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chromosome doubling
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  染色体加倍
     Effects of chromosome doubling,growth and development of diploid Dactylis glomerata were studied based on the change of colchicines concentration(0.05%,0.2%,0.3%),treatment time(1d,2d,3d) and the length of bud(0.5cm、1~2cm、>3cm).
     研究了秋水仙碱不同浓度(0.05%、0.2%、0.3%)、不同处理时间(1d、2d、3d)、种子不同萌芽阶段(芽长<0.5cm、1~2cm、>3cm)对二倍体鸭茅染色体加倍效果及生长发育的影响。
短句来源
     The chromosome doubling efficiency of regenerated plants reached 34% and 52% after directly treated with 170 mg/L colchicine for 20 and 30 h, respectively.
     用170mg/L秋水仙碱直接处理再生植株20和30h,染色体加倍率分别达到了34%和52%。
短句来源
     The two induced plants,H120-1 and H120-3,with chromosome doubling rate 66. 1 % and 64. 6 Irrespectively, h-ad been obtained by inducing diploid cultivar Red Globe on MS with colchicines.
     不同品种对秋水仙素的敏感反应不一,以红提为亲本诱导获得染色体加倍率分别为66.1%、64.6%的诱变株系 H0120-1和H0120-3。
短句来源
     The objective of the study was to detect the effects of different concentrations of colchicines(0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0 g/L) and different treatment duration(12,24,36,48,60 h) on mitotic index and chromosome doubling efficiency in rye root tip cells.
     为了了解秋水仙素对根尖细胞的诱变效应,以黑麦为材料,应用不同浓度秋水仙素(0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0g/L)和不同处理时间(12,24,36,48,60 h)试验研究了黑麦根尖细胞有丝分裂指数和染色体加倍效应。
短句来源
     However, low frequency of embryoid induction, low efficiency of chromosome doubling and long period of lifecycle restrained further application of microspore culture in breeding and basic research in rape.
     但是,目前我国甘蓝型(半)冬油菜小孢子培养的低胚状体诱导频率、低染色体加倍率,以及油菜的生育期,限制了该技术在我国油菜遗传育种和基础研究中的进一步应用。
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  加倍
     The results showed that for FC311, the effectiveness of chromosome doubling with 1.25mmol/L Colchicine and 25μmol/L Oryzalin with 2% DMSO for 24 h respectively was significant compared with other treatments, their doubling rates were reached to 30.6% and 13.9% respectively;
     结果发现,对于FC311添加2%的二甲基亚砜的1.25mmol/L秋水仙碱和添加2%的二甲基亚砜的25μmol/L Oryzalin的加倍处理效率最高分别为30.6%和13.9%;
短句来源
     Effects of chromosome doubling,growth and development of diploid Dactylis glomerata were studied based on the change of colchicines concentration(0.05%,0.2%,0.3%),treatment time(1d,2d,3d) and the length of bud(0.5cm、1~2cm、>3cm).
     研究了秋水仙碱不同浓度(0.05%、0.2%、0.3%)、不同处理时间(1d、2d、3d)、种子不同萌芽阶段(芽长<0.5cm、1~2cm、>3cm)对二倍体鸭茅染色体加倍效果及生长发育的影响。
短句来源
     whereas for FC322, the significant effectiveness were found to soak roots for 24hrs with 2.50mmol/L Colchicine and 50μmol/L Oryzalin with 2% DMSO (25.0% and 22.2% respectively), which indicated that Colchicine is still served as the most effective agent for rice haploids chromosome doubling.
