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Development and application of a random walk model of atmospheric diffusion in the emergency response of nuclear accidents
      
Plume concentration prediction is one of the main contents of radioactive consequence assessment for early emergency response to nuclear accidents.
      
Microcystins (MCs) are a group of closely related toxic cyclic heptapeptides produced by common cyanobacteria, which cause lots of accidents and threatens human health.
      
Risk Factors of Negative Impact on Objects of the Environment upon Accidents during Launches of Rocket-Space Hardware
      
The probabilistic aspects of rocket accidents during their launching and the motion in the troposphere are discussed.
      
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The Swedish mines have been in the lead in introducing trackless mining systemsunderground.And still,in the biggest mine in Sweden,LKAB in Kiruna,they havetoday both the most modern trackless system and the most sophisticated haulage levelfor rail transportation.A great proportion of underground mine production is now coming from minesusing trackless mining equipment as LHD-machines and mobile haulage units.The design and application of LHD-machines is deserved and their advantages anddisadvantages arediscussed.The...

The Swedish mines have been in the lead in introducing trackless mining systemsunderground.And still,in the biggest mine in Sweden,LKAB in Kiruna,they havetoday both the most modern trackless system and the most sophisticated haulage levelfor rail transportation.A great proportion of underground mine production is now coming from minesusing trackless mining equipment as LHD-machines and mobile haulage units.The design and application of LHD-machines is deserved and their advantages anddisadvantages arediscussed.The LHD-machines have improved the flexibility in mining,and they have con-tributed to an essential reduction of the accident rate in loading and transportationwork.With the trackless system there came a demand for vehicles for other kinds oftransportation also.But the rapidly growing number of diesel-powered vehicles under-ground necessitated heavy investment in ventilation systems.Alternatives to diesels asprime movers for mobile equipment underground are now being studied.

瑞典矿山已率先采用无轨开采,但其最大的矿山——基鲁纳铁矿,至今既有最现代化的无轨开采,又有最高级的有轨主要运输水平。目前,地下矿山总产量的大部分,来自使用装运卸机及其它移动运输机组的无轨矿山。装运卸机的设计和应用都是成功的。文章对其利弊也有所讨论。装运卸机提高了采掘生产的机动性,大大地降低了装运事故的发生率。无轨开采需要无轨运载工具及其它运输设备。然而,地下柴油动力设备的急剧增长,也要求对通风系统进行大量投资。目前,正在研究取代柴油机驱动地下机动设备的其它方案。

The university of LULEA,the Mining and Rock Mechanics Division,has beenworking with model and full scale tests to find new technigues for cautions blastingin blocky rock mass.Thereby should hopefully the frequency of accidents from fallingrock underground be reduced.With the help of model laws a new model material consisting of quartz sand withepoxide as matrix has been developed.This material gives a scald crack length in themodel when simulating 17 mm tube charges in full scale.In the mndels,weaknessplanes...

The university of LULEA,the Mining and Rock Mechanics Division,has beenworking with model and full scale tests to find new technigues for cautions blastingin blocky rock mass.Thereby should hopefully the frequency of accidents from fallingrock underground be reduced.With the help of model laws a new model material consisting of quartz sand withepoxide as matrix has been developed.This material gives a scald crack length in themodel when simulating 17 mm tube charges in full scale.In the mndels,weaknessplanes in two directions have been constructed.The most important result parametersin the model tests have been crack length,crack penetration and number of cracks.The result shows that the scatter of timing for the blasting caps is an importantfactor for crack penetration.A larger scatter gives a larger crack penetration.Theoretical studies of the relationship between hole distance(E)and burden(V),which is recommended to be less than 0.8,shows that the optimal E/V can be diffe-rent dependent on the crack speed and method of initiation.With help of the knowledge which has been gained litterature studies and modeltests a formula has been deduced for calculating the optimal time scatter between andin the deleys in the contour row for getting the best smooth blasting effect and leastpossible damage to the surrounding rock.Tne blasting caps being manufactured today has high time scatter,and therefore adevelopment for blasting caps with less time scatter in each delay the users should forthe first time be able to do a carefully controlled blasting by choosing increasing deleynumber for each hole in the contour row,the rock could be cautions cut.The newtechnique has been suggested to be called“Cut blasting”.

瑞典律勒欧大学通过模型及现场实验,为块状岩体找出了一种新的控制爆破技术,从而可望减少井下冒落事故的发生;试验一种以石英砂为基体、以环氧树脂为胶结质的新模型材料,它能保证模型实验中产生的裂缝长度,与所模拟的17毫米柱状药包在岩巷内爆破后所产生的裂缝长度成比例。模型试验中最重的参数是裂缝长度、裂缝扩展深度和裂缝数量。通过理论分析和模型试验导出确定周边眼最优公式以获得最好的光爆效应和对围岩的最少破坏。

There had occurred more than once slopeslides or earth-slipping accidents in a stope of a copper open-pit mine which has been mined for years by Baiyin Non-ferrous Metals Co. Two great land-slides with a total volume of 1 million m3 of rocks falling down the slope broke out on July 9th. and 10th.1983. These were predicted with accuracy. The causes leading to sliding and the type of Slides are herein analysed. An advanced prediction of the slope-stability in the vicinity of the slided rock mass is also...

There had occurred more than once slopeslides or earth-slipping accidents in a stope of a copper open-pit mine which has been mined for years by Baiyin Non-ferrous Metals Co. Two great land-slides with a total volume of 1 million m3 of rocks falling down the slope broke out on July 9th. and 10th.1983. These were predicted with accuracy. The causes leading to sliding and the type of Slides are herein analysed. An advanced prediction of the slope-stability in the vicinity of the slided rock mass is also made.

白银有色金属公司露天矿—采场为一已开采多年的露天铜矿,曾多次发生规模不一的边坡滑落与滑移。本文介绍了该采场1983年7月9日及10日两次滑岩量达百万立方米滑坡的准确预报,并分析了发生滑落的原因及所属类型,对邻近滑体的边坡作出了推测。

 
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