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flour
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  面粉
     Development of Molecular Marker for Grain PPO Activity and Detection of Flour Yellow Pigment Candidate Genes in Bread Wheat
     小麦籽粒PPO活性分子标记及面粉黄色素相关基因研究
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     Micro-quantitative Determination of Fluoride in Rice and Flour
     大米和面粉中微量氟的测定(并商讨分析结果的可靠性问题)
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     Determination of Cadmium and Lead in Water、Flour、Soil with Anodic Stripping Voltammetry
     用阳极溶出伏安法测定水、面粉、土壤中的镉和铅
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     Wheat Glutenin Protein and Their Flour Quality
     小麦麦谷蛋白与面粉品质
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     Computer management system software in flour manufacture
     面粉生产计算机管理系统软件
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     Studies on the Action Mechanism of New Type Enzyme Preparations on Improving the Baking Quality of Wheat Flour and Its Application
     新型酶制剂改良小麦烘焙品质的机理及其应用研究
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     A Prelimiuary Probe into the Relationship between Bread Bakiug Quality and Flour Quality of 50 Species of Wheat by Fuzzy Clustering Method
     应用模糊聚类对50种小麦质与面包烘焙品质间关系初探
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     A Study on the Quality Requirements for Cake Flour
     糕点专用品质指标的研究
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     Technological Design of Short Milling System of Graded Flour
     短路等级工艺设计
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     THE INFLUENCE OF STARCH DAMAGE FIGURE OF SPECIAL FLOUR ON THE BREAD-BAKING QUALITY
     专用损伤度对面包烘焙品质的影响
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  “flour”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Studies on Fermented Corn Flour Poisoning ——A New Species of Food Poisoning Bacteria Flavobacterium farinofermentans n. sp.
     酵米面中毒病因的研究——发现一种新的食物中毒菌:酵米面黄杆菌(Flavobacterium farinofermentans n.sp.)
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     The Noise Testing and Analysis of Noise Source of 6F—1820 Flour Milling Machine
     6F-1820型磨粉机噪声测试及声源分析
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     Flour Dust Control in Feed-processing Mills
     饲料加工厂的粉尘控制
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     Research into High-protein Rice Flour
     高蛋白米粉的研究
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     The Toxic Effects of Melia azedarach L. and Quisqualis indica L. on Both Chinese Cowpea Weevil ( Callosobruchus chinensis L. ) and Red Flour Beetle ( Tribolium castaneum Herhst )
     开发和利用我国中草药作为储粮保护剂的研究——2.苦楝(Melia azedarach L.)和使君子(Quisqualis indica L.)对绿豆象和赤拟谷盗的毒杀作用
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  flour
It was found that the ratio of these enzymatic activities correlated positively with dough physical properties and flour bread-baking quality.
      
Proteins and Saponins in the Lipid Preparation Obtained by Extraction of Soybean Flour
      
A complex lipid preparation was obtained by extracting soybean flour with organic solvents.
      
It was demonstrated that the water-, salt-, and alkali-soluble fractions of proteins changed during the manufacturing of the composites with soybean and wheat bran flour; the water- and alkali-soluble fractions, with protein concentrate from bran.
      
It was demonstrated that, during the manufacturing of composites, proteins of soybean flour aggregated (with the involvement of disulfide bonds), whereas protein products from wheat bran disaggregated.
      
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Standard wheat flour (about 85% extraction) and mixed maize-soybean flour are consumed as staple foods in North China. They ate usually used to prepare steamed bread. The wheat flour dough is leavened by natural fermentation and the acid produced is neutralized with soda. In the preparation of maize-soybean bread, a small amount of sodium bicarbonate is added for leavening purpose; The other products prepared from wheat flour are noodles, unleavened pancake (烙饼), roast cake (烧饼) and Chinese...

Standard wheat flour (about 85% extraction) and mixed maize-soybean flour are consumed as staple foods in North China. They ate usually used to prepare steamed bread. The wheat flour dough is leavened by natural fermentation and the acid produced is neutralized with soda. In the preparation of maize-soybean bread, a small amount of sodium bicarbonate is added for leavening purpose; The other products prepared from wheat flour are noodles, unleavened pancake (烙饼), roast cake (烧饼) and Chinese doughnut (油条).Since the above products provide an important source of calories, proteins, and vitamin-B complex, any significant loss in the cooking process might well affect the nutritive value of the diet. Except the preparation of noodles in which case the cooking water is discarded, there is practically no effect of the cooking process on the proximate composition of either cereal flour product. The loss of protein in noodles as a resultof preparation is about 2-5% of the original protein content.In most cases, the loss of thiamin in the fermentation process of the wheat flouris about 0.04 mg% on the basis of the weight of the flour. The amount lost seems to be independent on the original content of this vitamin in the flour. In this process, the loss of riboflavin is about 20% (18-38%) while that of nicotinic acid is insignificant.Steaming does not reduce the thiamin, riboflavin, or nicotinic acid content.When 6 gms. of sodium bicarbonate are added to 1.5kg. maize-soybean flour before, steaming, there is no loss of thiamin in the finished product.The riboflavin content is slightly lowered in baked unleavened pancake, but there seems to be no effect on thiamin or nicotinic acid. However, in baking theroast cake, the retention of thiamin is only 70% of the original content of the raw material., This is probably due to the high temperature employed in the cooking procedure.The thiamin ox wheat flour is completely destroyed during preparation of the fried Chinese doughnut, and the retention of riboflavin and nicotinic acid is only about 50%.Retention of the vitamin-B complex is about 60-70% after noodles have been cooked.

