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sclerotinia
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  sclerotinia
Production, purification, and biochemical characterization of two β-glucosidases from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
      
The filamentous fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum prudces ?-glucosidases in liquid culture with a variety of carbon sources, including cellulose (filter paper), xylan, barley straw, oat meal, and xylose.
      
The filamentous fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, grown on a xylose medium, was found to excrete one β-glucosidase (β-glu x).
      
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Diaporthe helianthi are important pathogens of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).
      
Genetic analysis of loci associated with partial resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
      
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The Sclerotinia disease of the rape plant is widely distributed in 19 provinces in China. It is more prevalent and destructive in the Yang-Tze Valley and the South-Eastern coastal provinces. These regions are characterized by the concurrence of the relatively cool temperature (around 15℃.), the abundant rainfall (month average exceeds 100 mm.), and the susceptible stage of the host plant (usually during the blooming period). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been found attacking 71 species of economic...

The Sclerotinia disease of the rape plant is widely distributed in 19 provinces in China. It is more prevalent and destructive in the Yang-Tze Valley and the South-Eastern coastal provinces. These regions are characterized by the concurrence of the relatively cool temperature (around 15℃.), the abundant rainfall (month average exceeds 100 mm.), and the susceptible stage of the host plant (usually during the blooming period). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been found attacking 71 species of economic plants of 19 families. Beside the rape plant, peanut, soybean, and sunflower, the majority of the hosts are vegetables and herbaceous ornamental plants. In the host range, there are 13 species not hitherto reported; however, there are also 5 species of familiar plants which have been listed as hosts in other countries are not affected in China. No definite period of dormancy appeared to be necessary for the production of apothecia, but the temperaure reguirement for the sclerotial germination was found very narrow. They germinated best in moderately cool temperature (around 15℃.) in moist sand., The sclerotia raising from single spore cultures germinated very slowly and meagrely, while those from the parent mass culture germinated rather quickly and abundantly, a phenomenon pointing to the facultative heterothallic nature of the fungus. The ascospores have been found to germinate under a wide range of conditions. They germinated quite well on dry slide under high relative humidity. It may thus be justified to assume that the ascospores can be carried in a viable condition to a considerable distance by wind. Precentages of their germination under a temperature range of 5—30℃. exceeded 50% in less than 24 hours, being highest at 5—10℃. The pH range for mycelial growth was found to be pH 3—9, with an optimum around pH 5—8. High relative humidity (over 85%) and a supply of pectinase from diseased tissues were necessary for its infection. Flower petals of the rape plant have been found most susceptible to attack by the ascospores, while sound leaves were resistant to attack unless they had been chilled. A sudden drop of temperature, poor drainage, and especially lodging of the rape plants during their blooming stage have been observed to be predisposing under natural conditions. Ordinary, there are two crops of apothecia in a year, one in the Autumn and the other in the next Spring, the second crop should be considered as the major one. A rotation of rice with the rape plant and a big scale control campaign in vast area will materially reduce the source of infection, and thereby decrease incidence of the disease. Since the infection is dependent chiefly upon the number of sclerotia that will persist in the soil and the production of apothecia in the blooming period, epedemics may be forecasted on the basis of weather conditions prevailing at various times of the year. The facts that abundant Summer rainfall promotes decay of the sclerotia, and abundant rainfall in the the Autumn increases their number, may be considered as criteria for long term forecasting. Abundant rainfall in the early Spring and cold wind during the blooming period which promotes the germination of the sclerotia, the infection of either the ascospores or the mycelium, and the lodging and susceptibility of the host, may be based for short term forecasting.

1.油菜菌核病在我国的分布共有19省,而以长江流域及东南沿海各省为主。它的分布区域决定于較低的温度(15℃左右)、充沛的雨量(月平均超过100毫米)及寄主易感阶段(一般为花期)三者的密切配合。在秦岭以南的早春和深秋以及松花江流域的夏季,其配合是符合于这种情况的,因此发病較为普遍而严重。秦岭以北,包括华北与西北,上述三方面的配合基本上是不协調的,因此菌核病很少发生。2.它在我国的寄主共有19科71种,除油菜、花生、大豆及向日葵等油料作物外,主要为害蔬菜及草本观赏植物,因此花园菜圃是此菌潛伏埸所之一。在我国所发现的寄主中,有13种是未經报导过的,但也有5种常見的寄主在我国尙未见其被害。3.Sclerotinia sclerotiorum的各个发育阶段对于外界条件的要求是不一致的。菌核不需要休眠,但它发芽的要求很严格,只有继續在低温高湿的土壤中约一月左右才能盛发。它从单子囊孢子菌系所产生的菌核发芽率很低,而且发芽很缓慢,说明此菌是一个较弱的(己廾)宗配合菌类。子囊孢子发芽的要求最宽,它有耐干耐寒的能力。在5—30℃之间,24小时内的发芽率都能超过50%,而在5℃或10℃的温度下发芽率最高,而且发芽最快。它在接近饱和...

