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accidents
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Development and application of a random walk model of atmospheric diffusion in the emergency response of nuclear accidents
      
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Risk Factors of Negative Impact on Objects of the Environment upon Accidents during Launches of Rocket-Space Hardware
      
The probabilistic aspects of rocket accidents during their launching and the motion in the troposphere are discussed.
      
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Surgical intervention was carried out in 31 of 39 cases of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm in the period from June 1960 to August 1979. Anvurysmectomy with grafting of vascular prosthesis was performed in 28 case, among which silk vascular prosthesis was used in 26. Ligation of the abdominal aorta proximal to the aneurysm was carried out in 1 case. Post-operative complications included acute renal failure and coagulopathy after massive blood transfusion 1 case each and ischemia of the sigmoid colon, chronic...

Surgical intervention was carried out in 31 of 39 cases of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm in the period from June 1960 to August 1979. Anvurysmectomy with grafting of vascular prosthesis was performed in 28 case, among which silk vascular prosthesis was used in 26. Ligation of the abdominal aorta proximal to the aneurysm was carried out in 1 case. Post-operative complications included acute renal failure and coagulopathy after massive blood transfusion 1 case each and ischemia of the sigmoid colon, chronic arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities and cerebral anoxia 2 case each; anastomotic false aneurysm in 3 cases and acute intestinal obstruction in 4 cases. All patients were followed up, 20 of the 28 cases of aneurysmectomy with grafting were still alive, the postoperative survival averaged 54.8 months, the longest being 13 years and 7 months. In the non-operated-group only 2 of the 8 cases were living. 17 deaths were mainly caused by rupture of the aneurysm or cerebral vascular accident. The authors believe that aortography should be used only when the diagnosis is uncertain. Surgical treatment is indicated whenever the diagnosis is made. Arteriosclerotic involvement of multiple organs and advanced age are not absolute contra-indications. It is advisable to reinforce the anastomotic line with a silk taffeta cuff to safeguard against the occurrence of an anastomotic false aneurysm. Prolonged traction on the third and fourth portions of the duodenum should be avoided.

本文报道肾动脉水平以下腹主动脉瘤39例,31例施行了手术,其中28例作了动脉瘤切除及人造血管移植术。全部病例均获得随访,动脉瘤切除、人造血管移植者中目前仍有20例存活,平均术后时间为54.8个月,最长的已达13年7个月.作者认为除诊断有困难的病例外,腹主动脉造影术不宜列为常规,诊断明确者,应积极采取手术治疗.动脉瘤破裂时,应直视下找到瘤体近端动脉加以控制进行止血.

The clinical experiences of 63 cases of great vessel grafts from 1954 to 1978 were summarized. Orthotopic vessel grafts after removal of the diseased vessels were performed in 55 cases (59 grafts) and bypass grafts in 8 cases. The sites of diseased vessels requiring graft replacements included thoracic aorta in 22 cases, abdominal aorta 12 cases, main aortic branches 24 cases and great veins 5 cases. The pathology of the 63 cases were: aortic aneurysms in 40 cases, coarctation of aorta 8 cases, vascular thrombi...

The clinical experiences of 63 cases of great vessel grafts from 1954 to 1978 were summarized. Orthotopic vessel grafts after removal of the diseased vessels were performed in 55 cases (59 grafts) and bypass grafts in 8 cases. The sites of diseased vessels requiring graft replacements included thoracic aorta in 22 cases, abdominal aorta 12 cases, main aortic branches 24 cases and great veins 5 cases. The pathology of the 63 cases were: aortic aneurysms in 40 cases, coarctation of aorta 8 cases, vascular thrombi 9 cases, arterio-venous fistulas 3 eases and others 3 eases. The complications were: blood oozing, massive bleeding, acute pulmonary edema, cardiac arrest, injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve and anoxie damage of the brain during the operation; acute renal failure, respiratory failure, rupture of anastomosis, thrombus formation in the bypass-grafts, septicemia and occlusion of grafts in the early stage after operation; obstruction or rupture of transplanted vessels, pseudo-aneurysm, aorto-gastrie fistula and cerebro-vascular accidents in the later stage. The operative mortality was 17.5% and the late mortality 19%. The percentage of long-term pateney of graft was related to the length and diameter of grafts as well as the flow in the vessels distal to the graft.

本文报道大血管移植术63例,手术及术后1个月内死亡12例,后期死亡10例。介绍了术中、术后近期及远期的各种并发症及其处理,并就动脉瘤的处理、胸腹主动脉瘤的分支移植、主动脉狭窄的旁路移植、血管吻合口破裂的防止及血管材料的选择等问题进行了讨论。

208 cases of fractures of pelvis were presented, most of them caused by traffic accidents or fallings. 74.50% of the cases were complicated with multiple fractures, visceral and extensive soft tissue injuries. 87 of the cases had traumatic shock. Early accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment are needed. The principles of management are: (1) prevention and treatment of shock; (2) operative treatment of visceral injuries and (3) management of fractures. The mortality rate in this series was 8.1%.

本文分析了208例骨盆骨折,其损伤大部分由交通事故和坠落外伤引起,74.5%的病例合并脏器伤或多发骨折及其他软组织伤。外伤性休克87例,占41.8%。本病的的早期正确诊断颇为重要。治疗原则应首先预防和治疗创伤性休克,其次手术治疗脏器伤,再次骨折处理。如情况许可,在抗休克同时进行整复,以减少出血,有利于纠正休克。本组死亡率为8.1%。

 
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