In addition, physical interperation of lagrange multipliers was explained and determination of constraint reaction forces was demonstated, taking revolute joint as an example.

The crack tip close displacements are enforced on the deformed configuration as the increment constraints, crack tip force being constraint reaction force, strain energy release rates being equal to the sum of constraint displacement timing constraint force.

This thesis focuses on the design proposal of some continuous curved girder bridge in Nei Meng, mainly discussing and analyzing the problems about deformation, internal force, constraint reaction of bearings and etc. Midas/Civil, a large-scale FEM software package is used to model and analysis.

Then, with the FEM software Midas/Civil builds the computation model of some curved girder bridge in Nei Meng, calculates the distortion, internal force and the constraint reaction of bearings which produced by the action of dead load, pre-stressed load, concrete shrinkage and creep, system temperature and gradient temperature, summarizes the load effect rule by analyzing the estimateddata, and discovers the reason of curve girder bridge's "creeping" phenomenon, by this token, proposes some design preventive measures.

The unique construction of stress as a constraint reaction in a rigid body loaded on its boundary in a state of equilibrium is described through the use of the elementary variational problem of minimum potential energy.

We prove a representation theorem for such linear functionals which forms the basis for the existence of a constraint reaction (Lagrange multiplier) field.

(E.g., in an incompressible fluid, the viscosity could depend on the constraint reaction associated with the constraint of incompressibility.

In general, for such materials the material moduli that characterize the extra stress could depend on the constraint reaction.

For a tree system, the dynamical equations for eachj-th subsystem, composed of all the outboard bodies connected byj-th joint can be formulated without the constraint reaction forces in the joints.

This paper investigates the motion of mechanical systems with non-ho-lonomic constraints under a given impulse. A percussion problem in the non-holonomic systems is converted into a percussion problem in the holo-nomic system with certain conditions. The equations of percussion motion of the system are given and the impulse of the generalized constraint reaction is found out. The final part of this peper gives an example to interpret the application of the new equations.

In present paper the concept of screw in classical mechanics is expressed in matrix form, in order to formulate the dynamical equations of multibody systems. The mentioned meihod can retain the advantages of the screw theory but avoid the shortcomings of the dual number. Combining the screw-matrix method with the tool of graph theory in Ro-berson/Wiitenberg formalism, we can expand rhe application of the screw theory to the general case of multibody system. For a tree system, the dynamical equations for each...

In present paper the concept of screw in classical mechanics is expressed in matrix form, in order to formulate the dynamical equations of multibody systems. The mentioned meihod can retain the advantages of the screw theory but avoid the shortcomings of the dual number. Combining the screw-matrix method with the tool of graph theory in Ro-berson/Wiitenberg formalism, we can expand rhe application of the screw theory to the general case of multibody system. For a tree system, the dynamical equations for each j-th subsystem, composed of all the outboard bodies connected by j-th joint can be formulated without the constraint reaction forces in the joints. For a nontrce system, the dynamical equations of subsystems and the kinematical consistency conditions of the joints can be derived using the loop matrix. The whole process of calculation is unified in matrix form. A three-segment manipulator is discussed as an example.

Motion equations for constrained mechanical systems were derived from Lagrange e-quation. Since mechanical systems are usually constrained, their motion equation will be a set of algebric-differential equations. The expressions for the resulting forces from spring-damper-actuator or torsional spring-damper-actuator elements were also presented in this paper. In addition, physical interperation of lagrange multipliers was explained and determination of constraint reaction forces was demonstated, taking...

Motion equations for constrained mechanical systems were derived from Lagrange e-quation. Since mechanical systems are usually constrained, their motion equation will be a set of algebric-differential equations. The expressions for the resulting forces from spring-damper-actuator or torsional spring-damper-actuator elements were also presented in this paper. In addition, physical interperation of lagrange multipliers was explained and determination of constraint reaction forces was demonstated, taking revolute joint as an example. Finally, application results using DAP program were also given in the paper.