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downy
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  霜霉病
    A STUDY ON ARTIFICIAL INOCULATION OF CUCUMBER DOWNY MILDEW
    黄瓜霜霉病人工接种技术研究
短句来源
    A Prelimiinary Study on Downy Mildew(Sclerophthora macrospora) of Wheat
    小麦霜霉病(sclerophthora macrospora)初步研究
短句来源
    Study on Efficacy of Systemic and Contact Fungicide Mixtures (ND─901,ND─903)in Controlling Downy Mildew of Plastic Greenhouse Cucumbers
    ND—901、ND—903杀菌混剂防治大棚黄瓜霜霉病的研究
短句来源
    These two plant extracts had an inhibiting action on the germination of zoospores of downy mildew of melon and their inhibiting efficiencies were respectively 48.2% and 25.3%.
    上述2种植物提取液对甜瓜霜霉病菌游动孢子萌发的抑制率分别为48.2%和25.3%。
短句来源
    Indoor pot tests of controlling the downy mildew showed that the control efficiencies at 7 days after spraying the two extracts were 51.4% and 31.3%,respectively. The field tests showed that their control efficiencies at 7 days were 48.8% and 22.6%,respectively.
    对甜瓜霜霉病的室内盆栽试验结果表明,喷雾7d后的预防效果分别为51.4%和34.3%,田间试验的防效则分别为48.8%和22.6%。
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  “downy”译为未确定词的双语例句
    The results showed that the common characteristic are colony round or irregular,pink,gray,dark gray,pale brown and black,downy. Diameter of the colony 1.0~3.0 mm,account for 1/3 to 1/2 of the height.
    结果表明,不同培养条件下的共同培养特征为:菌落球形和不规则形,粉色、灰色、灰黑色、浅棕色和黑色,菌落外被茸毛状菌丝,大小为1.0~3.0 mm左右,菌落直径为菌落高度的1/3~1/2;
短句来源
    The disease index was reduced by spraying BTH to cucumber leaves before inoculation compared to untreated control. The relative efficiencies of control were 51.80%, 55.52%, 56.66% and 47.38%, respectively. The results in field trials showed that BTH could induce resistance to downy and in cucumber plants.
    应用30μg/ml、50μg/ml、70μg/ml、90μg/ml的BTH进行叶面喷雾,各处理病情指数均显著低于接种对照,相对防治效果分别为51.80%、55.52%、56.66%、47.38%。
    Study Occurrence and Prevention Measarement of Millet Downy Mildew of 'Jingu No.21'
    晋谷21号白发病发生情况及预防措施的研究
短句来源
    The control of cucumber downy mildew with three new fungic-ides is proved to be 89.06%~89.81% in efficiency for 20% Thio—phospha-mide ester.
    经1985—1986两年的试验研究,结果表明,20%硫代磷酰胺酯的防治效果为89.06%~89.81%;
短句来源
    Rate of diseased leaf and diseased plant of which were induced with supended liquid of heat—killed spore of Downy Mildew of cucumber wrer 53.11% and 30.00% lower, respectively, than that of the control, relative immunization efficiency was 1.48%.
    经霜霉菌孢子囊悬液诱导处理的植株,病株率比ck降低30.00%,病叶率降低53.11%,相对免疫效果为1.48%。
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  downy
Comparative analysis of the structure of natal and mesoptile down, accessory feathers, and downy part of the vane of contour feathers has demonstrated the highest generalization in the mesoptile down generation.
      
Basing on the current views, the changes were attributed to a transition of thehl1 and pc recessive marker genes into new, dominant epiallelic states Hl1 and Pc, which respectively determine downy leaves and the colored stem.
      
The uptake of chitosan based impregnation solutions were tested on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L.
      
Previously undetected race-specific resistance to Bremia lactucae (downy mildew) was located in many lettuce cultivars hitherto considered to be universally susceptible to this disease.
      
For diseases such as cereal rusts, rice blast, and powdery mildew and downy mildew of cucumber, the sporulation curves for the pathogens have been shown to follow an approximately triangular pattern.
      