本试验研究了粉状谷类食品,经过一般的烹调过程后营养成分的变化。结果证明一般营养素如蛋白质、脂肪、粗纤维、无机盐、钙及磷,经过烹调后,变化不大。在进行膳食调查时,可以用生谷类食品来计算这些营养成分,其中某些营养成分的含量如蛋白质却因来源不同而有一定的差别。 调制窝窝头时,每公斤加4克小苏打,对硫胺素、核黄素及尼克酸都没有影响。在制馒头的发酵及加碱过程中,硫胺素及核黄素都有些损失,一般介于15一20%之间。在一般蒸熟过程中,如蒸窝窝头及蒸馒头,硫胺素、核黄素及尼克酸均无甚损失。烙饼时,核黄素损失约为20%;烤烧饼使硫胺素损失约30%。炸油桧时,全部硫胺素破坏,而核黄素及尼克酸亦仅保留其原料含量的一半。在煮面条过程中,乙种维生素复合体损失约30—40%。

The idea of innate capacity for increase (rm) is examined by using a common flout beetle, Tribolium confusum (H.) as an experimental insect. The experiments are performed under 27° and 32℃ separately, both with 75% relative humidity and a constant supply of flour (enriched by yeast powder). The results of these experiments are summarized in the following table:

本文介绍内禀增长能力r_m的基本概念,并用杂拟谷盗作为具体试验材料,应用三种方法(①Leslie-Birch近似法;②Lotka-Birch精确法;③Howe快速法),详尽地计算了其r_m值。结果找出在27℃下,r_m值为0.08794/每日;而在32℃下r_m值为0.11625/每日。 本文同时亦计算了杂拟谷盗种群在上述两种温度下的稳定年龄组配,其结果为: 在27℃温度下,在稳定年龄组配中,未成熟期约占97.2%;成熟期只占2.8%; 在32℃温度下,在稳定年龄组配中,未成熟期约占98.2%;成熟期只占1.8%。

The injurious character of darnel, at least from its weedy side, has been known since early times. The grains of darnel, when ground up with wheat and made into flour, show their poisonous effects in producing headaches, drowsiness, giddiness, uncertain gait, and stupefaction and in animals, convulsions, loss of sensation and even death. Darnel has become a serious pest in wheat field in some localities after it was introduced. It is of nearly the same shape, size and weight as normal grains of wheat and...

The injurious character of darnel, at least from its weedy side, has been known since early times. The grains of darnel, when ground up with wheat and made into flour, show their poisonous effects in producing headaches, drowsiness, giddiness, uncertain gait, and stupefaction and in animals, convulsions, loss of sensation and even death. Darnel has become a serious pest in wheat field in some localities after it was introduced. It is of nearly the same shape, size and weight as normal grains of wheat and it is exceedingly difficult to separate it by machinery. Darnel and its varieties are not indigeneous to China. They have been disseminated in seed. It is difficult for the average person to identify them with any degree of accuracy. Available literature on the subjects of "seeds" classification and morphology of darnel and its varieties is surprisingly limited. It is quite important to make the seed examination of darnel and its varieties and other weed seeds that are declared noxious for this country. General characteristics of seeds (grains or caryopsis) of the species and its varieties, together with the external characteristics and associated structures are given in this paper. Seed morphology is closely allied with seed taxonomy furnishing the groundwork of information by which seed are distinguished and classified. The principal taxonomic criteria used for classification of darnel and its varieties have much to do with the number and arrangement of florets in the spikelets and the arrangement of spikelets in the inflorescences. Since the darnel "seed" consists of the matured floret, with associated glumes, characters exhibited by these structures are applied as basis of seed classification. On the basis of these and other existent variations in structure and colour of darnel seeds, a relative dependable separation of the samples is made.

关于毒麦的为害,很早就有記述。人与牲畜吃了毒麦都会中毒。毒麦传入我国繁生麦田,在一些地区已造成損害。毒麦的籽实同麦粒的大小和重量相近,很不容易进行机械清除。毒麦及其变种依靠籽实传布,常混杂麦粒难以鑑別。因此,毒麦及其变种籽实的鑑定与分类,对于检疫工作,显得很重要。本文就1950—1964年間,对我国已发生的毒麦,进行鑑定与分类。根据毒麦的穗、小穗,带稃籽实(颖果)及脫粒籽实的基本特征,主要是与种子分类有关的形态学上的特征,进行分析比较与描述。按鑑定的毒麦及其变种,編制籽实分类检索表,并附实物照片与插图。

 
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