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pupa
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     The pupa of 48h pupal period were 10.2,11.2,11.5,12.0,12.2, 13.0 and 13.4d, eclosion rate were 100.0%,96.2%,90.3%,86.6%,81.5%,78.8%,70.9%.
     龄48h浸水后的期分别为11 2、11 5、12 0、12 2、13 0、13 4和10 2d,羽化率分别为96 2%、90 3%、86 6%、81 5%、78 8%、70 9%和100 0%。
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     The results showed the pupa of 24h pupal period were 10.5,11.2,11.9,12.3,12.8,13.5 and 14.2d,eclosion rate were 97.0%, 84.4%,73.6%,71.0%,74.2%,70.0% and 44.8%;
     结果表明,龄24h浸水时间为12、24、36、48、60、72h和对照(CK)的期分别为11 2、11 9、12 3、12 8、13 5、14 2、10 5d,羽化率分别为84 4%、73 6%、71 0%、74 2%、70 0%、44 8%和97 0%;
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     The threshold temperature of development is 10. 15 ± 1.1℃, 7. 51± 1.1℃, 5. 42±2. 5℃, 6. 09±1. 1℃ in egg, larva, pupa and adult stages respectively, while the effective accumulative thermal is 91. 89±17. 7, 478. 42±25. 6, 195. 40 ± 33. 8, 85. 78 ± 19. 9day . degree in everly development stage.
     茶尺蛾的卵、幼虫、和成虫的发育起点温度分别为10.15±1.1,7.51±1.1,5.42±2.5与6.09±1.2℃,卵、幼虫、和成虫的有效积温分别为91.89±17.7,478.42±25.6,195.40±33.8与85.78±19.9日度。
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     Parasitic rate ofovum is 10. 42~45.69% and parasitic rate of pupa is 26.63~65. 98%.
     卵寄生率10.42~45.69%,寄生率26.63~65.98%。
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     Th e bionomics of Selepa celtis was observed in Shanghai during 2000~2001 .It has 3generations annually and overwinters as pupa,The width of headcapsue of th e instar larva is 0.68±0.01,1.13±0.03,1.80±0. 01,2.37±0.16,3.86±0.13mm,respectively.
     2000~2001年在上海地区研究了枇杷黄毛虫的生物学特性。 该虫1年发生3代,以越冬,1龄、2龄、3龄、4龄、5龄幼虫平均头壳分别为0.68±0.01、1.13±0.03、1.80±0.01、2.37±0.16、3.86±0.13mm。
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  “pupa”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The mean developmental zero was 8.57? ±1.71, 7.70±1.01, 8.56±3.25, 10.19±2.19, 8.64±2.68 and 7.91±0.82 for egg, larva and pupa of above-mentioned borers respectively.
     对于上述6种害虫的卵、幼虫和蛹的平均发育起点温度分别为8.57±1.71,7.70±1.01,8.56±3.25,10.19±2.19,8.64±2.68和7.91±0.82°C。
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     the period of pupa was 9.46d,5.54d,3.73d,3.00d,2.45d,2.25d respectely;
     蛹的发育历期分别为9.46d,5.54d,3.73d,3.00d,2.45d,2.25d;
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     The development temperature thresholds for egg, larva and pupa were 7 5, 9 8, 11 5 and 10 9℃ with effective accumulated temperatures of 53 9, 52 7, 128 5 and 229 9(egg to pupa) day degree, respectively.
     卵、幼虫、蛹的发育起点温度分别为75 ℃, 98 ℃, 115 ℃, 109 ℃, 有效积温为539 , 527 , 1285 , 2299 日度。
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     the pupa is (16.32±0.75)℃ and 70.58℃.
     蛹的发育起点温度为(16.32±0.75)℃,有效积温为70.58日度.
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     the origin development temperature of pupa is (13.0±0.04)℃,and its valid cumulative temperature is (78.2±0.29) day-degree.
     蛹的发育起点温度为(13.0±0.04)℃,有效积温为(78.2±0.29)日度。
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     Pupa to Butterfly
     化蛹为蝶——论青春文学中小说的嬗变
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     The Extraction of Tussah Pupa Oil
     柞蚕蛹油的提取研究
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  pupa
In homozygotes for allele Indyp115, we have previously revealed two phases of embryotic lethality and lethality at the larval and pupa stages.
      
