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presumption
相关语句
  推定
     Revelation from Experiences of Principles for Presumption of Innocence in Foreign Countries
     国外无罪推定原则之立法经验对我国刑事诉讼法律制度的启示
短句来源
     the principle for the liability system is the presumption of fault;
     其归责原则是过错责任原则,实行过错推定;
短句来源
     Presumption of Innocence in China
     无罪推定在中国
短句来源
     Presumption of Innocence, Anti-self-incrimination, and In the Interest of the Prosecuted, are the three basic principles governing the distribution of burden of proof in criminal litigation.
     刑事诉讼基本原则中的无罪推定原则,反对强迫自证其罪原则,有利于被告原则决定和指导着刑事证明责任的具体分配,是刑事证明责任分配的基本根据。
短句来源
     Analyze from the angle of demonstration, presumption of fault is the result of law experience and deduction, not the arbitrariness of the judge, which endows presumption of fault rationality, and can be accommodated by legal system.
     从实证的角度分析,过错推定是一种法律经验和逻辑推论的结果,而不是立法者的任意,这使得过错推定制度具有一种特定法律发展的合理性,并能为法学理论体系所容纳。
短句来源
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  “presumption”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Conclusions These data indicated that the frequency of D10S583 199bp allele is negatively associated with LOAD, and the effect of APOEε4 allele is inverse. The presumption is supported, in which there is a candidate gene for LOAD in this region of chromosome 10.
     结论D10S583重复序列等位基因199bp的频率与LOAD呈负相关,而APOEε4携带者的频率与LOAD呈正相关,这个结果支持在10q24区域有LOAD候选相关基因的论点。
短句来源
     Using the software of visual Nastran for desktop(VN4D) and Pro/E,adopting the "presumption of transient structure",the shock response of the components of the mechanism was calculated.
     运用visual Nastran for desktop(VN4D)和Pro/E软件,采用“瞬时结构假定”,计算了机构部件的冲击响应。
短句来源
     This observation led to the presumption of a struc-tural model of the electrode and explained the beneficial effects of the intermediate layer on depressing the interfacial resistance of the electrode and improving the adhesive power between both β-PbO_2/SnO_2 and Ti/SnO_2.
     因而提出了电极结构模型的假设,并且解释了中间层对降低界面电阻,改进β—PbO_2/SnO_2与Ti/SnO_2之间结合强度的有益作用。
短句来源
     However the function of Z10 in mechanism of photoprotection still has no reasonable presumption up to now. Z8, Z9 and Z10 were submitted to Genbank, and the accession numbers acquired were AY189692, AY189693 and AY189694, respectively. Of three sequences, AY 189693 and 189694 had been released.
     向GenBank递交了cDNA片段Z8、Z9和Z10,获得的accession numbers依次为:AY189692,AY189693和AY189694,其中AY189693和AY189694已释放。
短句来源
     Science Presumption and Art Imagination
     科学假说和艺术想象
短句来源
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  相似匹配句对
     On Presumption of Fault
     过错推定论
短句来源
     Presumption Regulation
     论推定规则
短句来源
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  presumption
Without the PE presumption, neural networks controller's closed-loop properties are studied and the whole Elman networks' passivity is demonstrated.
      
Finally, information analysis allows a presumption to be made about the CSFV RNA replication initiation mechanism.
      
There is a presumption that APE1 can correct the DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase β through the base excision repair process.
      
A presumption is put forward that the process rate in this region is defined by a direct reaction of Oads with molecules of formic acid from the bulk solution.
      
The third-law treatment can be carried out on the observed data, though one has to make the crucial presumption that the change in the thermodynamic potential ΔΦTo in the course of the reactions considered is negligible: ΔΦTo=0.
      