     而在FC322中,添加2%二甲基亚砜的2.50mmol/L秋水仙碱和添加2%二甲基亚砜的50μmol/L Oryzalin的加倍处理效率最高,分别为25.0%和22.2%。
短句来源
     The chromosome doubling efficiency of regenerated plants reached 34% and 52% after directly treated with 170 mg/L colchicine for 20 and 30 h, respectively.
     用170mg/L秋水仙碱直接处理再生植株20和30h,染色体加倍率分别达到了34%和52%。
短句来源
     The results showed that the chromosome numbers in root tip cell of the natural chromosome doubling plant, natural chromosome-doubling F_1 and cochicines induced chromosome doubling plant of triploid hybrid F_1 are 42, which are hexaploids (2n=4x=42);
     结果显示:自然加倍植株、自然加倍植株F1代和秋水仙素诱导加倍植株的RTC染色体数目均为42条,即为六倍体(2n=6x=42);
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  “chromosome doubling”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Chromosome doubling, binucleate cells and mutipolar cell division could be observed when root tips were treated with 5~6 μM/L APM。
     5~6μM/L处理可诱导根尖分生组织产生“多倍化”、“双核”和“多极化”分裂细胞。
短句来源
     Up to now, the specific chromosome behaviors, such as chromosome doubling, formation of unreduced gametes, chromosome elimination and separation of parental genomes, have been reported in plant wide crosses. In this investigation, the intergeneric Hybrids between Brassica rapa ssp. chinesis L. (2n=20, AA), B. rapa L.(2n=20, AA) and Orychophragmus violaceus (L.)
     本研究通过基因组原位杂交(Genomic in situ hybridization, GISH)和基于AFLP(Amplified fragment Iength polymorphism)的多态性分析,研究芸苔属二倍体种白菜(Brassica rapa ssp. chinesis L., 2n=20, AA)/白菜型油菜(B. rapa L., 2n=20, AA)与诸葛菜(Orychophragmus violaceus(L.)
短句来源
     sativus L. (2n = 2x - 14) was previously produced by means of FI (2n =19) embryo rescue and subsequent chromosome doubling.
     将双二倍体(母本)和栽培黄瓜“北京截头”(e sarivus ev.Beijin自ietou.,2n二2x=14)(父本)的杂种胚进行培养,获得无菌苗。
短句来源
     mg/mL concentration and microinjecting growing point at 0.4? mg/mL concentration performed better,with the rate of fertile plants at 48% and 28% and the seed rate of plants at 14% and 10% respectively. These results showed that immersing seed and microinjecting growing point would be better options for chromosome doubling.
     浸种法(0.6 mg/mL)和注射法(0.4 mg/mL)的散粉率较高(48.35%,28.09%),相应的结实率也较高(14.29%,10.11%),说明浸种法处理效果最好,注射法次之。
短句来源
     The system of tetraploids inducing and dihaploids divicing in Indica x Japonica crosses was established by chromosome doubling for the somatic calli from F1 hybrids and anther culture for the tetraploids.
     通过对籼粳交F_1体细胞愈伤组织的秋水仙素处理和四倍体花药培养,建成了水稻四倍体诱导及双单倍体分解系统。
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  chromosome doubling
The presence of both haploid and diploid cells in the same plant revealed spontaneous chromosome doubling in haploid cells.
      
