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arm injuries
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  arm injuries
Head and face (eye), finger, foot and arm injuries dominated.
      
The severity of arm injuries in snowboarding seems to be caused by direct force on the wrist and elbow, which receive the full impact of a fall.
      
Regarding arm injuries, 57.9% of injured snowboarders were beginners whose experience was shorter than 1 year, and 91.5% was caused by falling down.
      
The epidemiologic basis for the prevention of small arm injuries.
      
In fact, the brittle stars and sea lilies that are clustered in dense beds of fossils show few arm injuries, an indication that predation was light.
      


Objective:To evaluate the changes of histology and ultrastructure of organs remote from thoraxic bullet trauma for preventing their damage at altitude hypoxia(3 658m).Methods:30 morgrel dogs were divided into a control group and a preventive group equivalently and killed to study after 24hr traumatized chest.Results:There was a obvious remote-effects of fire-arm injury in chest on organs remote from this traume.The changes of histology and ultrastructure were severer in control group than in preventing...

Objective:To evaluate the changes of histology and ultrastructure of organs remote from thoraxic bullet trauma for preventing their damage at altitude hypoxia(3 658m).Methods:30 morgrel dogs were divided into a control group and a preventive group equivalently and killed to study after 24hr traumatized chest.Results:There was a obvious remote-effects of fire-arm injury in chest on organs remote from this traume.The changes of histology and ultrastructure were severer in control group than in preventing group.Conclusions:The pathological changes of organs remote from trauma could be associated with shocking wave of bullet resulted in trauma of chest,changes of hemadynamics and altitude hypoxia.

目的:探讨高原缺氧下,犬右胸部枪弹伤后远隔器官损伤的组织学和超微结构改变以及伤情转归的防治措施。方法:各选15只高原杂种犬分为对照组和预防组,致伤后24h活杀对照观察。结果:高速投射物致伤后对远隔器官产生较明显的远达效应。对照组病理组织学及超微结构损伤严重,但以器官组织本身的超微结构损伤为主。预防组损伤明显减轻,主要表现为器官组织本身的病理组织学改变。结论:上述改变可能与高速投射物致伤时产生的冲击波、流体动力学改变,以及高原缺氧有关。高原投射物的远达效应,尽管器官改变不很严重,但对伤情转归的影响是不可忽视的

Objective To investigae the pattern of Changes of plasma glucose,insulin and glucagon on dogs wounded by gun shooting in hypothermia environment. Methods Nineteen hybrid dogs originated from the northeast area of China with bullets were kept in - 40℃ room for 1h, then removed to the outside (about - 20℃ )and their hind legs were wounded with 5. 56mm bullets. The contents of blood glucose, plasma insulin and glucagon of the dogs were determined before and after being stayed in hypothermia,and at 2,6 and 24h...

Objective To investigae the pattern of Changes of plasma glucose,insulin and glucagon on dogs wounded by gun shooting in hypothermia environment. Methods Nineteen hybrid dogs originated from the northeast area of China with bullets were kept in - 40℃ room for 1h, then removed to the outside (about - 20℃ )and their hind legs were wounded with 5. 56mm bullets. The contents of blood glucose, plasma insulin and glucagon of the dogs were determined before and after being stayed in hypothermia,and at 2,6 and 24h after injury. Chang of the life signs were observed at the same time. Results Compared with the unwounded, the content of blood glucose in the dogs was increased significantly in hypothermia and at 6 and 24h after injury. Both the concentrations of plasma insulin and glucagon were decreased remarkably when the dogs were stayed in hypothermia and after being wounded . The ratio of insulin to goucagon was decreased as well. Conclusion At the early stage of fire-arm injury in cold areas, the elevation of blood glucose may be induced by relatively deficient insulin, which suggests that the glucose content in infused infused fluid should be controlled properly and adequae insulin should be supplemented with glucos.