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The properties of cis-l,4-polybutadiene rubbers with different molecular weights which were obtained with titanium catalyst have been studied.The properties of raw cis-l,4-polybutadiene rubbers with different molecular weights are similar to each other with respect to (1) gel content, less than 1%, (2) cis-l,4-con-tent, 93-97%, and (3) glass temperature, -110 to -114℃ (Table 1A). However, the Mooney viscosity increases rapidly with [η] (Fig. 1). It is shown by stress-strain curves that all the cid-l,4-polybutadiene...

The properties of cis-l,4-polybutadiene rubbers with different molecular weights which were obtained with titanium catalyst have been studied.The properties of raw cis-l,4-polybutadiene rubbers with different molecular weights are similar to each other with respect to (1) gel content, less than 1%, (2) cis-l,4-con-tent, 93-97%, and (3) glass temperature, -110 to -114℃ (Table 1A). However, the Mooney viscosity increases rapidly with [η] (Fig. 1). It is shown by stress-strain curves that all the cid-l,4-polybutadiene samples under examination do not crystallize during stretching (Fig. 2).The behaviour of cis-l,4-polybutadiene in milling is very sensitive to temperature. Carbon black compoundings have been carried out on an open laboratory mill at cylinder temperatures of 25, 40, and 60 ℃, respectively. Smooth compounds from which vul-canizates with tensile strength over 200 kg/cm2 may be prepared can only be obtained at 25℃. When compounding is carried out at 40 or 60℃, cis-l,4-polybutadiene tends to crumble (Fig. 4), no smooth compound can be prepared, and the vulcanizate obtained loses tensile strength (Fig. 3).According to the following experimental results: (1) no gel formation, no significant degradation, and no change in microstructure can be observed when cis-l,4-poly-butadiene is masticated either at 25 ℃ or at 40 or 60 ℃ (Fig. 6 and Table 3); (2) the effect of temperature on milling is reversible (Table 4), it is presumed that the loss of tensile strength of the vulcanizate obtained from compound prepared at 40 or 60℃ is due to the difficulty of incorporation and dispersion of carbon black into the cis-1,4-polybutadiene rubber at a temperature above 40 ℃. This presumption is supported by the microscopic photographs of the cross-sections of the vulcanizates (Fig. 5).It is found that the tensile strength of the vulcanizate decreases rapidly as the modulus (M330%) exceeds 60 kg/cm2 (Fig. 8). However, with a suitable amount of sulphur to control the degree of cross-Hnking, vulcanizates of tensile strengths over 200 kg/cm2 can be obtained (Fig. 8 and Table 1B). The elastisity (Yerzley) and abrasive resistance of cis-l,4-polybutadiene vulcanizates are much better than those of natural rubber (Table IB).The effect of molecular weight of cis-l,4-polybutadiene on the mechanical properties of the vulcanizate has been investigated. It is found that vulcanizates of tensile strength around 200 kg/cm2 can be obtained within wide range of molecular weights ([η] 2.5 to 3.6), whereas elasticity increases with the [η] of the raw rubber (Fig. 9).

研究了用钛盐催化剂制备而具有不同分子量的顺-1,4-聚丁二烯的性貭。 各种具有不同分子量的顺-1,4-聚丁二烯生胶的性貭很相似:(1)凝胶含量低于1%,(2)玻璃化温度在—110至—114℃之间,(3)顺-1,4结构含量在93至97%(表1A)。但门尼粘度则随[η]值而激增(图1)。从生胶的应力-应变曲线可见各种顺-1,4-聚丁二烯样品在拉伸时并没有结晶现象(图2)。 顺-1,4-聚丁二烯在滚筒上的加工性能对配炼温度极敏感。在25℃,40℃和60℃滚筒温度下的加炭黑配炼试验中,发现唯有在25℃下配炼才得到光滑的混合物,由此可制得抗张强度超过200公斤/厘米~2的硫化物中,如果配炼系在40℃或60℃下进行,则顺-1,4-聚丁二烯趋向于破碎(图4),得不到光滑的混合物,由此而制得的硫化物丧失抗张强度(图3)。 根据下列试验结果:(1)将顺-1,4-聚丁二烯分别在25℃,40℃和60℃下进行素炼,在素炼过程中都不产生疑胶,无明显的降解(图6),又素炼后链节结构并无变化(表3);(2)温度对滚炼的影响是可逆的(表4)。我们认为,在40℃或60℃下配炼得到的硫化物之所以丧失抗张强度可能由于炭黑没有均匀分散。从合炭黑硫化...

