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pathogen transmission
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  “pathogen transmission”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The results showed that the rate of pathogen transmission to paulownia seedlings by third and fourth instar nymphae of RA was 61.7% and 41.4%,which were much higher than that by nymphae of NA (16%).
     结果显示:室内人工饲养带毒的3龄、4龄若虫接种泡桐发病率分别达61.7% 和46.5% ,高于自然带毒的若虫16% 的传病率。
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     The last 20 years have witnessed great progress in insect transgenesis since Spradling and Rubin first demonstrated germ-line transformation in fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster , using the transposable element P. As one of the basic techniques of modern insect molecular biology, genetic transformation of insect species provides important tools not only for functional gene analysis, but also for economic and medical applications, such as insect pest management, control of pathogen transmission by human disease vectors and as bioreactors.
     自 198 2年Spradling和Rubin发现了可作为载体的P转座子并将外源基因成功地转入果蝇胚层系细胞的染色体而得到表达以来 ,昆虫转基因研究已经取得了长足进步。 作为现代昆虫分子生物学中最为基本的技术之一 ,昆虫转基因技术不仅是分析昆虫基因功能的有力工具 ,而且在害虫防治、减少人类疾病载体昆虫携带的病原体的传播以及作为生物反应器等方面的作用亦日趋重要。
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     Conclusion These findings indicate that fleas associated with cats and rats can carry Bartonella species and may play an important role in this pathogen transmission among animals and humans in China.
     结论 猫栉首蚤和缓慢细蚤能够感染巴尔通体 ,是该种病原体的潜在传播媒介 ,间接表明当地家猫和鼠类动物存在巴尔通体感染。
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     Objective To study the pathogen,transmission and epidemiological characteristics of human infections caused by streptococcus suis in order to provide basis for setting measure for the control and prevention for this disease.
     目的查明我市一起人感染猪链球菌病的病原学、感染途径和流行特征,为制定预防控制措施提供依据。
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  相似匹配句对
     Study on Transovarian Transmission of Pathogen in Leptotrombidium scutellare
     小盾纤恙螨经卵传递病原体研究
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     On Intention and Its Transmission
     关于意图及其传递
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     transmission of signal;
     信号的传递 ;
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     Pathogen was S. sonnei.
     致病菌为宋内氏志贺氏痢疾杆菌 ;
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     Results It has been determined the pathogen is Filarial bancrofti and Cules quinquefasciatus is transmission vector.
     结果 查明该区传播媒介为致倦库蚊 ,病原为班氏丝虫。
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  pathogen transmission
As human population density continues to increase exponentially, speeding the reduction and fragmentation of primate habitats, greater human-primate contact is inevitable and even higher rates of pathogen transmission are likely.
      
pararicinus is a member of the ricinus complex, which contains the main vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), there are few studies concerning its potential for pathogen transmission.
      
Nuisance odors, the potential of pathogen transmission, and presence of toxic and persistent organic chemicals and metals in biosolids have for the most part limited the use of land applications.
      
Both soil inocula gave significant reductions in pathogen transmission from seeds to seedlings compared to the untreated control.
      
Ixodes ricinus, as vector, and small mammals, as reservoirs, are implicated in pathogen transmission between wild fauna, domestic animals and humans at the woodland-pasture interface.
      
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Based on the indoor inoculation test conducted from 1996 to 1998,the characteristics of transmitting phytoplasma by Halyomorpha picus associated with paulownia witches′ broom were compared between insect groups (adults and nymphae) of reared pathogen acquisition (RA) and naturally pathogen acquisition (NA).The results showed that the rate of pathogen transmission to paulownia seedlings by third and fourth instar nymphae of...

Based on the indoor inoculation test conducted from 1996 to 1998,the characteristics of transmitting phytoplasma by Halyomorpha picus associated with paulownia witches′ broom were compared between insect groups (adults and nymphae) of reared pathogen acquisition (RA) and naturally pathogen acquisition (NA).The results showed that the rate of pathogen transmission to paulownia seedlings by third and fourth instar nymphae of RA was 61.7% and 41.4%,which were much higher than that by nymphae of NA (16%).For adults,the transmission rate was 14.1% of RA which was also higher than that of NA (4.5%). The minimum incubation period (MIP) of pathogen in vivo were 34 days and 45 days for third and fourth instar nymphae and 219 days for adults (RA),that for nymphae and adults (NA) were 243 days and 257 days respectively.The seedlings inoculated in June showed symptom of disease in the same year,while that inoculated in July showed symptom of disease in the next year.The incubation period (IP) had a positive relation with successive disease rate.For third instar nymphae,the equation of relation was y=0.847 2x+23.044 (R 2=0.874 3 ) and relevant LP50=65.40 days,that for fourth instar nymphae was y=0.759 x+29.022(R 2=0.801 9) and LP50=66.472 days.The feasibility of using RA nymphae for early assessment of paulownia genetic breeding against witches′ broom was discussed.