1.油菜菌核病在我国的分布共有19省,而以长江流域及东南沿海各省为主。它的分布区域决定于較低的温度(15℃左右)、充沛的雨量(月平均超过100毫米)及寄主易感阶段(一般为花期)三者的密切配合。在秦岭以南的早春和深秋以及松花江流域的夏季,其配合是符合于这种情况的,因此发病較为普遍而严重。秦岭以北,包括华北与西北,上述三方面的配合基本上是不协調的,因此菌核病很少发生。2.它在我国的寄主共有19科71种,除油菜、花生、大豆及向日葵等油料作物外,主要为害蔬菜及草本观赏植物,因此花园菜圃是此菌潛伏埸所之一。在我国所发现的寄主中,有13种是未經报导过的,但也有5种常見的寄主在我国尙未见其被害。3.Sclerotinia sclerotiorum的各个发育阶段对于外界条件的要求是不一致的。菌核不需要休眠,但它发芽的要求很严格,只有继續在低温高湿的土壤中约一月左右才能盛发。它从单子囊孢子菌系所产生的菌核发芽率很低,而且发芽很缓慢,说明此菌是一个较弱的(己廾)宗配合菌类。子囊孢子发芽的要求最宽,它有耐干耐寒的能力。在5—30℃之间,24小时内的发芽率都能超过50%,而在5℃或10℃的温度下发芽率最高,而且发芽最快。它在接近饱和的相对湿度中,并不需要一层水膜也能发芽。因此,推论它有一定距离的气流传播可能性。菌絲的要求介于两者之间,它对酸硷的适应范围很广(pH3—9,最适为pH5—8)。它对温度的要求和对子囊孢子发芽的相同。其侵染及生长最主要的条件为高湿度(相对湿度高于85%)及足够的果胶酵素。4.油菜易感的阶段为花期。花冠最容易感染,衰老的叶片及受冻后的嫩叶也容易感病。通过这些桥梁,进而侵染莖稈。春季的寒流,后期的漬水和倒伏,造成发病的小气候;鼓励子囊孢子的发芽与侵入和菌絲的侵染与发展。因此,是此病猖獗的关键。5.子囊孢子是此病主要的而且是首次侵染源。菌核每年产生两次子囊盘,一次在深秋,是次要的;一次在早春,是主要的。菌核的潛伏埸所为:本田、种子间、花园、菜圃、打谷埸及堆肥中。水旱轮作可以消灭菌核;大面积联防可以减少侵染源。6.夏季的雨量丰富,使田间的菌核数下降;相反,深秋的雨量丰富,使菌核数增加;因此,前一年的夏季和秋季的雨量,可以用作长期测报的根据。本年早春的雨量丰富,促进菌核的发芽;花期的寒潮,后期田间渍水,植株倒伏,都使寄主易感,并鼓励子囊孢子的发芽侵入及菌絲的侵染与发展,是造成当年猖獗的主要原因,因此可以用为短期测报的依据。

Asarum heterotropoides F. Schmidt var. mand shuricum (Maxim.) Kitag., an important perennial medicinal crop, is cultivated locally in Liaoning Province. Loss of plants caused by blighting in the range of 20 to 80% has been reported recently in cultivated gardens. The causal pathogen, Sclerotinia asari Wu and C. R. Wang has been identified. The pathogen attacks both the underground and aerial parts of the plant. It can cause rots on root, bud, seedling, petiole leaf and fruit. Diseased plants blighted completely...