研究了用钛盐催化剂制备而具有不同分子量的顺-1,4-聚丁二烯的性貭。 各种具有不同分子量的顺-1,4-聚丁二烯生胶的性貭很相似:(1)凝胶含量低于1%,(2)玻璃化温度在—110至—114℃之间,(3)顺-1,4结构含量在93至97%(表1A)。但门尼粘度则随[η]值而激增(图1)。从生胶的应力-应变曲线可见各种顺-1,4-聚丁二烯样品在拉伸时并没有结晶现象(图2)。 顺-1,4-聚丁二烯在滚筒上的加工性能对配炼温度极敏感。在25℃,40℃和60℃滚筒温度下的加炭黑配炼试验中,发现唯有在25℃下配炼才得到光滑的混合物,由此可制得抗张强度超过200公斤/厘米~2的硫化物中,如果配炼系在40℃或60℃下进行,则顺-1,4-聚丁二烯趋向于破碎(图4),得不到光滑的混合物,由此而制得的硫化物丧失抗张强度(图3)。 根据下列试验结果:(1)将顺-1,4-聚丁二烯分别在25℃,40℃和60℃下进行素炼,在素炼过程中都不产生疑胶,无明显的降解(图6),又素炼后链节结构并无变化(表3);(2)温度对滚炼的影响是可逆的(表4)。我们认为,在40℃或60℃下配炼得到的硫化物之所以丧失抗张强度可能由于炭黑没有均匀分散。从合炭黑硫化物断面的显微镜照片亦可看到在25℃下配炼的硫化物确不同于在40℃和60℃下配炼者(图5A)。 当含炭黑硫化物的定伸强度(M_(300%))超过60公斤/厘米~2

Gossypol dissolved in salad oil was administered by stomach tube to the male rats at dosages of 20 or 30 mg/kg/day, 6 times a week for 30-90 days. Testicular atrophy or failure of spermatogenesis was the direct and conspicuous feature. The atrophied testis and epididymis showed a lower zinc concentration and a higher iron concentration. Because these two reproductive organs are composed of the stroma and the spermatozoa, and the latter are produced by or included in the stroma, after long-term gossypol administration...

Gossypol dissolved in salad oil was administered by stomach tube to the male rats at dosages of 20 or 30 mg/kg/day, 6 times a week for 30-90 days. Testicular atrophy or failure of spermatogenesis was the direct and conspicuous feature. The atrophied testis and epididymis showed a lower zinc concentration and a higher iron concentration. Because these two reproductive organs are composed of the stroma and the spermatozoa, and the latter are produced by or included in the stroma, after long-term gossypol administration the spermatozoa will be reduced or absent. For this reason it is difficult to assert whether these changes of two kinds of metal ions are cause or effect of the gossypol action.Liver has a relatively simple histological structure. We found that the liver of the restricted-fed rats had higher levels of zinc and iron than the ad libitumfed controls, and the liver zinc and iron of the gossypol administered rats were reduced from the higher levels of the restricted-fed ones. According to the reduction of the liver zinc, iron and manganese after gossypol administration, we might know that gossypol is related to these metal ions in vivo.A presumption on the mechanism of the gossypol antifertility action was presented: "Gossypol chelates the Zn of the male reproductive system, then the spermatogenesis is destroyed." The reduction in liver zinc showed that gossypol could chelate zinc in vivo. However, whether hence antifertility follows has yet to be determined by further investigations. These findings were discussed merely as a progress report.The young rat was more tolerant towards gossypol than the adult one. And it seemed that the purebred Wistar albino rat, according to the reproductive system-testes and epididymides-was more tolerant towards gossypol than the hybrid one.

