助手标题  
全文文献 工具书 数字 学术定义 翻译助手 学术趋势 更多
查询帮助
意见反馈
   sphenoidal process 的翻译结果: 查询用时:0.009秒
图标索引 在分类学科中查询
所有学科
更多类别查询

图标索引 历史查询
 

sphenoidal process
相关语句
  蝶突
     The antero lateral surface of the fronto sphenoidal process of the zygomatic bone faces more forward in the two groups of the Chinese skulls than that of the European skulls.
     颧骨额蝶突的前外侧面比欧洲头骨更朝向前方。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     process.
     工艺的优劣分析。
短句来源
     m process.
     m工艺到SMIC流片。
短句来源
     APPLIED ANATOMY OF THE SPHENOIDAL SINUS
     蝶窦的应用解剖
短句来源
     TUMORS OF SPHENOIDAL SINUS AND ITS NEIGHBORHOOD
     蝶窦及其邻近颅底肿瘤8例临床分析
短句来源
     Endoscopic transnasal sphenoidal approach in hypophysectomy
     鼻内窥镜下鼻腔蝶窦径路垂体肿瘤切除术
短句来源
查询“sphenoidal process”译词为用户自定义的双语例句

    我想查看译文中含有:的双语例句
例句
没有找到相关例句


The first great constribution of the study of Chinese human fossils topaleoanthropology has been fulfilled by the Homo erectus fossils from Zhoukoudian(then Sinanthropus pekinaensis). In the first half of mis century the definition "Manthe tool maker" was universally adopted in the field of human paleontology. Before1930s Pithecanthropus erectus found in Java was not accepted into the human familybecause his brain capacity is smaller than the lowest limit of any normal member ofmodern humans and there is no...

The first great constribution of the study of Chinese human fossils topaleoanthropology has been fulfilled by the Homo erectus fossils from Zhoukoudian(then Sinanthropus pekinaensis). In the first half of mis century the definition "Manthe tool maker" was universally adopted in the field of human paleontology. Before1930s Pithecanthropus erectus found in Java was not accepted into the human familybecause his brain capacity is smaller than the lowest limit of any normal member ofmodern humans and there is no adefacts found in association with these primatefossils. The discovery of stone artefacts in association with the fossil skull ofSinanthropus indicated that a member of primates with a brain volume smaller than1 000cc could be a member of humans. This new finding made the Homo erectusfrom Java (then Pithecanthropus erectus) being accepted intO the family of hominidbecause the skulls found at Zhoukoudian and in Java are similar in morphology. Andalso the Zhoukoudian findings greatly expanded the human fossil record to about0.50Ma B.P.Since 1960s the ancestral statUs of Homo erectus has been challanged by newstudies in paleoanthropology such as the study on Homo habilis, cladistic studies inpaleoanthropology and the molecular anthropology. The study of Homo habilis madeLSB Leakey and others claim that thes species is the ancestor of modern humans andHomo erectas is an aberrant extinct branch in human evolution. According to somepaleoanthropologists who tried to apply cladistics to this field Homo erectus has aseries of derived characters, so it is not the ancestor of Homo sapiens but is anaberrant extinct branch. The new molecular study on DNA since 1987 formulated theso-called Eve theory which advocates that modem htmans originated from a smallpopulation living in Africa about 0.20Ma B.P., part of their descendants migrated toChina in the Period betWeen 0.1 and 0.05Ma B.P., then replaced all of the indigenousPeople in this region. Therefore all of the fossil humans of China before that bineleft no descendants and modern Chinese is derived from the African "Eve".Studies of newly found human fossils in China after 1949 show a series ofcommon featUres among them such as shovel shaped incisor, flatness of the faceincluding the nasal saddle, more forward facing of the antero-lateral surface of thefronto-sphenoidal process of zygomatic bone, sagittal ridge etc. The fossils also showthat many so-called derived characters or autapomorphies of Homo erectus such asthick cramal bones, angular torns, brow ridge, exaggerated post-orbital constriction etcare not uniquely shown in Homo erectus, they can be also found in Homo sap lensfossils of China and some so-called sapiens features such as high temperal squama,curved superior border of it higher cramal index etc exist also in some cases ofHomo erectus of China. This mosaic phenomenon betWeen the morphology of thesetwo species and the common features among the human fossils in China indicate thecontinuity in the human evolution of this area. The appearance of a fewmorphological features such as the chignon-like structure existing in Liujiang, Lijiangand Ziyang sap lens skulls, circular shaped orbit acute border of the infero-lateral partof the orbit shown in Maba sapiens skull-cap etc is especially worthy to be noted,because these features have not been found in other Chinese fossils but are typical forNeanderthal lineage. T'his indicates the probable existence of gene flow between Chinaand western part of the Old World.All of the above mentioned results of stUdy provide a basis for the proposal of anew model entitled "Contininty with hybridization" summarizing the complex processof human evolution in China. ms is an important contribution to the "Multiregionalevolution hypothesis" which is one of the two main hypotheses in the debate ofmodern human origins which has been one of the hotest fool in paleoanthropology inthe recent decade.The studies of Chinese fossils based on the coefficients of divergence amongfossil skulls of late Homo sapiens from Liujiang, Minatogawa (in Japan),