Asarum heterotropoides F. Schmidt var. mand shuricum (Maxim.) Kitag., an important perennial medicinal crop, is cultivated locally in Liaoning Province. Loss of plants caused by blighting in the range of 20 to 80% has been reported recently in cultivated gardens. The causal pathogen, Sclerotinia asari Wu and C. R. Wang has been identified. The pathogen attacks both the underground and aerial parts of the plant. It can cause rots on root, bud, seedling, petiole leaf and fruit. Diseased plants blighted completely and then perished. S. asari has both asexual and apothecial stages. In nature sclerotial blight is carried by mycelia in seeds, seedlings and soil. Apothecia are produced from germinating selerotia. Very few apothecia are produced in nature. Infection of plants by ascospores is negligible. S. asari can grow between 0℃ and 27℃ but not at 28℃. The pathogen grows well in potato dextrose agar between 7℃ and 15℃. It perishes after 24 hours at 32℃. The pathogen weakens its virulence after several transfers in PDA but the virluence could be recoverd by growing the culture subsequently in carrot cubes. The pathogen has only a narrow host range; infection is most on A. heterotropoides var. mandshuricum.

细辛菌核疫病是随着细辛人工扩大栽培而出现的一个新问题。此病在辽宁省的新宾、凤城、宽甸、桓仁、本溪、丹东市郊区和吉林省等局部地区均有发生。病害发生在植株的地下和地上各个部分,诱致根腐、芽腐、苗腐、叶腐、柄腐和果腐等症状,最后使全株腐烂死亡。病害由细辛核盘菌,Sclerotinia asari 侵害所致。病菌具有无性与有性两个世代。在田间自然情况下,无性世代的菌丝体是主要的侵染源,多次试验重复,由菌核萌发产生子囊盘的机率较低,子囊孢子致病力很弱。细辛核盘菌生长温度范围为0~27℃,至28℃以上基本上不能生长,32℃经24小时即死亡。适温条件为7~15℃。病菌在PDA上可以生长,但致病力似有减弱现象,用胡萝卜切块培养具有复壮作用。病菌寄主范围较窄,目前仅知对细聿具有高度致病作用。

A new species of Sclerotinia asari Wuet C.R.Wang caused rots of roots,leaves,petioles,fruits and seeds n sarum heterotropoides Schmidtvar.mandshuricum(Maxim.)Kitag.is reported.The fungus producednumerous,black,variable sized,irregular shaped,smooth sclerotia indiseased tissues.Brownish apothecia rising singly or in small groups 1to 9 in number,usually 2 to 3 formed from germinated sclerotia.Discconcave was 3 o 20 mm across.Asci,club-shape,were 102.5~165.0×4.3~7.5μ in size,8-spored.Ascospores,ellipsoidal...

A new species of Sclerotinia asari Wuet C.R.Wang caused rots of roots,leaves,petioles,fruits and seeds n sarum heterotropoides Schmidtvar.mandshuricum(Maxim.)Kitag.is reported.The fungus producednumerous,black,variable sized,irregular shaped,smooth sclerotia indiseased tissues.Brownish apothecia rising singly or in small groups 1to 9 in number,usually 2 to 3 formed from germinated sclerotia.Discconcave was 3 o 20 mm across.Asci,club-shape,were 102.5~165.0×4.3~7.5μ in size,8-spored.Ascospores,ellipsoidal haped,10.0~17.5×4.3~7.5μ,arranged uniseriately.Paraphyses,cylindrical,2~2.5μ thick were resent.No other conidial state is observed.Thisnew species merely caused damage on .heterotropoides var.mandshricumunder inoculation tests both in the laboratory and ields.Chinese andLatin diagnosis for the new species are given.The type specimen is de-posited in the Mycological Herbarum of Shenyang Agricultural College.

细辛核盘菌,Sclerotinia asari Wuet C.R.waug,是核盘菌属的一个新种。它能为害细辛的根、茎、叶、果等各个部分发生毁灭性的菌核疫病。它的主要寄主是细辛;其形态特征、生物学特性均与S.sclerotiorum不同。菌丝体无色,有分隔,宽3.0~7.5微米。菌核大小差异很大,较大的为17~30×20毫米;较小的为0.4×0.3毫米。一颗菌核可萌生子囊盘1~9枚,子囊盘鲜褐色,直径为3~20毫米,柄长5~70毫米。子囊棍棒状,无色,10.25×165.0×7.5~10.0微米。子囊孢子单胞、无色、长椭圆形,10.0~17.5×4.3~7.5微米。附着胞球形,无色,直径3~5微米。并做了中文与拉丁文的形态描述。

 
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