经1996年至1998年室内接种试验,分别比较了人工饲养带毒和自然带毒的茶翅蝽成虫和若虫的传病特点。结果显示:室内人工饲养带毒的3龄、4龄若虫接种泡桐发病率分别达61.7% 和46.5% ,高于自然带毒的若虫16% 的传病率。室内饲养带毒成虫的接种发病率为14.1% ,高于自然带毒成虫4.5% 的传病率。寄主体内病原的最短潜育期(MIP)室内饲毒3龄若虫为34 d,4龄为45 d,成虫处理为219 d;自然带毒若虫为243 d,成虫处理为257 d。6月接种苗多在当年表现病状,7月接种苗均在次年发病。3龄、4龄若虫接种后病原潜育期(IP)与泡桐苗累计发病率的关系分别为y= 0.847 2x+ 23.044(R2= 0.874 3),y= 0.759x+ 29.022 (R2= 0.801 9);由此得到相应的3龄潜育期中值LP50= 65.40 d 和4龄LP50= 66.472 d。室内3龄、4龄若虫在充分吸食病组织后,其传病力差异不大,且传毒后病原在寄主体内的潜育期中值没有明显的差异。

Objective:To study the yearly incidence and causes of needlestick and sharps injuries in health-care workers (HCWs).Methods:A questionnaire survey in a total of 610 HCWs including doctors, nurses, engineers and laboratory technicians was conducted. Questinnaires were completed by 581 (95%)HCWs. The frequencies and causes of injuries were investigated retrospectively.Results:Data regarding 1811 needlestick and sharps contaminated percutaneous injuries were collected. 54% were related with blood-contaminated hollow-bore...

Objective:To study the yearly incidence and causes of needlestick and sharps injuries in health-care workers (HCWs).Methods:A questionnaire survey in a total of 610 HCWs including doctors, nurses, engineers and laboratory technicians was conducted. Questinnaires were completed by 581 (95%)HCWs. The frequencies and causes of injuries were investigated retrospectively.Results:Data regarding 1811 needlestick and sharps contaminated percutaneous injuries were collected. 54% were related with blood-contaminated hollow-bore needles, 13% of the patients were known to have hepatitis B or C, syphilis, or HIV infection which are blood transmission diseases. The contaminated percutaneous injuries rate was 3.4 per person per year in nurses and 2.85 per person per year in doctors(or engineers).After injuries, all the wounds were disinfected with iodine flourine and 75% alcohol, some were washed with sufficient normal saline before disinfection. Then the injured HCWs were injected with hepatitis B vaccine, highly efficacious immunoglobulin etc.Conclusion:Needlestick and sharps injuries are closely associated with special occupation. 54% of the injuries due to hollow-bore needles filled with contaminated blood may have high-risk of blood borne pathogen transmission of infectious diseases. Therefore it is necessary to take certain education on protection and safety in order to avert accidents.

目的 :研究分析医务人员因针头或其他尖锐器具造成损伤的发生率及其原因。方法 :对 6 10名医务人员进行问卷调查 ,被调查人员包括医生、护士、技师和实验工作人员。被调查者通过回顾的方式 ,如实填写过去一年内皮肤损伤的原因、次数及所采取的预防措施。回收有效问卷 5 81份 (95 % )。结果 :在 5 81名被调查者中 ,共发生 1811例次皮肤损伤污染事件 ,其中 5 4%是被污染血液后的内孔针头引起的 ;医务人员清楚地了解 ,有 13%的病人患有乙肝、丙肝、梅毒、艾滋病等可以通过血液传播的疾病。每名医师 (技师 )每年有 2 .85次皮肤损伤几率 ,每名护士每年有 3.4次皮肤损伤几率。所有的损伤事故发生后 ,均采用强力碘等消毒伤口 ,并有针对性地采取大量盐水冲洗、注射乙肝疫苗、高效免疫球蛋白等措施。结论 :医务人员的这种损伤与他们的特殊职业有密切的关联。 5 4%的损伤是在内孔针头充满血液的情况下造成的 ,具有很高的传播疾病的危险性。因此 ,应采取针对性的防护安全教育 ,预防事故发生。

Six bacterial strains were isolated from the larval bay scallop Argopecten irradians when epizootic occurred in the hatcheries near Bohai sea and Yellow sea. The pathogenicity assays showed that the strains B01, Y01, Y02 could cause the larval bacillary necrosis, but the other three strains could not. The strain B01 was identified as Vibrio natriegen morphologically, physiologically and biochemically. Strains Y01, Y02 possessed the same characteristics as B01 and thus belonged to Vibrio genus. The drug susceptibility...

Six bacterial strains were isolated from the larval bay scallop Argopecten irradians when epizootic occurred in the hatcheries near Bohai sea and Yellow sea. The pathogenicity assays showed that the strains B01, Y01, Y02 could cause the larval bacillary necrosis, but the other three strains could not. The strain B01 was identified as Vibrio natriegen morphologically, physiologically and biochemically. Strains Y01, Y02 possessed the same characteristics as B01 and thus belonged to Vibrio genus. The drug susceptibility tests indicated that Vibrio natriegen had sensibility to gentamycin, furazolidone, norfloxacin ceftriaxone, chloramphennicol, ciprofloxacin, and polymyxin B; strains Y01, Y02 were sensible to ciprofloxacin, gentamcecin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, SMZ/TMP, and SIZ. High bacterial density was found in the water prior to the larval epizootics occurred. The routes of pathogens transmission were discussed.

从辽宁兴城育苗场和辽宁省海洋水产研究所育苗室患面盘解体的海湾扇贝ArgopectenirradiansLamarck幼体中分离出6株菌,经感染试验表明,其中3株菌B01、Y01和Y02为病原菌。根据菌体形态及生理、生化测试,B01鉴定为需钠弧菌Vibrionatriegen,Y01和Y02具有相同的形态、生理、生化特征,鉴定为弧菌属Vibrio。需钠弧菌对庆大霉素、痢特灵、菌必治、诺氟沙星、氯霉素、环丙沙星、多粘菌素B敏感;Y01和Y02菌对诺氟沙星、菌必治、氯霉素、复方新诺明、环丙沙星、磺胺异唑敏感。对海湾扇贝育苗水体中细菌总数和弧菌数量的监测结果表明,幼体发生病变之前的水体中,细菌和弧菌的密度高于正常育苗水体的。文中还对病原菌的传播途径等问题进行了讨论。

 
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