Genetic Regulation on the Black Phenotype Mutants of Moth and Pupa of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
      
Description of the larva and pupa of Parnops glasunovi (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)
      
The last instar larva and pupa of Parnops glasunovi Jcbs.
      
The morphology and development of egg, larva and pupa were investigated, which has previously not been done.
      
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Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity inat...

Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity inat least 15 months. Pupation takes place during late August up to mid-septemberand the pupal stage requires about 2 weeks. The young adults remain and overwinterin their pupal cells. Fall plowing to a depth of 6 to 9 inches soon after the harvest of summer cropswill destroy a great number of pupae and young adults by breaking up their cells inthe soil. The larvae are thus turned up and exposed to the predators. Rotation ofcrops by using sesame or legumes instead of millet preceding wheat, and summerfallow of the land are found to be helpful to lessening the infestation. Control may be effective by dusting γ-BHC (at,1.5 to 2.5 kgs of 0.5% γ-BHC permow mixed with 3 parts of dry soil or sand) into the top soil by means of a tripodhand-driller between the rows just before the activity of wireworms in spring.

1.沟金针虫需2年以上完成一代生活史。越冬成虫2月下旬出土,3月中旬至4月中旬为活动盛期,产卵在1至2寸表土内,卵于5月初孵化,卵期为5至8星期。老熟幼虫8月下旬开始化蛹。9月中旬起羽化,蛹期约2星期。成虫羽化后即行越冬。 2.越冬幼虫2月底至3月中旬开始向表土活动(10厘米处地温8—12℃左右),3月中旬及4月全月是为害盛期(80%以上幼虫集中在1至2寸之表土内),8月至12月表土之幼虫密度极小(仅有虫1.2—6.8%),不致为害成灾。 3.沟金针虫之天敌除一种壁虱(Cheyletus sp.)和一种蜘蛛及蚂蚁外,尚有寄生菌2种,具中一种经鉴定为冬虫夏草(Cordyceps sp.)之一种。 4.小麦整地时适当深犁(5—7寸)并精耕细作能毁杀大部分蛹体及成虫,并可将幼虫翻上来供鸟类捕食(9,10月间97%老熟幼虫,在5—7寸土内化蛹及羽化,同时88%幼虫分布于1—7寸土内)。此外以芝麻与豆类为小麦前作及夏季休间结合翻耕曝晒亦能减少虫害损失。 5.沟金针虫在河南的主要为害期系在春季,所以早春於麦行间耩666毒土或毒沙以毒杀向表土上升之幼虫是值得继续研究的。

A brief mosquito survey was made from Hainan Island and the Leichowpeninsula of Kwangtung Province during April and May, 1953. Collections were madeon adults as well as on larvae and pupae from various habitations. Altogether 31species were discovered. They included: (1) Aedes aegypti, (2) Aedes albopictus(3) Aedes scutellaris (4) Aedes togoi (5) Aedes vittatus (6) Culex fatigans (7) Culextritaeniorhynchus (8) Culex bitaeniorhynchus (9) Culex vagans (10) Culex vishnui(11) Culex mimeticus (12) Culex mimulus...

