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ganglion cell
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  神经节细胞
     An Experimental Study on Lethal Effect of P2X_7 Receptor Activation on Rat Retinal Ganglion Cell
     嘌呤受体P2X_7激活介导大鼠视网膜神经节细胞死亡的实验研究
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     In group B (0.5% ICG), 16 retinal structures were destructed and edema of fibers layer, ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer can be observed.
     B组经过0.5%吲哚青绿溶液处理的视网膜样本中有16只可以见到视网膜神经纤维层,视网膜神经节细胞层和内丛状层的水肿,组织学上的改变与A组对比存在统计学上的差异(X~2=38.4,P<0.05)。
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     Results TGF-β1 mRNA was expressed in cells of ganglion cell layer, but was not detected in RPE layer and choriocapillaris in normal adult mice.
     结果 在正常组织中,TGF-β1 mRNA表达于神经节细胞层,而视网膜色素上皮、脉络膜血管内皮细胞无TGF-β1的mRNA表达。
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     Retinal ganglion cell survival and IL-1β level in experimental retinal detachment
     视网膜脱离神经节细胞存活与IL-1β关系的实验研究
短句来源
     GABAAα 2mRNA receptor has been found in inner ear's spiral ganglion cell.
     内耳蜗轴内的螺旋神经节细胞表达γ 氨基丁酸Aα2 mRNA受体。
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  节细胞
     Result Significantly increase expression of collagenⅠ /Ⅲ mRNA in the ganglion cell layer and nuclear layer were found in the region around lesions on Laser- injured day 1- 3 and last at least 7 days.
     结果 激光光凝后 1~ 3 d,邻近伤口视网膜节细胞层和内核层内Ⅰ /Ⅲ型胶原 mRNA表达明显增多,并维持到 7 d以后。
短句来源
     The total number of these cells was 1.9×10 6 cells and accounted for 32% of total cells in the ganglion cell layer.
     细胞总数约 1 .9× 1 0 6 个 ,占视网膜节细胞层细胞总数的32 %。
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     Immunohistochemistry of healthy retina visualized eNOS-, nNOS-and iNOS-positive cells, all located in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL), and eNOS-positive cells were also found in vascular endothelium.
     免疫组化结果显示,正常组eNOS、nNOS和iNOS阳性细胞均见于内核层(INL)和节细胞层(GCL),eNOS阳性细胞也分布于血管内皮层;
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     The development of the inner plexiform layer contains two periods of fast development, namely E8 to E10 and E16 to E20. (4) The growth mode of ganglion cell dendrite is in accordance with that of the innerplexiform layer.
     胚胎期内网状层发育有两个快速期即E8-E10和E16-E20。 (4)节细胞树突在内网状层发育规律与内网状层的发育模式一致,E16树突伸入分布到内网状层的不同的亚层,并在E20时节细胞的树突发育完全。
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     In three-month diabetic group,VEGF expression in choroid was positive(55.6%),and VEGF expression in inner nuclear layer and ganglion cell layer of retina was positive(33.3%).
     ③糖尿病3个月组(M3)脉络膜VEGF蛋白表达阳性(55.6%),视网膜的内核层及节细胞层VEGF蛋白表达阳性与正常对照组(33.3%)比较有明显差异。
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  “ganglion cell”译为未确定词的双语例句
     CONCLUSIONS Expression of diabetic retinal VEGF could be reduced and retinal ganglion cell apoptosis could be attenuated by GBE.
     结论GBE可减少糖尿病视网膜VEGF表达,抑制糖尿病视网膜神经节细胞凋亡。
短句来源
     Results:At 12h、48h after RIR the expression of IL-1β in the ganglion cell layer increased obviously,No expression was detected in the control group.
     结果 :正常对照组未见IL -1β表达 ,RIR后 12h、 48h ,视网膜神经节细层可见IL -1β表达。
短句来源
     METHODS:Rat models of transected sciatic nerve were established. The expressions of c-fos and c-jun mRNA in the dorsal ganglion cell of rats were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after acute peripheral nerve injury.
     方法:建立大鼠的坐骨神经切断模型,利用反转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)半定量法,检测急性外周神经损伤后,在不同的时间点(5,15,30,60,120min)大鼠的背根神经节的c-fos,c-junmRNA表达。
短句来源
     Results:At 12h、48h after retina ischemia reperfusion the expression of IL-1β in the ganglion cell layer increased obviously,No expression was detected in the control group.
     结果 :正常对照组未见IL 1β表达 ,RIR后 12h、 48h视网膜神经节细层可见IL 1β表达。
短句来源
     The density of cochlear spiral ganglion cells were (1976 3±1018 9)/mm 2(45%)in bFGF group the density of spiral ganglion cell were (3840 9±373 1)/mm 2(89%),P<0 05.Conclusion bFGF has protective effect on guinea pig cochlea spiral ganglion cell injury induced by glutamate.
     bFGF组细胞密度为 (384 0 9± 373 1)个 /mm2 ,约为正常组的 89%。 经方差分析 ,F 检验 ,谷氨酸钠组与bFGF组比较 ,耳蜗螺旋神经节存活细胞密度差异显著 ,P <0 0 5。
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  ganglion cell
A High-Resolution Area in the Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer of the Steller's Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus): A Topographic Study
      