中国人类化石研究为古人类学增添大量具体资料,并且促进了人类进化理论的发展。北京直立人化石的研究将人类的化石记录肯定地推前到0.50MaB.P。对大量化石的研究将中国人类进化归纳为“连续进化附带杂交”的模式。这是对近年古人类学两大热点之一的现代人起源争论中关于东亚现代人来源的一项重要的贡献。此外,中国人类化石的研究还揭示在各个时期中中国的古人类存在明显的地区间差异。

This paper quantitatively analyzed some of the facial features on groups of modern human skulls with the Phase approaching method of project grating.The sample includes 75 modern Chinese skulls (50 from Yunnan [male 26, female 24], 25 from Huabei [Northern China] [male]) and 26 modern European skulls(male 16, female 10). The following results could be drawn. 1. The sexual difference is primarily shown in the linear measurements, which are greater in males than females in both the Yunnan and European skulls....

This paper quantitatively analyzed some of the facial features on groups of modern human skulls with the Phase approaching method of project grating.The sample includes 75 modern Chinese skulls (50 from Yunnan [male 26, female 24], 25 from Huabei [Northern China] [male]) and 26 modern European skulls(male 16, female 10). The following results could be drawn. 1. The sexual difference is primarily shown in the linear measurements, which are greater in males than females in both the Yunnan and European skulls. 2. The Chinese Huabei skulls are greater than the Chinese Yunnan skulls in the mid facial width, upper facial height (and its index), the subtense from "sd"to "zm zm" and the ratio of "fmo fmo/zy zy". Its middle face is less flat than that of Yunnan skulls. The antero lateral surface of the fronto sphenoidal process of the zygomatic bone faces more anteriorly in the Chinese Huabei skulls than Yunnan ones. 3. The upper face is narrower and flatter in the two groups of the Chinese skulls than those of European ones. The antero lateral surface of the fronto sphenoidal process of the zygomatic bone faces more forward in the two groups of the Chinese skulls than that of the European skulls. The upper facial height and upper facial index are greater in the Chinese Huabei skulls than those of European ones. There is little difference in the upper facial height and the upper facial index of males between the Chinese Yunnan skulls and European ones. The upper facial index of females is greater in the Chinese Yunnan skulls than that in European ones. This method could be a useful supplement to the traditional anthropological method.

用投影栅相位法 ,定量测量现代人面颅骨的一些项目 ,分析比较了中国南方、北方面骨的特点及中国与欧洲现代人面骨的差异 ,并探讨该方法在人类学研究领域应用的可行性和实用性。发现 :1 不论云南、欧洲头骨 ,性别差异主要集中在线距项目上 ,男性测量值大于女性。 2 华北头骨的中面宽、上面高及其指数、颧上颌高和内侧两眶宽指数大于云南头骨 ,中面部的扁平度小于云南头骨 ,颧骨额蝶突的前外侧面比云南头骨的要朝向前方。 3 中国云南、华北现代人头骨上面部的宽度小于欧洲现代人头骨 ,上面部扁平程度大于欧洲现代人头骨 ;颧骨额蝶突的前外侧面比欧洲头骨更朝向前方。华北头骨上面部高度及其指数大于欧洲头骨 ;云南头骨上面高及男性的上面高指数与欧洲头骨无差异 ,云南女性上面高指数大于欧洲头骨。我们认为投影栅相位法可作为传统测量方法的有益补充

Until present there are many fossils belonging to Homo erectus found in China. The north limit of the distribution is 39°41′N (ZKD); south limit, 25°45′N (Yuanmou); east, 118°09′E (Yiyuan); west, 101°55′E (Yuanmou). ZKD, Tangshan, Hexian, Chenjiawo, Yiyuan, Nanzhao, Yunxi and Luonan belong to Middle Pleistocene; Yuanmou, Gongwangling, Quyuan River Mouth, Meipu and Jianshi, to Early Pleistocene. Among the important Middle Pleistocene sites Tangshan and Hexian are in the south part of China, ZKD and Chenjiawo...

