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money balances
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  货币余额
     The importance of the relation between financial development and money demand is illustrated by the voluminous literature that has investigated the affects of financial market changes response of real money balances to changes in real income and an opportunity cost measure.
     大量文献通过研究由实际货币余额变动引起金融市场的变化对于实际收入和机会成本的影响,从而揭示了金融发展和货币需求之间关系的重要性。 研究者通过对实际余额与实际收入和某一机会成本变量之间长期均衡关系或协整关系的检验,得出金融发展在货币需求中扮演着十分重要的角色。
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  相似匹配句对
     Life and Money
     人生与金钱
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     Money and Love
     金钱和爱情
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     Internal Control Balances the Interest
     内部控制是利益的平衡机制——法的价值与人本思想的衔接
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     Supervision on power and checks and balances
     权力监督与权力制约辨析
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  money balances
The empirical evidence suggests that the relationship between the growth of money balances and its economic determinants is more stable than some have argued.
      
Real money balances and the productivity growth slowdown: The U.S.
      
Based on this hypothesis, real money balances were introduced into the input demand equations in a simultaneous production-equation system.
      
Real money balances as factor saving media: A note
      
A stochastic production frontier is then estimated without real money balances.
      
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A natural ecosystem under human activities, becomes a more complicated and open Social-Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem (SENCE), It is quite different from the former in terms of structure, function and characteristic. The models for studying ecological process intend to be more complex and accurate,but it does not mean they are certainly practical models. Parameters of a practical model should be easy to obtain, capable of reflecting some key characters and estimating the developing trends of the system.This...

A natural ecosystem under human activities, becomes a more complicated and open Social-Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem (SENCE), It is quite different from the former in terms of structure, function and characteristic. The models for studying ecological process intend to be more complex and accurate,but it does not mean they are certainly practical models. Parameters of a practical model should be easy to obtain, capable of reflecting some key characters and estimating the developing trends of the system.This paper introduces the establishment process of Available Substances(energy and money)Balanced Model(ASBM,AEBM, AMBM), based on Mass Conversation Law (MCL) and the transform relationships of available substances in SENCE. Diagnostic Parameters (DPs) of the model. were defined and the applications of the model was discussed based on the requirements of research and practice,we have defined the conception of Available Substance. AS is a set of substances that can be used directly by some ecological processes or functions. We supposed that:a certain SENCE is the research system and there are some other systems(OSs)which exchange AS with the SENCE. Name the inner sub-system unAS existed as an UNAS System. There are four couples of variables in SENCE during any period of time to keep the balance of the system. Sources of AS in the SENCE are: at t n, the quantity of AS is W 1; during the time from t n to t n+m, the quantity of AS changed from unavailable substance in system is W 2; the quantity of AS transferred from OSs is W 3; the quantity of AS input by human activity is W 4. Fate of AS in SENCE : at t n+m, the quantity of AS is W 5; during the time from t n to t n+m, the quantity of AS changed to unavailable substance is W 6;the quantity of AS transferred to OSs is W 7;the quantity of AS output is W 8. Based on the transforming relationships of AS, a transfer matrix of sources and fate of AS in SENCE is gained. There is gained equation based on SCL,which is called ASBM in the SENCE. In the same way,we can get Available Energy Balanced Model (AEBM) and Available Money Balanced Model (AMBM). ASBM has established the relationships between sources and fate parameters of AS based on MCL,so as to provide a systematical research method for studying SENCE. But it is difficult to describe directly some change laws of AS in any system by using of the equation. Some changes must be made to find the key DPs for the description of the variations of AS in some systems. We have verified the validity of ASBM in comparison with that of the balanced crop water consumption on farm and the total P or N balanced model in water body. The results has shown that they are the same in structures and functions, and it is the evidence of the scientificity of the model establishment. Then, ASBM has been applied to the fertilization system. We have gained General Fertilization Model and Ecological Balanced Fertilization Models, which including Maximum, Economical and Ecological Balanced Models under Maximum, Economical and Ecological dosages. They are the original and innovative models that have overcome the academic shortcomings of the widely applied Fertilizer Effect Function Method and Soil Testing & Fertilizer Recommendation. GFM have dual functions of the latter. We have also discussed Available Energy Balanced Model in the global system. The conclusion is that the total available energy of the global system must be increasing with the human activities. The direct evidence is the globel air temperature increasing. The phenomenon of urban heat island is also an evidence of the scientificity of the available heat balanced model. We have finally analyzed Available Money Balanced Models within the enterprises. Which has proven that △W (1-5)+(2-6)+(3-7)/W 8 = 0 is the boundary between profit and non-profit and can be used as one of the overall evaluation indexes of management level and benefit for the enterprises.As we have discussed above, ASBM is a model of universal,quantitati

根据质量守恒定律和有效物质 (能量、货币 )在系统内外部转化关系建立了社会 -经济 -自然复合生态系统有效物质(能量、货币 )平衡模型 ,定义了模型特征参数。将模型应用于 3个不同的研究领域 ,获得了相应研究领域的平衡模型 ,结果表明所建立的平衡模型具有通用性 ,它对于研究复合生态系统有效物质、能量和货币平衡具有重要的理论和实践意义。

Well-controlling the quantity of cash put into circulation is the key of controlling money supply; Whether the real rate of price rise deviating from the fit rate of it or not is the main sign of judgment of money balance; The study of the quantity of cash put in shouldn't ignore the change of cash stocks in capital market.

调控现金投放总量 ,是把握货币供给的核心和关键 ;物价实际上涨率与物价合理上涨率的背离 ,是判断货币均衡与否的主要标志 ;研究现金投放量不应忽视资本市场上现金存量的变动

This paper attempts to elaborate China's monetary policy in a new Keynesian monetary economic model. The model and estimated result show that, at present at least, the monetary policy which set monetary supply as intermediate target is still suitable. Instead, the interest rate such as Taylor rules is not good instrument rule. The model and its result also show that there is a great nominal rigidity in China's economy from which supply shock is not main factors resulting in inflation movement. The movements...

This paper attempts to elaborate China's monetary policy in a new Keynesian monetary economic model. The model and estimated result show that, at present at least, the monetary policy which set monetary supply as intermediate target is still suitable. Instead, the interest rate such as Taylor rules is not good instrument rule. The model and its result also show that there is a great nominal rigidity in China's economy from which supply shock is not main factors resulting in inflation movement. The movements of inflation and economic outputs is mainly due to changes of household's utility and real money balances. The nominal rigidity has an important role in understanding the monetary policy that responds to changes of demands.

本文试图用新凯恩斯主义的货币经济模型来理解中国货币政策。模型及其估计结果表明,至少在现阶段,以货币供应量为中介目标的货币政策仍然是适用的,而泰勒规则类的利率规则并不适用于现阶段的货币政策。模型及检验结果还表明,在我国经济中存在着较大的名义刚性,由于名义刚性的存在,供给冲击不是影响通货膨胀波动的主要因素,影响产出波动和通货膨胀波动的主要冲击来自需求方面的家庭偏好及实际货币余额的变化。经济中存在的名义刚性对理解从需求方面来调节货币供应量的货币政策有重要意义。

 
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