A brief mosquito survey was made from Hainan Island and the Leichowpeninsula of Kwangtung Province during April and May, 1953. Collections were madeon adults as well as on larvae and pupae from various habitations. Altogether 31species were discovered. They included: (1) Aedes aegypti, (2) Aedes albopictus(3) Aedes scutellaris (4) Aedes togoi (5) Aedes vittatus (6) Culex fatigans (7) Culextritaeniorhynchus (8) Culex bitaeniorhynchus (9) Culex vagans (10) Culex vishnui(11) Culex mimeticus (12) Culex mimulus (13) Culex sitiens (14) Culex vorax(15) Culex fuscanus (16) Armigeres obturbans (17) Mansonia uniformis(18) Anopheles hyrcanus var. sinensis (19) Anopheles hyrcanus nigerrimus(20) Anopheles vagus (21) Anopheles minimus (22) Anopheles jeyporiensis var.,candidiensis (23) Anopheles fluviatilis (24) Anopheles varuna (25) Anophelesphilippinensis (26) Anopheles splendidus (27) Anopheles karwari (28) Anophelesannularis (29) Anopheles leucosphyrus, (30) Anopheles kochi (31) Anopheles bar-birostris. In the hilly regions A. minimus and A. jeyporiensis were-by far the commonestspecies found in human dwellings while A, hyrcanus var. sinensis was less common.In the coastal regions the reverse was true. A key for the identification of all species of mosquitoes reported up to thepresent from Hainan Island was given.

1.本文叙述1953年4月至5月作者参加海南岛与雷州半岛蚊类采集调查情况,共获蚊类31种,将其地理分布与捕集场所详加描述。 2.本文将以往海南岛与雷州半岛的蚊类调查研究的文献作总的温习并扼要列举之。 3.本文内将海南岛及雷州半岛的地理环境与蚊种的分布情况。加以讨论。 4.最后将海南岛已知蚊种编为检索表以便研究及参考。

The present paper reports on the results of some preliminary observationson the insect parasites of the pine caterpillar, carried out in the Nanking dis-trict during 1936-37. (1) The following insect parasites were reared from various stages of thepine caterpillar: Egg parasites: Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, Telenomus dendrolimusiChu, Anastatus gastropachae Ashmead. Larva parasites: Casinaria dendrolimi Uchida, Rhogas spectabilis (Matsumura),Stenaraeoides octocinctus (Ashmead), Itoplectis nigribasalis Uchida,...

The present paper reports on the results of some preliminary observationson the insect parasites of the pine caterpillar, carried out in the Nanking dis-trict during 1936-37. (1) The following insect parasites were reared from various stages of thepine caterpillar: Egg parasites: Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, Telenomus dendrolimusiChu, Anastatus gastropachae Ashmead. Larva parasites: Casinaria dendrolimi Uchida, Rhogas spectabilis (Matsumura),Stenaraeoides octocinctus (Ashmead), Itoplectis nigribasalis Uchida, Tricholygasorbillans Wied., Sturmia sp., Carcelia sp. Pupal parasites: Xanthopimpla japonica Krieger, Pimpla disparis Viereck,Brachymaria obscurata (Walker), Brachymeria fiskei Crawford. Hyperparasites: Phygadeuon latipatiolator Uchida, Monodontomerus dentipes(Boheman), Brachymeria obscurata (Walker), Brachymeria fishei Crawford, Eury-toma sp. (2) The egg parasites played an important part in the natural control ofthe pine caterpillar. The percentage of parasitism reached 61% in the materialcollected at Tang-shan, 1936. Telenomus dendrolimusi and Anastatus gastropachaewere observed to be more important than Trichogramma evanescens. (3) As high as 26% of the early-instar larvae could be killed by the para-sites. The percentage of larval parasitism and the relative value of the severalparasites varied with the time at which host material was collected. A differ-ence of a few days would give entirely different results. (4) The late-instar larvae were attacked by three species of dipterousparasites. The highest percentage of parasitism observed was 42%. (5) 38.4% of the pine caterpillar were killed during their pre-papal andpupal stage chiefly by Sturmia sp. and Xanthopimpla japonica Krieger. (6) The percentage of parasitism whether in the egg, larva or pupa stagewere observed to be always higher in the second generation than in the first,a fact suggests that hibernation may have an important bearing upon thepopulation of the parasites. (7) The time of appearance of the more important parasites and theirhabits were discussed. (8) Some of the factors, such as hyperparasitism, non-synchronization ofthe life cycles of the host and parasite, over-restriction in host selection, andthe influence of certain control measures, which have adverse effects on theparasite populations, were discussed. (9) As the percentage of parasitisn fluctuated greatly with year and season,it, is, therefore, suggested that a study of the factors which are responsible forthese fluctuations is of primary importance. Based on the results of suchstudies, measures may be adopted to increase the efficiency of the parasites.