Increased induction and chromosome doubling of androgenetic haploid rye
      
In vitro propagation and chromosome doubling of a Triticum crassum x Hordeum vulgare intergeneric hybrid
      
Premeiotic chromosome doubling after genome elimination during spermatogenesis of the species hybrid Rana esculenta
      
uliginosus (probably as male parent), followed by chromosome doubling in the hybrid.
      
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The Breeding work of Octoploid Triticale since 1957 is summarized as follows:1. The use of crossable gene. The genetic analysis of the crossability between common wheat and rye has shown that s, ss, SA, SN and SQ belong to a multiple allelic series of a single locus. The degree of crossability of these genes can be arranged in such an order, namely, s > ss > SA > SN > SQ. According to the degree of dominance, the order should be reversed as: SQ > SN > ss > SA > s. These findings were properly used in the routine...

The Breeding work of Octoploid Triticale since 1957 is summarized as follows:1. The use of crossable gene. The genetic analysis of the crossability between common wheat and rye has shown that s, ss, SA, SN and SQ belong to a multiple allelic series of a single locus. The degree of crossability of these genes can be arranged in such an order, namely, s > ss > SA > SN > SQ. According to the degree of dominance, the order should be reversed as: SQ > SN > ss > SA > s. These findings were properly used in the routine work of crosses between wheat and rye.2. Chromosome doubling. Before treatment the wheat-rye hybrid seedlings should be slightly wounded on crown part by a sharp razor blade. Then the hybrid seedlings are exposed in 0.04-0.05% aqueous solution of colchicine for 4 days in room temperature not over 15℃. More than 90% of the treated seedlings could be recovered in greenhouse below 10℃. Among the recovered seedlings, about 40.8% of the sterile F1 hybrid plants would be turned to be partial fertile and various amount of seeds could be obtained from these successful plants. By this procedure, 4,700 primary Triticale strains have been created. In 1961, a new polyploidizing agent was discovered. The name of the agent is Fumiron, or Phenyl mercury-p-toluene sulfonanilide which is a fungicide and has comparable cfficiency in chromosome doubling as colchicine does.3. Fertility and seed plumpness. It was suggested that recombination of genes by hybridization and molding the segregation generations by heavy selection pressure could be the effective measures for the improvement of the fertility and seed plumpness of the octoploid Triticale strains. About two thousand of cross-combinations have been made with various parental stocks which were mostly selected from the primary Triticale strains, and in recent years, hybrid strains and elite plants in segregation generation were used in crosses more frequently than the primary types. The hybrid strains thus developed with normal fertility and acceptible seed plumpness were released to different localities with various natural conditions for yield tests.4. Regional tests. The data collected from regional tests have shown a tendency that the Triticale hybrid strains at present state might be successful in those regions where the yield of common wheat is usually very low and unstable due to severe natural conditions. For example, 10 Triticale strains were tested for yield performance with one rye and two common wheat varieties as checks in 1972-1973 growing season in Weining, a mountainous region of Kweiehow with altitude between 2-3 thousand meters. Eight out of ten Triticale strains have higher yields than both rye and wheat varieties. The best strain, Triticale No. 2 has a yield about 20% higher than that of rye, and 24% and 61% higher than the two varieties of common wheat Ahpo and No. 778 respectively. However, it, should not thus be concluded that the octoploid Tri-ticale is especially suitable for the marginal habitats of common wheat. It is only apparently seeming so at the present state of the Triticale strains which were developed from selection solely directed to the improvement of fertility and seed plumpness without much consideration for other characteristics of agricultural importance. Now, only the hardiness from rye and good seed quality from common wheat generally incoporated in the amphiploid have shown their favourable effect in the marginal regions of these two crops. This might be considered therefore that it is merely a preliminary stage of the Triticale program.

从1957年以来的八倍体小黑麦育种工作的主要结果总结如下: 1.可杂交基因的应用 小麦和黑麦之间的可杂交遗传分析表明s,s~S,s~A,s~N和s~Q是属于一个基因座的复等位基因。根据可杂交的程度,这些基因可以排成如下的次序,即s>s~S>s~A>s~N>s~Q。根据显性的程度,则其次序就要倒过来成为:s~Q>S~N>s~S>s~A>s。这个发现已被适当地应用于小麦与黑麦的日常杂交工作中。 2.染色体数加倍 小麦-黑麦杂种分蘖苗于处理前在基部用刀片切一浅伤口,而后浸在0.04—0.05%的秋水仙精溶液中4天,室温保持在15℃以下。在10℃以下的温室中,90%以上的处理苗能恢复生长。恢复苗中约有40.8%的F_1不育杂种植株能转变成部分可育的,并以这些成功株上将获得数目不等的种子。用这个方法,曾经制造了4,700个小黑麦原始品系。在1961年,发现了一个新的多倍体诱变剂。药品的名字是富民隆,或称对甲苯磺硫苯胺基苯汞,它是一个杀菌剂,加倍染色体数的效果和秋水仙精一样。 3.结实率和种子饱满度 通过杂交的基因重组和加重分离世代的选择压力是改进八倍体小黑麦的结实率和种子饱满度的有效方法。从小黑麦原始品系中选用各种亲本...

从1957年以来的八倍体小黑麦育种工作的主要结果总结如下: 1.可杂交基因的应用 小麦和黑麦之间的可杂交遗传分析表明s,s~S,s~A,s~N和s~Q是属于一个基因座的复等位基因。根据可杂交的程度,这些基因可以排成如下的次序,即s>s~S>s~A>s~N>s~Q。根据显性的程度,则其次序就要倒过来成为:s~Q>S~N>s~S>s~A>s。这个发现已被适当地应用于小麦与黑麦的日常杂交工作中。 2.染色体数加倍 小麦-黑麦杂种分蘖苗于处理前在基部用刀片切一浅伤口,而后浸在0.04—0.05%的秋水仙精溶液中4天,室温保持在15℃以下。在10℃以下的温室中,90%以上的处理苗能恢复生长。恢复苗中约有40.8%的F_1不育杂种植株能转变成部分可育的,并以这些成功株上将获得数目不等的种子。用这个方法,曾经制造了4,700个小黑麦原始品系。在1961年,发现了一个新的多倍体诱变剂。药品的名字是富民隆,或称对甲苯磺硫苯胺基苯汞,它是一个杀菌剂,加倍染色体数的效果和秋水仙精一样。 3.结实率和种子饱满度 通过杂交的基因重组和加重分离世代的选择压力是改进八倍体小黑麦的结实率和种子饱满度的有效方法。从小黑麦原始品系中选用各种亲本大约已经做了两千个杂交组合,近年来更多的是用杂种选系和分离世代中好的植株来进行杂交。由此而选育出来的,结实率正常,