目的观察低温环境下犬枪弹伤后血糖、胰岛素和胰高血糖素的变化规律。方法东北地区杂种犬19只,与弹丸同置于-40℃下1小时后,迅速移至室外(温度约-20℃),以56式7.62mm制式步枪致伤汉后肢。于低温前、低温后,伤后2、6和24小时取静脉血,测血糖、胰岛素和胰高血糖素含量,并同时观察各生命体征的变化。结果低温、伤后6和24h血糖较伤前显著升高,胰岛素、胰高血糖素在寒冷和伤后各时相点均明显减少,胰岛素和胰高血糖素比值下降。结论高寒地区火器伤早期,由于胰岛素分泌相对不足致使血糖较伤前水平高,提示输液成分中糖含量应适当控制。

Objective To detect relationship between thoracic firearm injury and pulmonary edema at high altitude. Methods Thirty Mongrel dogs (weight for 10 to 15 kg) were equally divided into 3 groups, high altitude immigrants group (group A), high altitude native group (group B) and control group. Anesthetized dogs were shot in the right chest with steel balls at high altitude (3 700 m above sea level). Blood samples were collected 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8 hours after injury. Blood was analyzed for thromboxane...

Objective To detect relationship between thoracic firearm injury and pulmonary edema at high altitude. Methods Thirty Mongrel dogs (weight for 10 to 15 kg) were equally divided into 3 groups, high altitude immigrants group (group A), high altitude native group (group B) and control group. Anesthetized dogs were shot in the right chest with steel balls at high altitude (3 700 m above sea level). Blood samples were collected 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8 hours after injury. Blood was analyzed for thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2), 6-keto prostaglandin Fα (6-keto-PDFα). The right lung and the left lung were taken out for pulmonary water volume measurement and light microscopic and electronic observations 8 hours after injury. Results The level increase of blood plasma 6-keto-PGFα and TXB 2 was observed in each group after injury. The level of TXB 2/6-keto-PGFα of group A was increased 6 and 8 hours after injury; but no changes were observed in other 2 groups. Pulmonary water volume in group A was more than that in other 2 groups. Under transmission electronic microscopic observation, the main changes in each group were hemorrhage and edema of alveolus and interstitialis, edema of capillary endotheliocytes and thickening of respiratory membrane. Conclusions In the early period of chest fire-arm injury at high altitude, the risk of pulmonary edema is higher in group A than that in the other 2 groups. Although it is necessary to prevent injury from lung edema, the most important thing we should do is to deal with hemopneumothorax and shock.

目的 探讨高原胸部火器伤与肺水肿的关系。 方法  30只体重相近 ( 10~ 15kg)的杂种犬 ,随机分成平原对照组、高原移居组和高原世居组 (每组 10只 ,高原世居组选自高原杂种犬 ) ,用 0 .44g钢珠 ,通过滑膛枪以 ( 40 0± 5 0 )m/s的初速度造成犬右胸贯通伤 ,在不同时间测定血浆前列环素的代谢产物 ( 6 -keto -PGFα)和血栓素B2 (TXB2 ) ,伤后 8h取双侧肺组织 ,测定肺含水量并行光镜、电镜检查。 结果  ( 1)伤后各组 6 -keto -PGFα均升高 ,伤后 4~ 8h各组TXB2 升高显著。高原移居组于伤后 6~ 8hTXB2 / 6 -keto -PGFα升高明显 ,而平原对照组和高原世居组则变化不明显。 ( 2 )高原移居组伤侧肺含水量比平原组和高原世居组高 ,健侧无明显差异。 ( 3)光镜及电镜检查发现伤侧肺泡及间质水肿、出血 ,局部肺泡及毛细血管结构破坏 ,呼吸膜增厚。 结论 高原胸部火器伤早期 ,高原移居组发生肺水肿的概率较高原世居组及平原组大。早期在注重抗休克和处理血气胸的同时 ,要注重肺水肿的预防。

 
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