For the energetic charged particles produced in D He 3 fusion reactions,the calculation accuracy of energy loss rate or slowing down time makes a direct impact on the energy balance and fast ion pressure during the initial phase of thermalization processes in background plasma.

This work demonstrates that,in a pure metal vapor,the thermalization of velocity-selected excited-atom distribution by the mechanism of resonance exchange can be three orders of magnitude greater than that from velocity-changing collisions.

The initial dynamics of photogenerated carriers in a-Si:H/a-SiN_x:H multilayers has been investigated with time-resolved laser spectroscopy. The mechanisms of thermalization and recombination of these carriers are analysed.

Energies of the sputtered atoms reaching the substrate are mainly around several eV, with a peak in the very low energy that results from the collision and thermalization;

Below 90 K,the activation energy is about 4～5 meV,whereas the activation energy is about 25～55 meV above 90 K. It is believed that the low temperature PL behaviour is likely to be controlled by non-radiative transition accompanied by carrier thermalization caused by spatial fluctuations of the band edges.

There exists an exclusive point of thermalization temperature(390℃) and platinum loading((6μg)) where platinum electro-catalyst defined as nanosized platinum particles with small dimensions(about 8nm) and the high kinetic performance was achieved,and the chemical stability of nanosized platinum electrodes was excellent.

The influence of water on the rate of formation of labeled products and its role in thermalization of "hot" tritium atoms in the target is discussed.

Most of the emission lines in the spectra of these objects are formed under conditions close to thermalization, enabling modeling of their pro files in an LTE approximation.

The thermalization mechanism is attributable to the interaction between the electric quadrupole moment of the ion and the helium lattice.

It is shown that because a gap is present in the excitation spectrum of He-II the thermalization time of muons and secondary electrons increases with decreasing temperature.

Thermalization of neutrons on cold atoms in magnetic traps

We have studied the h.rr.ineEcerce kir.ttics cf bcurd exciters in nitrowen doped Ⅲ-Ⅴ binary or trinary compounds, considering various radiative and nonradiative processes.Ⅲ - Ⅴ compounds are excited by the light of above-gap energy. The free exciton is first created,then trapped by N impurities,ard after that the bound exciton can be either annihilated radiatively ard nonradiatively cr dissociated, as a result of thermalization, from the impurity to become a free exciton. A part of these free excitons...

We have studied the h.rr.ineEcerce kir.ttics cf bcurd exciters in nitrowen doped Ⅲ-Ⅴ binary or trinary compounds, considering various radiative and nonradiative processes.Ⅲ - Ⅴ compounds are excited by the light of above-gap energy. The free exciton is first created,then trapped by N impurities,ard after that the bound exciton can be either annihilated radiatively ard nonradiatively cr dissociated, as a result of thermalization, from the impurity to become a free exciton. A part of these free excitons will be trapped again by other centers ard the excitation energy is transferee to the other eeriers. The clrei rart cf them will be directly annihilated through radiative cr ncriadiative transitions.In GaP:N,at lew temperature cf EK,the probability cf ncnrediative internal transition of bound exciton is found to be negligible. It is well kncwn that the N trapped exciton in Ⅲ - Ⅴ compounds has two substates A and B (J=1,2).Tht lifetime of exciton B(exciton in substate B) is much longer than that of excition A (exciton in substate A). It is likely that the excitation energy of bourd excitcn can fce trarsfeied 1c ether certen \\her it is in the substate B (J = 2) owing to its longer lifetime.Therefore,the efficiency cf luminescence due to excitcn B is lower than that cf excitcn A. As tempeiature is increased, the population cf excitons in substates A and B varies ard this variation will result in a change of total intensity of emission due to tound excitons. We have experimentally observed such a kind of temperature dependence of emission intensity of bound excitons. In order to stduy the luminescence kinetics, we define that:(1) a is the ratio of radiative transition probability of exciton B to that of exciton A, and(2) (3 is the ratio of the probability of nonradiative energy transfer of excitons A or B to that of radiative transition of exieiton A.On solving the rate equation, we have derived the following formula which describes very well the temperature dependence of total emission intensity of bound excitonwhere, Ea0 and Ea are the activation energies of thermal quenching for freeor bound excitons respect ively.AE, is the energy splitting between two substa-tes A and B. A,B and C are parameters and C is nitrogen concentration dependent. The terms 3e and 5α in the numerator show the contribution to the total emission intensity of excitons A and B, respectively. On the other hand, the competition between radiative transition, nonradiative energy transfer and thermal quenching are represented by 1, β, Ae~Ea/KT for exciton A and α,β, Ae-Ea/KT for exciton B. We have found that the value of β is of the order of magnitude of 10%.Two extreme cases are discussed.( 1 ) C>>A. In this case, the probability of the recapture of free exciton by imparity N is small. Hence, we havewhen the concentration of nitrogen is low, the condition of C>>A will be satisfied. We have experimentally found that in weakly doped GaP, the activation energy of thermal quenching is really equal to Eao+Ea rather than Eao ( 2 ) C<

Electrostatic ion cyclotron wave (EIC)can induce anormalous resistivity and parallel electric field. In this paper, evolution of distributions of electrons is analyzed.The results show that the distribution can be divided in two groups-trapped part andrun-away part. Two-stream instability can flatten the distribution of the run-away electrons, resulting in a distribution with a long and flat tail. Such kind of distribution is instable to anormalous cyclotron resonance is certain velocity space, resulting in...

Electrostatic ion cyclotron wave (EIC)can induce anormalous resistivity and parallel electric field. In this paper, evolution of distributions of electrons is analyzed.The results show that the distribution can be divided in two groups-trapped part andrun-away part. Two-stream instability can flatten the distribution of the run-away electrons, resulting in a distribution with a long and flat tail. Such kind of distribution is instable to anormalous cyclotron resonance is certain velocity space, resulting in thermalization and pitch-angle scattering of the electrons, therefore the losses of parallel velocity of the electrons. As a result of development of such instability, a bump-on-tail distribution can be established, and a new instability develops and results in flattenning of the bump-on-tail. This instability can ramp the parallel velocity around a critical value. After that, although small part of electrons can be accelerated further, but very slowly, at same time be thermalized.Finally, the results of this paper are compared with the observation results of the wave fields and precipitating electrons, and general consistency is showed.

This paper gives a new neutron noise technique for fast reactors, which is known as thermalization measurement technique of the neutron noise of fast reactors. The theoretical formulas of the technique were developed, and a digital delayed coincidence time analyzer consisted of TTL integrated circuits was constructed to study this technique. The technique has tested and applied practically at DF-VI fast zero power reactor. It was showed that the provided technique in this work has a number of significant...

This paper gives a new neutron noise technique for fast reactors, which is known as thermalization measurement technique of the neutron noise of fast reactors. The theoretical formulas of the technique were developed, and a digital delayed coincidence time analyzer consisted of TTL integrated circuits was constructed to study this technique. The technique has tested and applied practically at DF-VI fast zero power reactor. It was showed that the provided technique in this work has a number of significant advantages in comparison with the neutron noise methods published, before.