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Field trials of controlling both downy and powdery mildews of cucumber plants were carried out at the experimental station of the university and at a field plot in a people's commune in Peking. A number of fungicides was employed in these trials in order to compare the effectiveness of copper stearate and Bordeaux mixture with that of Dithane (made in China) against these maladies. The results pointed out that Bordeaux mixture (1:1.5:200—300) and copper stearate (1:4—6:800) were both effective against...

Field trials of controlling both downy and powdery mildews of cucumber plants were carried out at the experimental station of the university and at a field plot in a people's commune in Peking. A number of fungicides was employed in these trials in order to compare the effectiveness of copper stearate and Bordeaux mixture with that of Dithane (made in China) against these maladies. The results pointed out that Bordeaux mixture (1:1.5:200—300) and copper stearate (1:4—6:800) were both effective against the two mildews, however, the latter inhibited the powdery mildew better than the former. A mixture of 1% copper sulphate solution and 5% washing soap solution at a rate of 1:1 mixed without boiling was very effective for controlling the both and gave a higher yield. This mixture was easier in preparation than the copper stearate employed in routine spray. Dithane (1:800) was effective only for controlling the downy mildew, but non-effective for the powdery mildew. The addition of 0.2% colloid sulphur into the Dithane preparation rendered it cffective for controlling the powdery mildew also. Dithane (1:500) caused a little injury to the Peking varieties of cucumber, but 1:800 in concentration was safe. Addition of 0.5% resin solution into Bordeaux mixture increased the effectiveness of the later during the rainy season. According to the record of the disease indices made at various stages during the growth period, it was noted that the effect of the chemical protection became significant only when the disease indices in the non-sprayed plots raised to about 50. Below this level, the increase of yield of the sprayed plots in comparing with those of non-sprayed plots was usually insignificant. The Dithane (1:800) sprayed plots had a yield 27% higher than the non-sprayed controls. In the plots where 2 earlier sprays with copper stearate and 4 later sprays with Bordeaux mixture were made resulted a yield 38% higher than the non-sprayed plots. The net profit increased per Mou by employing 6 sprays of Dithane (1:800) was 22.3 Yuen, while that by 2 sprays of copper stearate and 4 sprays of Bordeaux mixture was 77.3 Yuen. The difference was considered to be due to the loss caused by the damage inflicted by the powdery mildew in the Dithane plots.

在焉連洼及肖家河两个试验中分别比较了热制铜皂液、波尔多液及代森锌对防治黄瓜霜霉病及白粉病所起的作用。试验中肯定了铜皂液(1∶4∶800,1∶6∶800)对霜霉病及白粉病都有一定的抑制作用,波尔多液(1∶1.5∶200—300)对霜霉病的抑制作用稍强于铜皂液,但对白粉病的抑制稍弱于铜皂液。苗期用铜皂液,后期用波尔多液可以获得很好的防治效果。在一个观察区中发现,冷制铜皂液有替代热制铜皂液的希望,因其药效及增产作用都不亚于后者。在多雨的情况下波尔多液中加入1∶200的甲松皂可以增加其药效。代森锌(1∶500,1∶800)对霜霉病有显著的保护作用,但是对白粉病不超任何防治效果。1∶500的浓度对黄瓜的生长有轻微的药害。1∶800全无药害。在1∶800的代森锌液中加入0.16分(=0.2%)的细硫粉时可以兼治霜霉及白粉病,而且获得此铜剂更高的产量,由于这一试区重复少,可以提出来作进一步的试验。代森锌中混入魚藤精作为兼治蚜虫之用时,似乎有一些微小的不良作用,但没有显著的药害。在肖家河点上的生产试验中证明,前期喷2次铜皂液,后期喷4次波尔多液的比无处理区的总产量超出38%,使用1∶800代森辞6次的比无处理区的总产量超出2...