The absolute delay of peak N14 and N20 in median and P40 in tibial nerve-evoked potentials was probably due to an impaired conduction in the peripheral branch of the bipolar ganglion cell.
      
In the developing retina, a chondroitin sulfate-proteoglycan appears to play an essential role in controlling the sequence of ganglion cell differentiation and initial direction of axons.
      
Ganglion cell loss of up to 60% occurs after optic nerve damage, beginning prior to reinnervation of optic targets.
      
It was distributed around ganglion cell nuclei and disposed linearly in the optic nerve.
      
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Albino rats weighing 180—200 grams were used for studying the effects of a single session of X-irradiation on the superior cervical ganglion cells.In the animals exposed to a dosage of 600r.only a few of the ganglion cells showed central chromatolysis as early as 2 hours after radiation.But on the first day after irradiation the Nissl bodies in the majority of the ganglion cells were decreased in amount and stained lighter than the controls.After 3—20 days some of the animals recovered and...

Albino rats weighing 180—200 grams were used for studying the effects of a single session of X-irradiation on the superior cervical ganglion cells.In the animals exposed to a dosage of 600r.only a few of the ganglion cells showed central chromatolysis as early as 2 hours after radiation.But on the first day after irradiation the Nissl bodies in the majority of the ganglion cells were decreased in amount and stained lighter than the controls.After 3—20 days some of the animals recovered and the RNA of the ganglion cells began to increase around the nucleus.Pronounced chromatolysis and regressive changes occurred within 3 days in the superior cervical ganglion cells of those animals which were irradiated with 1000r.

1.用600伦或1000伦X线给成年大白鼠作全身急性照射。观察它们颈上神经节细胞的变化。2.被照射600伦的动物2小时后,就有少数颈上神经节细胞出现染色质溶解。1天后,大部分神经节细胞的尼氏体数量减少和嗜(口派)咛性降低。3天后,多数动物的颈上神经节细胞萎缩,尼氏体比前阶段略见增多;而在另一些病症危急的动物内,有很多神经节细胞呈现严重的染色质溶解。3.被照射1000伦的动物在最初2天内,颈上神经节细胞的变化与照射600伦的动物没有什么显著差别。3—5天后,所有动物的颈上神经节内都有很多染色质溶解的细胞和溃变的细胞。

The present paper embodies a comprehensive investigation of all tissues of the tadpole tail of Kaloula borealis and their degeneration during metamorphosis. The following are the important findings.The structural characteristics of the tailThe tadpole tail of Anura is a temporary organ functioning in its embryonic aquatic life. In this ephemeral organ a number of primitive characters are retained. For example, the epidermis consists of only two layers of cells. A cuticula is present on the superficial layer....