1936—37年在南京地区观察松毛虫寄生天敌所得的初步结果可简述如下: (一)南京地区业经发现的松毛虫天敌有卵寄生蜂3种:赤眼卵蜂、松毛虫长腹卵蜂、平腹小蜂;幼虫寄生蜂4种:松毛虫瘦姬蜂、松与虫红头小茧蜂、花胸姬蜂、黑基瘤姬蜂;幼虫寄生蝇3种:家蚕寄生蝇、大寄生蝇、小寄生蝇;蛹寄生蜂4种;日本黑点姬蜂、黑瘤姬蜂、大腿蜂、费氏大腿蜂;另重寄生8种。 (二)卵寄生蜂在防治松毛虫上起了适当大的作用,有时减低寄主虫口达61.24%。3种寄生蜂中以松与虫长腹卵蜂及平腹小峰为较重要。 (三)松毛虫初龄幼虫寄生率最高时可达26%。寄生率的高低及各种天敌的比较重要性与采集寄主材料的时期有密切的关系,往往数日之差,寄生率可截然不同。 (四)松与虫的后龄幼虫遭3种寄生蝇的寄生。寄生率最高可达42%。 (五)松毛虫茧期的寄生率可达38.4%,天敌中以大寄生蝇及日本黑点姬蜂为 最主要。 (六)无论在卵期、幼虫期或蛹期,第2化松毛虫的寄生率均比第1化的为高。此点似说明越冬问题是松毛虫天敌繁殖中的一个关系问题。 (七)几种比较重要的寄生天敌的发生时期和生活习性,本文中根据观察所及,加以记载。 (八)本文中将几个影响松毛虫寄生天敌虫口的因...

1936—37年在南京地区观察松毛虫寄生天敌所得的初步结果可简述如下: (一)南京地区业经发现的松毛虫天敌有卵寄生蜂3种:赤眼卵蜂、松毛虫长腹卵蜂、平腹小蜂;幼虫寄生蜂4种:松毛虫瘦姬蜂、松与虫红头小茧蜂、花胸姬蜂、黑基瘤姬蜂;幼虫寄生蝇3种:家蚕寄生蝇、大寄生蝇、小寄生蝇;蛹寄生蜂4种;日本黑点姬蜂、黑瘤姬蜂、大腿蜂、费氏大腿蜂;另重寄生8种。 (二)卵寄生蜂在防治松毛虫上起了适当大的作用,有时减低寄主虫口达61.24%。3种寄生蜂中以松与虫长腹卵蜂及平腹小峰为较重要。 (三)松毛虫初龄幼虫寄生率最高时可达26%。寄生率的高低及各种天敌的比较重要性与采集寄主材料的时期有密切的关系,往往数日之差,寄生率可截然不同。 (四)松与虫的后龄幼虫遭3种寄生蝇的寄生。寄生率最高可达42%。 (五)松毛虫茧期的寄生率可达38.4%,天敌中以大寄生蝇及日本黑点姬蜂为 最主要。 (六)无论在卵期、幼虫期或蛹期,第2化松毛虫的寄生率均比第1化的为高。此点似说明越冬问题是松毛虫天敌繁殖中的一个关系问题。 (七)几种比较重要的寄生天敌的发生时期和生活习性,本文中根据观察所及,加以记载。 (八)本文中将几个影响松毛虫寄生天敌虫口的因子提出讨论,这些因子包括;重寄生的严重、天敌发生时期与寄主生活史的不相

 
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