在焉連洼及肖家河两个试验中分别比较了热制铜皂液、波尔多液及代森锌对防治黄瓜霜霉病及白粉病所起的作用。试验中肯定了铜皂液(1∶4∶800,1∶6∶800)对霜霉病及白粉病都有一定的抑制作用,波尔多液(1∶1.5∶200—300)对霜霉病的抑制作用稍强于铜皂液,但对白粉病的抑制稍弱于铜皂液。苗期用铜皂液,后期用波尔多液可以获得很好的防治效果。在一个观察区中发现,冷制铜皂液有替代热制铜皂液的希望,因其药效及增产作用都不亚于后者。在多雨的情况下波尔多液中加入1∶200的甲松皂可以增加其药效。代森锌(1∶500,1∶800)对霜霉病有显著的保护作用,但是对白粉病不超任何防治效果。1∶500的浓度对黄瓜的生长有轻微的药害。1∶800全无药害。在1∶800的代森锌液中加入0.16分(=0.2%)的细硫粉时可以兼治霜霉及白粉病,而且获得此铜剂更高的产量,由于这一试区重复少,可以提出来作进一步的试验。代森锌中混入魚藤精作为兼治蚜虫之用时,似乎有一些微小的不良作用,但没有显著的药害。在肖家河点上的生产试验中证明,前期喷2次铜皂液,后期喷4次波尔多液的比无处理区的总产量超出38%,使用1∶800代森辞6次的比无处理区的总产量超出27%。代森锌区的增产较铜一波区较小的原因在于白粉病较重。根据成本计算,铜皂液一波尔多液处理区因防治而增收的利益为每亩77.3元,而代森锌区刖为22.3元。由此可见,在黄瓜栽培采用上述两种药剂前后喷布6次结果还是有利的。从分期采收及病情指数来看,当无处理区的病情指数在50以下时,药剂的作用还不明显,病情指数在50—90时,药剂的作用便极为明显,指数升到90以上时,此时无处理区已经枯死,而药剂防治区依然可以收瓜。估计代森锌区可以延长收瓜10天,而铜一波区可以延长16天。

The autumnal incidence of the downy mildew of Chinese cabbage in North China occa-sionally caused a serious damage.Overwintered as well as oversummered oospores were con-sidered to be the most important primary source of infection of this disease in Peking,Tien-tsin and other localities of North China.A large amount of oospores was found in the dis-eased leaf-tissues collected from both spring and autumn Chinese cabbage crops.Seedling in-fection by soil-borne oospores from the previous crop had been demonstrated.However,seed-ling...

The autumnal incidence of the downy mildew of Chinese cabbage in North China occa-sionally caused a serious damage.Overwintered as well as oversummered oospores were con-sidered to be the most important primary source of infection of this disease in Peking,Tien-tsin and other localities of North China.A large amount of oospores was found in the dis-eased leaf-tissues collected from both spring and autumn Chinese cabbage crops.Seedling in-fection by soil-borne oospores from the previous crop had been demonstrated.However,seed-ling infection by seed-borne oospores or mycelium was precarious.Some seed samples of theChinese cabbage variety“Chiaochowpai”obtained from Shantung province were contaminatedwith oospores.Apparently such seeds were produced from heavily attacked seedplants.Never-theless,oospores had never been detected in seed samples of various varieties collected fromPeking and Tientsin during 1961-1962.Mycelium was detected to hibernate in seed coats ofsome samples collected from the infected capsules of late grown seed-plants.The phenomenon of the limited systemic infection of the downy mildew of Chinese cabbageseedlings was reported for the first time.This pathogen was revealed to penetrate thehypocotyl,spread upward,pass the cotyledons and finally enter the first pair of true leaves,but never the second pair.The writers were of the opinion that the limited systemic infec-tion of the seedlings constitutes the initial stage of epiphytotics of this disease.

在北京和天津等地调查研究了大白菜霜霉病的初侵染来源问题,并对幼苗的有限系统侵染现象进行了研究。卵孢子是初侵染的重要来源,华北和东北各主要白菜产区的白菜病叶和菜田土壤中存在有大量霜霉病菌的卵孢子。这些卵孢子可以侵染幼苗而引起发病,在田间形成初发病株成为再侵染的来源。田间卵孢子一年不止形成一次,春菜上形成的卵孢子到秋季即可侵染。种子带菌情况因地区而异。山东“胶州白”因种株上易罹病害,莢果组织中的卵孢子可以夹在种子间传播。1961—1962年在京津两地收集的种子上未检查到卵孢子。唯在部分春播采种的种子上,病菌菌丝可潛伏于种皮中并产生孢子囊。以菌丝在留种株上潛伏而在次年带到田间成为春菜初侵染来源的可能性仍需进一步研究。首次报导了大白菜幼苗上 Peronospora parasitica 的有限系统侵染可以达到第一对真叶。病菌从茎基部侵入后,菌丝向上扩展进入子叶和第一对真叶,但不进入第二对真叶。田间最早发生的病株大多是有限系统侵染的。这一发现对了解病害流行起点是有帮助的。