给大鼠长期(90天)灌服棉酚,肝铁水平明显升高,而肝锌水平是有所降低。然而这种现象在短期(例如一个月)服棉酚大鼠肝中看不出来,考虑到服棉酚大鼠食量减少,因此必须以限制饲料量(使相当于服棉酚大鼠的食量)的大鼠为对照,结果发现单纯限制饲料量的大鼠肝中铁与锌浓度比不限制食量的正常大鼠要高得多。而服棉酚大鼠肝的铁与锌浓度是从限食对照组的高水平上降下来的。这表明服棉酚后肝中铁与锌浓度是降低了。锰的情况不同于铁和锌,但服棉酚后肝锰浓度也有统计上显著的降低。这表明棉酚在体内与这三种微量元素的代谢有关。 虽然服棉酚后睾丸与附睾的铁与锌浓度变化情况大致与肝相似,但不能排除是精子减少或阙如所致。因此导致灭精是否与这些微量元素——特别是锌——有关, 尚待进一步研究。 相对的纯种Wistar大鼠比杂种大鼠对棉酚的耐受性要好一些。幼龄大鼠比成年大鼠对棉酚的耐受性则要好得多。 棉酚与铁的关系已有不少的研究,而棉酚与体内其它金属离子,特别是两价金属离子的关系,报道很少。作为螯合物,总免不了在适当条件下与两价金属离子络合。本文目的在于观察较长时期服用棉酚的大鼠体内锌和铁浓度有无改变,在有些情况下也测定了锰。所测定的材料包括肝脏、睾丸、附睾和...

给大鼠长期(90天)灌服棉酚,肝铁水平明显升高,而肝锌水平是有所降低。然而这种现象在短期(例如一个月)服棉酚大鼠肝中看不出来,考虑到服棉酚大鼠食量减少,因此必须以限制饲料量(使相当于服棉酚大鼠的食量)的大鼠为对照,结果发现单纯限制饲料量的大鼠肝中铁与锌浓度比不限制食量的正常大鼠要高得多。而服棉酚大鼠肝的铁与锌浓度是从限食对照组的高水平上降下来的。这表明服棉酚后肝中铁与锌浓度是降低了。锰的情况不同于铁和锌,但服棉酚后肝锰浓度也有统计上显著的降低。这表明棉酚在体内与这三种微量元素的代谢有关。 虽然服棉酚后睾丸与附睾的铁与锌浓度变化情况大致与肝相似,但不能排除是精子减少或阙如所致。因此导致灭精是否与这些微量元素——特别是锌——有关, 尚待进一步研究。 相对的纯种Wistar大鼠比杂种大鼠对棉酚的耐受性要好一些。幼龄大鼠比成年大鼠对棉酚的耐受性则要好得多。 棉酚与铁的关系已有不少的研究,而棉酚与体内其它金属离子,特别是两价金属离子的关系,报道很少。作为螯合物,总免不了在适当条件下与两价金属离子络合。本文目的在于观察较长时期服用棉酚的大鼠体内锌和铁浓度有无改变,在有些情况下也测定了锰。所测定的材料包括肝脏、睾丸、附睾和肌肉等。之所以关心睾丸与附睾,?

In order to simplify and improve the preceding test method that depends on the special test-train, a statistical presumption of the starting resistance of freight train with single freight car's parameters is represented.

本文通过数理统计、电算技术用单车起动特性参数估算货物列车起动阻力方法的初步探讨,用以简化、革新旧的专列试验方法。文中论述了列车起动计算的理论基础,探讨了选择列车起动阻力实值的方法,同时提出了单车起动特性近似表达式及其参数求算方法。把列车起动阻力看作是随机变量,用统计试验法在电子计算机上对其概率分布进行了分析研究。

 
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