Until present there are many fossils belonging to Homo erectus found in China. The north limit of the distribution is 39°41′N (ZKD); south limit, 25°45′N (Yuanmou); east, 118°09′E (Yiyuan); west, 101°55′E (Yuanmou). ZKD, Tangshan, Hexian, Chenjiawo, Yiyuan, Nanzhao, Yunxi and Luonan belong to Middle Pleistocene; Yuanmou, Gongwangling, Quyuan River Mouth, Meipu and Jianshi, to Early Pleistocene. Among the important Middle Pleistocene sites Tangshan and Hexian are in the south part of China, ZKD and Chenjiawo in the north. ZKD and Hexian have yielded skulls and mandibles, Tangshan , only skulls, Chenjiawo only a mandible. Skulls of ZKD are different from that of Hexian in having lower cranial index, higher curvature of the frontal bone, more post orbital constriction, less curved superior orbital margin, presence of the supraorbital process, lower pyramids of temporal bone, parietal bone shorter than the frontal bone, coronal contour viewed from behind bun like instead of quadrangular in shape etc. Tangshan skulls are closer to those from ZKD than to that of Hexian in all of these above mentioned features except the height of the pyramid because of the lack of this part of specimen. Skulls of Hexian and Tangshan are similar in not having a wide chignon at the occipital region which presented in ZKD skulls. So all of these could not be the markers dividing the Middle Pleistocene population of China into a northern and a southern one. Tangshan skull No.1 is different from those of ZKD in possessing more developed marginal process of zygomatic bone, absence of severe constriction around the fronto zygomatic suture, presence of narrow ridge along the internasal suture, surface bulge between the pyriforme orifice and the orbit, more protruding nasal saddle and much bigger difference between the breadth of the upper and lower margins of the nasal bone etc. But all of these differences could not be checked in Hexian skull because of the lack of corresponding parts in that specimen. New specimens are needed to investigate more information on the variations of Middle Pleistocene Homo erectus in China. Comparison between mandibles from ZKD, Chenjiawo and Hexian, and between skulls from Gongwangling and Yunxian, and among teeth from different sites have also been made. All the comparisons show obvious population differences but provide no evidence to divide the Pleistocene populations in China into a northern group and a southern one like the situations in neolithic age and present day. The protruding nasal saddle of Yunxian skull No.2 and Tangshan skull No.1, the surface bulge between the pyriforme orifice and the orbit in the latter specimen as well as the presence of the mid sagittal prominence in Tangshan skull No.2 instead of a ridge are extraordinary features in fossil humans of China, but these features could be much more frequently seen in fossil humans of Africa and Europe especially in the Neanderthal lineage. The fortuitous occurence of these features in Homo erectus of China indicates the probably small amounts of gene flow between Oriental and West regions of the world in the Pleistocene. In addition, there are many other morphological features of Homo erectus fossils in China shared with Homo sapiens fossils of China such as quadrangular shape of the orbit, a nearly horizontal curved suture formed with naso frontal and fronto maxillary sutures, more forward facing of the antero lateral surface of fronto sphenoidal process of the zygomatic bone, curved lower margin of the bones of cheek region, the presence of a mid sagittal ridge on the frontal bone, shovel shaped upper incisor etc. The presence of these features in both Homo erectus and Homo sapiens fossil skulls in China supports the continuity in human evolution of China. In sum, this preliminary study on the morphological variation of Homo erectus in China supports the hypothesis continuity with hybridization, advocating that continuity marks the main process of human evolution in China in which g

已发现的化石表现中国直立人的分布北至 3 9°41′N ,南至 2 5°45′N ,东达 1 1 8°0 9′E ,西抵 1 0 1°5 5′E。中更新世可供比较的重要化石有周口店、和县及汤山的头骨 ,周口店、陈家窝及和县的下颌骨 ;早更新世有公王岭和郧县曲远河口的头骨 ,元谋和郧县梅铺的门牙。比较的结果显示各地的化石之间有同也有异 ,目前还没有足够的证据表明各地点化石之间的变异足以表现那时中国的人类可以像现代和新石器时代那样划分为南、北两大人群。中国的直立人有许多形态特征与中国的化石智人一致 ,个别标本还有个别特征与中国大多数标本不同 ,却在西方有较多的出现 ,这些现象支持中国古人类“连续进化附带杂交”的假说。

 
<< 更多相关文摘    
图标索引 相关查询

 


 
CNKI小工具
在英文学术搜索中查有关sphenoidal process的内容
在知识搜索中查有关sphenoidal process的内容
在数字搜索中查有关sphenoidal process的内容
在概念知识元中查有关sphenoidal process的内容
在学术趋势中查有关sphenoidal process的内容
 
 

CNKI主页设CNKI翻译助手为主页 | 收藏CNKI翻译助手 | 广告服务 | 英文学术搜索
版权图标  2008 CNKI-中国知网
京ICP证040431号 互联网出版许可证 新出网证(京)字008号
北京市公安局海淀分局 备案号:110 1081725
版权图标 2008中国知网(cnki) 中国学术期刊(光盘版)电子杂志社