In 1962-1963,35 samples of Downy mildews collected from Brassica Pekinensis andother Cruciferous vegetables (including B.Chinensis,B.juncea,B.rapa,B.oleracea,Raphanussativus,and Capsella Bursa-Pastoris etc.) were identified with 32 differential hosts.Threevarieties of Peronospora parasitica were differentiated:P.p.brassicae on Brassica,P.p.raphani on Raphanus and P.p.capsellae on Capsella.In P.p.brassicae at least three differentforms existed (i.e.f.Pekenensis,f.olerasea,f.juncea).1.Collections from Brassica...

In 1962-1963,35 samples of Downy mildews collected from Brassica Pekinensis andother Cruciferous vegetables (including B.Chinensis,B.juncea,B.rapa,B.oleracea,Raphanussativus,and Capsella Bursa-Pastoris etc.) were identified with 32 differential hosts.Threevarieties of Peronospora parasitica were differentiated:P.p.brassicae on Brassica,P.p.raphani on Raphanus and P.p.capsellae on Capsella.In P.p.brassicae at least three differentforms existed (i.e.f.Pekenensis,f.olerasea,f.juncea).1.Collections from Brassica Pekinensis,B.Chinensis and B.rapa were found to belong tothe same group,since they infected all or a part of these hosts on which they all producedconidia.B.juncea var.megarrhisa showed varying reactions to these collections.No infec-tion took place on Capsella Bursa-Pastoris,Raphanus sativus,B.oleracea,B.juncea and B.juncea var.multiceps.Collections from different varieties of B.Pekinensis in different local-ities and seasons showed a remarkable difference in pathogenicity.2.The host ranges of the collections from B.juncea and B.juncea var.megarrhisa andvar.multiceps were limited to these plants,however,the collections from B.juncea did infectsome varieties of B.Pekinensis B.Chinensis and B.rapa.3.Collections from B.oleracea (including var.capitata,var.caularapa,var.alboglabra,var.botrytis) infected this species only and never infected other crucifers.4.Collections from Raphanus sativus were differentiated into two types,one infectedR.sativa only and the other infected some varieties of B.Pekinnensis,B.oleracea and B.rapaas well.5.Collections from Capsella Bursa-Pastoris only infected the original host but not others.

应用十字花科蔬菜三属七种32个品种作为鉴定寄主,对京津地区12种十字花科蔬菜(大白菜、油青菜、芜菁、芥菜、大头青、雪里蕻、甘兰、苤兰、花椰菜、芥兰、萝卜和荠菜)上采集的34个霜霉病菌(Pronospora parasitica(Pers.)Fr.)标样进行了生理分化的研究。得到以下结果:1.大白菜,油青菜,芜菁上的病菌为一类,它们可以侵染全部或部分的这类寄主,呈感病反应,产生孢子囊;芥菜对不同病菌标样呈抗病或感病反应;不侵染荠菜、萝卜、甘兰类和雪里蕻,大头青。不同时间、地点和不同大白莱品种上采集的菌种有较大的致病性差异。2.芥菜、雪里蕻、大头青上的菌种,除芥菜上的可以侵染大白菜、油青菜和芜菁的若干品种外,它们只侵染芥菜属寄主。3.甘兰类(包括甘兰,苤兰,芥兰和花椰菜)上的菌种只侵染本类寄主,呈感病反应,产生孢子囊;不能侵染其他种属寄主。4.萝卜上有两类菌种:一类仅侵染萝卜一属的品种,不能侵染其他属的寄主,但也发现有一个标样除本寄主外,尚可接种在芸苔属的大白菜、甘兰和芥菜的一部分品种上。5.荠菜上的菌种只能侵染荠菜,呈感病反应,而不能侵染其他寄主。

 
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