Variation of chromosomes of pollen calli derived from anther culture and those of somatic cells of 54 plants was exmined. It was found that most of them were mixoploids, but according to the different basic number (x) of chromosomes, a great number of pollen wheat were haploid a homozygous diploid plants. Meanwhile, 5x plants and typical mixoploid plants with anther culture were obtained for the first time, and chromosome dicentrilization was observed in the pollen calli.Endomitosis, karyomixis, multipolar mitosis...

Variation of chromosomes of pollen calli derived from anther culture and those of somatic cells of 54 plants was exmined. It was found that most of them were mixoploids, but according to the different basic number (x) of chromosomes, a great number of pollen wheat were haploid a homozygous diploid plants. Meanwhile, 5x plants and typical mixoploid plants with anther culture were obtained for the first time, and chromosome dicentrilization was observed in the pollen calli.Endomitosis, karyomixis, multipolar mitosis and chromosome break of the somatic cells were easily induced by culturing in vitro and by pollen haploidy. These abnormal mitotic processes have caused chromosome doubling, the production of mixoploids and new forms of chromosomal variation.Studying the effect of the stage of pollen development on anther culture in vitro, and on the improvement of culturing conditions and methods may be possible to increase the frequency of pollen plants and spontaneous doubling, and obtain new forms of chromosomal and genome variation. It may be a new approach with potentiality to chromosome and genome engineering.

研究了用花药培养方法诱导出来的小麦花粉愈伤组织和54个当代植株体细胞染色体的变异情况。发现它们大多是混倍体,但根据其染色体基数的不同,大量的花粉小麦是单倍体和纯合二倍体植株。同时,我们还首次获得了用花粉培养诱导的小麦5x植株和典型的混倍体植株在花粉愈伤组织中观察到染色体双着丝化现象。 离体培养和花粉的单倍性容易引起植物体细胞的核内有丝分裂,核融合,多极有丝分裂以及染色体断裂等现象。这些有丝分裂的异常过程,是产生染色体加倍、混倍体以及染色体变异的各种新类型的重要原因。 研究花粉发育时期在花药培养中的作用,改进培养条件和方法,不仅可以提高诱导花粉植株和提高花粉植株自然加倍的频率,同时还可能获得染色体和染色体组发生变异的新类型,为研究染色体工程和染色体组工程开辟新途径。

A study on barley hybridization had been carried out using Some hybrids between varieties of H.distichum(2n = 2x = 14)as the female parent and H.bulbosum USSR(2n=4x = 28)as the male parent.By culturing in vitro young embryos which had been treated with GA3 on stigmas one day after pollination,we had obtained relatively large number of hybrids.According to morphology,these hybrids might be classified into three types,in only about 5% of the plants,chromosome doubling(2n = 14)had taken place,those were of...

A study on barley hybridization had been carried out using Some hybrids between varieties of H.distichum(2n = 2x = 14)as the female parent and H.bulbosum USSR(2n=4x = 28)as the male parent.By culturing in vitro young embryos which had been treated with GA3 on stigmas one day after pollination,we had obtained relatively large number of hybrids.According to morphology,these hybrids might be classified into three types,in only about 5% of the plants,chromosome doubling(2n = 14)had taken place,those were of the barley type,about 95% were of the two intermediate types,H.distichum-like andd H.bulbosum-like types.These two intermediate types were perennial with bulbs.The chromosome number of them was 15-21(triploid).They were self-sterile and did not bear grain when they were backcrossed to either parent.

以二棱大麦品种间杂交种F_1(2n=2x=14)为母本,以苏联球茎大麦(2n=4x=28)为父本,进行种间杂交,授粉一天后。在母本柱头滴赤霉酸(GA_3),并结合离体培养杂种幼胚,获得较多二棱大麦与球茎大麦的种间杂种,根据杂种植株形态和染色体组成,可分成三种类型,其中只有约5%的植株的染色体加倍成功,为大麦型(2n=14);其余95%植株的形态表现为偏大麦型与偏球茎型的两种中间型,且均为具球茎的多年生习性;其染色体数在15—21之间:目交不育,用父母本回交亦未结实。

 
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