The present paper embodies a comprehensive investigation of all tissues of the tadpole tail of Kaloula borealis and their degeneration during metamorphosis. The following are the important findings.The structural characteristics of the tailThe tadpole tail of Anura is a temporary organ functioning in its embryonic aquatic life. In this ephemeral organ a number of primitive characters are retained. For example, the epidermis consists of only two layers of cells. A cuticula is present on the superficial layer. Its cells can multiply by division. The dermis is extremely thin and consists of fibers only. Muscles exist in the form of myotomes,in which many young myofibers are retained. The connective tissue matrix is not completely differentiated and looks similar to the mesenchyme. These primitive conditions are also present in the trunk portion of the young tadpole, but at a later stage the above mentioned structures gradually assume aspects obtaining in the young frog. The tail however, retains these primitive conditions unaltered to the very end. In the metamorphosis it undergoes regressive degeneration.Maintenance of unity by the tail in degenerationIn the course of degeneration, activities are concerted. An axial gradient is manifest. Degeneration activity is most pronounced at the tip of the tail, less in the middle portion and least at the base. As a result, the tip quickly vanished, the other parts follow in an orderly sequence. Finally the whole organ disappears.The rate of degeneration of various tissues also varies. Epidermis and notochord lag behind. In order to accommondate themselves in the shrinking space the epidermal cells pile on top of each other, and the epidermis thus becomes multilayered and the notochord becomes undulated. The modifications are in accord with the role these tissues play.The general rule of the degeneration of the tail tissueIn a given tissue, elements that are advanced in differentiation also lead in degeneration. E. g. muscle fiber in myqtome, vacuolar cell in notochord, ganglion cell in spinal ganglion. The less differentiated elements lag behind, e. g. endomysium, noto-chordal epithelium and amphicyte.In degeneration, all fibral tissues including connective tissue-, nerve- and muscle fibers, become swollen and losening up, and gradually become dissolved. Cytoplasm of all cells lose their tight and compact nature and takes deeper stain with eosin. Hereafter vacuoles and pigment granules often appear in it. Unless compressed, the nuclei keep their shape but lose their contents. Degenerating epidermal cells of superficial layer undergo keratinization and finally are cast off. Cells of basal layer first fragment and then vanish.The nucleoli show greater persistence. This is especially pronounced in the nucleoli of ganglion cells and muscle fibers.Pigment granules are slow to disintegrate. They frequently collect in masses, and the tail become black during metamorphosis.Mitosis and amitosisAmitosis occurs in both layers of the epidermal cells, in the nuclei of muscle fibers and in the large cells of the connective tissue matrix. In the formative period of muscle fibers, multiplication of nuclei is soly by means of mitosis. At the end of differentiation mitosis ceases. Hereafter multiplication of nuclei is soly by means of amitosis. In their upgrade development, epidermal cells and the large cells of connective tissue matrix too, cells multiply by means of mitosis. But at the completion of differentiation amitosis makes its appearance and goes on side by side until metamorphosis.Before beginning of metamorphosis, all kinds of the cells in the tail tissue cease to multiply. Only the cells of ependyma and wandering cells of the connective tissue matrix mitosis goes on as usual during degeneration.The significance of mitosis and amitosis is discussed.Degeneration and developmentIn the development of the embryo, there is growth and differentiation of cells and tissues, but coupled with it, there is senescence and death. These two phases of life contradict and yet complement each other. This i

本工作较全面地观察了北方狭口蛙成长期蝌蚪尾组织的显微结构及在变态期的退化,主要的结果简述如下。 1.成长期表皮两层细胞都进行无丝及有丝分裂,无丝分裂出现比有丝分裂晚,出现时表皮细胞郎有生理的退化。 表皮退化时由两层改组为多层,表面细胞角质化,组成一到二层角质层,角质细胞不断脱落。基层细胞核固缩,破裂成碎块;细胞质收缩,与膜脱离,破裂成碎块,与核一同消失。 内膜与肌纤维的连接是肌内膜的原纤维伸入肌原生质中与之紧密连接。 绝大多数肌纤维退化时肌原纤维断裂成肌解小体,以后溶解;少数不断裂成肌解小体,直接溶解。 3.脊索退化时泡细胞先退化,脊索上皮稍后,脊索鞘最后。泡细胞先失去液体,细胞膜膨胀加厚,与细胞质脱离,以后共同溶解。脊索鞘纤维膨胀,松散,然后溶解。 4.神经细胞退化时所合成分渐次溶解,但核仁耐力大,在退化的神经节细胞中有时其他成分已经溶解但核仁仍在。神经纤维膨胀,松散,溶解。 5.侧线的感觉蕾退化时与支配它的神经纤维首先失去连接,向表皮表面移位,细胞溶解,残留的少数细胞随表皮角质细胞脱落。 6.血管与淋巴管壁都很薄,退化时由于纤维膨胀,譬加厚,结构才显得清楚。纤维膨胀,松散,与细胞一同溶解。 7.结缔组织基...

