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fixed duty
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  fixed duty
The simplicity of S-MAC using a fixed duty cycle has two drawbacks.
      
The animals must be kept healthy, have fixed duty cycles and efforts must be made to keep them undistracted.
      
The MCLK input can have a frequency from 500kHz to 20MHz with a fixed duty cycle around 50%.
      
The IC is specifically optimized for bus converter applications, using a self-oscillating 50% fixed duty cycle.
      
Output H Bridge is then switched at a fixed duty cycle of approx.
      
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Single switch three phase Power Factor Correction(PFC) Circuit is simple and practical, it can achieve PFC by operation under fixed duty cycle. Six order harmonic injection is a method to reduce harmonic of average input current of this topology, but the harmonic injection coefficients are difficult to decide. Several methods, including the Genetic Algorithm(GA), are applied for optimizing. By comparison, it is found that: a) modified one dimension optimization is the best one, b) the injection coefficient...

Single switch three phase Power Factor Correction(PFC) Circuit is simple and practical, it can achieve PFC by operation under fixed duty cycle. Six order harmonic injection is a method to reduce harmonic of average input current of this topology, but the harmonic injection coefficients are difficult to decide. Several methods, including the Genetic Algorithm(GA), are applied for optimizing. By comparison, it is found that: a) modified one dimension optimization is the best one, b) the injection coefficient depends on the amplitude of input voltages and it is not enough that only the six order harmonic is injected; and c) the result given in this paper is the “most” optimum one for this topology.

被研究电路简单而实用 ,工作于固定占空比就能实现功率因数校正 ,不过这种情况下 ,输入电流含较多的 5、7和 11次谐波。往占空比注入 6倍次谐波 ,能显著减小谐波 ,但确定各谐波的注入量是个难点。采用多种算法 (含遗传算法 )对谐波注入系数进行了优化。经对比可知 :最简单迅速的方法是一维搜索 ;各次谐波的注入系数和输入电压幅值有关 ,只注入 6次谐波效果还不够理想 ;此外 ,所给优化结果是这种电路所能达到的最佳效果。

An integrated 3.3V/1.2V SC DC-DC converter operating under 10MHz with a fixed duty radio of 0.5 is presented.To improve the output current of the converter,CMOS technology is adopted to fabricate the switching devices,and mutually compensatory circuitry technology is also employed to double the output current furthermore.The simulation results using Hspice simulation software,show that the output currents of a single unit circuit and two unit circuits connected in a mutually compensatory manner of the...

An integrated 3.3V/1.2V SC DC-DC converter operating under 10MHz with a fixed duty radio of 0.5 is presented.To improve the output current of the converter,CMOS technology is adopted to fabricate the switching devices,and mutually compensatory circuitry technology is also employed to double the output current furthermore.The simulation results using Hspice simulation software,show that the output currents of a single unit circuit and two unit circuits connected in a mutually compensatory manner of the improved converter is about 12.5mA and 26mA,respectively.The power conversion efficiency of the mutually compensatory circuit can amount to 73%,while its output voltage ripple is less than 1.5%.The converter is fabricated in standard Rohm 0.35μm CMOS technology in Tokyo University of Japan.The test result indicates that the output current of 9.8mA can be obtained from a single unit circuit of the improved converter.

介绍了一种具有改进电路结构和改进工艺的单片集成 3.3V/ 1.2 V开关电容 DC- DC变换器 ,其控制脉冲频率和固定导通比分别为 10 MHz和 0 .5 .为了提高变换器的输出电流 ,采用 CMOS工艺来制造电路中的开关器件和改进的互补型电路结构 .使用 Hspice电路仿真软件得到的仿真结果表明改进变换器的单个单元电路和互补型电路可使输出电流分别达到 12 .5 m A和 2 6 m A,且后者的功率转换效率为 73% ,输出电压纹波小于 1.5 % .变换器在日本东京大学的标准 Rohm 0 .35 μm CMOS工艺线上投片试制 ,测试结果显示 ,使用 CMOS开关的变换器单元电路的输出电流为 9.8m A.

Lack of automatically improving performance mechanism, the manager of listed companies can control more money but need not undertake any fixed duty through the seasoned equity offerings (SEOs). However, the experience of supervision nowadays cannot prevent manager from moral hazard and adverse selection. Thus, the performance of listed companies falls into a vicious cycle. The stock market supervisors should seek more efficient methods to monitor the refinance for the benefits of small investors. The system...

Lack of automatically improving performance mechanism, the manager of listed companies can control more money but need not undertake any fixed duty through the seasoned equity offerings (SEOs). However, the experience of supervision nowadays cannot prevent manager from moral hazard and adverse selection. Thus, the performance of listed companies falls into a vicious cycle. The stock market supervisors should seek more efficient methods to monitor the refinance for the benefits of small investors. The system of examining and approving qualification of high-level managers according to the results of operation can restrain the behavior of managers instead of inefficient market.

由于缺乏"自动"改善经营绩效的市场机制,公司经理通过发行股票可以支配更多的钱而无需承担任何固定的偿还义务,而当前公共监管权力配置不足以防止经理人员的逆向选择与道德风险,致使我国上市公司陷入一个"融资—低效投资—再融资"的制度性怪圈。市场监管者有必要代表中小投资者的利益而寻求更有效的方法来控制公司经理的行为。在当前的制度背景下,基于公司经营绩效的高层管理人员任职资格审查与禁入惩罚制度可以部分地替代接管市场与经理人员市场对经理行为的约束。

 
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