianity, and to one of the youngest, Baha'i.
      
Included in this discourse are the celebration of indigenous Christian traditions on the one hand, and the "Inculturation" (or simply, Indianization) of Christianity in such areas as the liturgy and even theology.
      
This paper examines the debates around these issues in Christianity and Islam.
      
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In the early days of the Taiping Revolutionary Movement, the American missionaries were so dissatisfied with the Qing government that they welcomed and supported the movement, which had the colour of Christianity. But as they deepened their understanding of the movement, they changed their attitude from appreciating it to attacking it, which prepared public opinion for the Western aggressors to interfere in the Chinese revolution.

太平天国运动初期,由于美国传教士对清政府的不满,因而对这场具有基督教色彩的运动表示欢迎和支持。但是,随着对这一运动认识的加深,美国传教士便由赞赏太平天国革命走向了攻击太平天国革命,从而为西方侵略者干涉中国革命作了舆论上的准备

It is significant for the studies of missionary cases and the Boxer Movement to analyze the relationship among the Eight Trigrams Sect, Boxers and Christianity. Although the Eight Trigrams Sect in western Shandong could maintain its existence under the suppression of the Qing government, it began to decline in the end of eightieth century and disappeared after the uprising in 1861—1863. During the middle period of the Qing Dynasty, the Boxers were a peripheral organization of the folk religious sects....

It is significant for the studies of missionary cases and the Boxer Movement to analyze the relationship among the Eight Trigrams Sect, Boxers and Christianity. Although the Eight Trigrams Sect in western Shandong could maintain its existence under the suppression of the Qing government, it began to decline in the end of eightieth century and disappeared after the uprising in 1861—1863. During the middle period of the Qing Dynasty, the Boxers were a peripheral organization of the folk religious sects. After the latter's decline, the Boxers became the new power in local society. The decline of the Eight Trigrams Sect and the development of the Boxers took place at basically the same time. During the last period of nineteenth century, both Boxers and Christianity expanded their forces continuously. They were antagonistic to each other over the issue of protecting peasants. The frequent occurrence of missionary cases in western Shandong in the end of nineteenth century was the result of these contradictions escalating into armed clashes.

分析八卦教、拳会、基督教会三者关系对于教案和义和团的研究有重要意义。鲁西八卦教在清政府的镇压之下 ,尽管仍能维持而不坠 ,但自 18世纪末已开始走向衰落 ,且在 186 1— 186 3年的起义后销声匿迹。拳会在清中期是民间宗教结社的外围组织 ,至八卦教衰落后 ,成为地方社会的新势力。鲁西是天主教在山东的根据地 ,八卦教的衰退与教会的发展在时间上基本一致。 19世纪后期 ,拳会与教会都在不断扩张势力 ,双方围绕着乡村民众的保护问题互相对立。 19世纪末在鲁西频繁发生教案 ,其原因之一正是双方矛盾上升为武力冲突。

The idea that the Yihetuan (the Boxers) anti-foreign-religion movement was caused by culture conflict and discrimination against advanced western culture is groundless historically and theoretically. Such western religions as Christianity did not represent advanced western culture at that time. Under the cloak of "missionary tasks,some, missionaries pursued their governments policy of culture aggression against China. The culture conflict" caused by western religions im- posed on the Chinese people by...

The idea that the Yihetuan (the Boxers) anti-foreign-religion movement was caused by culture conflict and discrimination against advanced western culture is groundless historically and theoretically. Such western religions as Christianity did not represent advanced western culture at that time. Under the cloak of "missionary tasks,some, missionaries pursued their governments policy of culture aggression against China. The culture conflict" caused by western religions im- posed on the Chinese people by the missionaries was an anti-imperialist struggle in essence. The establishment of schools and newspapers in China by some miss[onaries had helped to disseminate some advanced western culture, but these were not their ruain tasks. Furthermore, the anti-for- eign-religion conflicts were not caused by these actions.

所谓“‘义和团反洋教活动起因是中西文化冲突’,是‘排斥进步的西方文化’”的观点,既无史实依据又无理论根据。基督教等西方宗教并不是当时西方国家的进步文化;少数传教士以“传教”为幌子,推行的是本国政府的对华文化侵略政策;传教士强迫中国民众接受西方宗教文化由此引发的“文化冲突”,实质上是中国民众对西方殖民文化的反抗;传教士在华开办学堂、创办报纸等活动确实传播了某些西方进步文化,但这并非传教士的主体活动,且“教案”冲突也并非固此引起。

 
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