本工作较全面地观察了北方狭口蛙成长期蝌蚪尾组织的显微结构及在变态期的退化,主要的结果简述如下。 1.成长期表皮两层细胞都进行无丝及有丝分裂,无丝分裂出现比有丝分裂晚,出现时表皮细胞郎有生理的退化。 表皮退化时由两层改组为多层,表面细胞角质化,组成一到二层角质层,角质细胞不断脱落。基层细胞核固缩,破裂成碎块;细胞质收缩,与膜脱离,破裂成碎块,与核一同消失。 内膜与肌纤维的连接是肌内膜的原纤维伸入肌原生质中与之紧密连接。 绝大多数肌纤维退化时肌原纤维断裂成肌解小体,以后溶解;少数不断裂成肌解小体,直接溶解。 3.脊索退化时泡细胞先退化,脊索上皮稍后,脊索鞘最后。泡细胞先失去液体,细胞膜膨胀加厚,与细胞质脱离,以后共同溶解。脊索鞘纤维膨胀,松散,然后溶解。 4.神经细胞退化时所合成分渐次溶解,但核仁耐力大,在退化的神经节细胞中有时其他成分已经溶解但核仁仍在。神经纤维膨胀,松散,溶解。 5.侧线的感觉蕾退化时与支配它的神经纤维首先失去连接,向表皮表面移位,细胞溶解,残留的少数细胞随表皮角质细胞脱落。 6.血管与淋巴管壁都很薄,退化时由于纤维膨胀,譬加厚,结构才显得清楚。纤维膨胀,松散,与细胞一同溶解。 7.结缔组织基质合纤维与三种细胞:小型细胞,大型细胞及游走细胞。后两?

Based on the known histological and electrophysiological data concerning the receptive fields of the vertebrate retina, a mathematical model was proposed. This model consists of three layers of net-works in which net-work elements R of the first layer represent receptors, elements I of the second layer represent connective cells (including bipolar, horizontal and amarcrine cells) and elements G of the third layer represent ganglion cells. Suppose that I and G possess operating properties of...

Based on the known histological and electrophysiological data concerning the receptive fields of the vertebrate retina, a mathematical model was proposed. This model consists of three layers of net-works in which net-work elements R of the first layer represent receptors, elements I of the second layer represent connective cells (including bipolar, horizontal and amarcrine cells) and elements G of the third layer represent ganglion cells. Suppose that I and G possess operating properties of spatial summation and of threshold and the connections between the elements of two neighbouring layers have two modes, one excitating (signed by 1) and the other inhibiting (signed by-1), then the one-dimensional discrete model is expressed as follows:g=[W·[K·AR]_α]_β(1)where g is the output of a ganglion cell,A=(α_1 α_2…α_n)is a vector which represents the light spot input,K=(K_11 K_12 K_13 …K_(1n) K_(21) K_(22) K_(23) …K_(2n) ……K_(m1) K_(m2) K_(m3) …K_(mn)) is the connection matrix between the first and the second layers,W=(w_1,w_2,w_3,…w_m)is the connection matrix between the second layer and the ganglion cell, α and β represent the thresholds of cells belonging to the second layer and ganglion cells respectively and R describes the characteristics of the receptors.Equation (1) can also be written as follows:In some aspects, this model conforms qualitatively with electrophysiological data on receptive fields conducted with small spot lights, i. e.(1) When various values of K were taken, this model qualitatively shows correspondingly the properties of on-center RF, off-center RF and on-off RF.(2) So far as on-RF and off-RF are concerned, this model has three different response regions and shows the antagonistic effect among different regions.(3) For any receptive field, this model presents the property that within the receptive field the excitation level varies with different regions. The model also possesses perfect summation region, partial summation region and inhibition region.Methods are also suggested for the construction of some models having special spatial properties.The model was further extended to a two-dimensional, continuous form:(3) where k (x, y, ξ, η)is a weighting function. When k is taken as a kind of spatial invariant linear system then (3) can be written as (4)The significance of the system in information processing of the visual system is also discussed.

根据视网膜感受野的组织学和电生理资料,我们提出视网膜感受野的数学模型,其一维离散的情况的表达式是:g=[W·[K·A·R]_α]_β其中:A是输入向量,R是感受细胞的传递特性,K是第一层细胞与第二层细胞之间的联系矩阵,W是第二层细胞与神经节细胞之间的联系向量,α和β分别代表第二层细胞和节细胞的阈值。当K取某些特定值时,可分别模拟on-RF,off-RF,on-off-RF,在用小光点刺激下感受野的性质来检验模型,在感受野的一些空间特性方面定性上有较好的符合。本文讨论了构造特殊功能感受野的模型的一些方法。最后,把模型推广到二维连续的形式:并对其中的传递密度函数k(x,y,λ,θ),作了一些讨论。

 
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