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alternaria
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  链格孢属
    Study on Dithane M-45 Controlling Alternaria Genus Fungi Diseases
    大生M—45防治链格孢属Alternaria Nees真菌病害研究
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    Alternaria Species on Compositae in China
    中国菊科植物上链格孢属真菌的种
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    TWO NEW RECORDED SPECIES OF ALTERNARIA IN CHINA
    链格孢属(Alternaria Nees ex Fr.)的2个新记录种
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    GELELECTROPHIC ANALISIS OF SOLUBLE PROTEINS FROM ALTERNARIA SPP. ON CRUCIFERAE
    十字花科上的链格孢属真菌可溶性蛋白质凝胶电泳分析
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    THE DANGER OF ALTERNARIA TO THE CROPS
    链格孢属真菌对农作物的危害
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  “alternaria”译为未确定词的双语例句
    STUDY ON THE PATHOGENIC FUNGUS (ALTERNARIA TENUIS NEES) OF POPLAR LEAF-BLIGHT
    杨叶枯病菌:细链格孢[Alternaria tenuis]的研究
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    The Etiology, Occurrence Pattern and Medicinal Control of Ginseng Spot Disease——Alternaria panax
    人参斑点病(Alternaria panax)病原学、发生规律及药剂防治
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    STUDY ON THE INTEGRATED CONTROL OF BLACK-SPOT DISEASE OF GINSENG(ALTERNARIA PANAX)
    人参黑斑病(Alternaria panax)综合防治研究
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    SCREENING ANTAGONISTS OF MOLDY-CORE OF APPLE PATHOGEN, Alternaria alternata
    苹果霉心病病原(Alternaria alternata)拮抗菌的筛选
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    EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNARIA BRASSICAE
    环境因素对芸苔链格孢生长发育的影响
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  alternaria
The cell extract showed activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viridae, Fusarium moniliforme and Alternaria brassicicola.
      
New inhibitors of melanin formation by micromycetes Aspergillus carbonarius, Alternaria alternata, and Paecilomyces variotii and basidiomycetes Inonotus obliquus and Phellinus robustus were found.
      
oxysporum, Botrytis sorokiniana, Alternaria tenui, and Phytophthora infestans.
      
A chitosan-based elicitor preparation more effectively suppressed the development of early (Alternaria sp.
      
Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.
      
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Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on different...

Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on different culture media such as PDA, acidified PDA, cotton meal agar and rice agar. All these plates failed to show verticillium colonies. Among the fungi obtained in these plates, Fusarium, Alternaria and Colletotrichum were the most frequent. Since both Verticillium albo-atrum and other fungi were harbored within the same seed, the difference of growth rates might be considered as an important factor involved in the difficulty of the isolations: Cultures of V. albo-atrum and Fusarium sp. were transferred simutaneously to PDA plates to test their growth rates. The diameter of their colonies were measured after incubation for 12 days under 22±1℃. Those of V. albo-atrum measured 2.8 cm., while the average of the latter was 9,3 cm. Interference of the fast-growers might render a slow-grower such as V. albo-atrum to be masked in the observations and to be depressed in the isolations. A method was developed to avoid the interference. The fundamental procedures of the method are outlined as follows. 1. Plating and observation. (1) Cotton seeds being delinted with commercial surphuric acid in order to avoid the interference from lint-born contaminants. (2) Delinted seeds being washed in a flask covered with wire gauze for 24 hours under running tap water in order to get rid of bacteria. Absorption of sufficient water during washing activates the hibernating mycelium. (3) Seeds being plated on 1.7% water agar instead of nutrient agar in order to diminish the growth of the fast-growers such as Fusaria and Alternaria. The plates being incubated under 22±1℃. for 15 days. (4) The plates being uncovered and observed directly under low-power microscope in order to observe the fungi undisturbed. 2. Isolation and preservation of the Verticillium cultures. (1) Verticilliate conidiophores being located under low-power microscope. (2) The tip of a flamed needle moistened with sterile agar being introduced within the microscopic field in order to fish the spores under focus. (3) Spore suspension being made by washing the needle in a 5 cc sterile water blank. (4) Dilution plates being made by placing 1 cc of the spore suspension in a petri dish and diluting with 10 cc of cotton stem agar. (5) The plates being observed under low-power microscope after incubation for 5—7 days at 22±1℃. (6) Verticillium colonies being locatad and a bit of the margin of a colony being transferred to PDA slant. (7) The slant cultures being flooded with sterile liquid paraffin after incubation for 7—15 days at 22±1℃. The cultures preserved with liquid paraffin were able to keep alived for 2 years. Seeds collected from the infected plants in 1955, 1956 and 1957 were studied. The percentages of seeds carrying Verticillium observed in these years were 39.8, 5.92 and 9.5% respectively. One of the representative single spore colonies obtained was identified as V. albo—atrum. Inoculation and reisolation tests showed positive results. Inspection of cotton seed samples collected from eight co-op farms in Shensi Province in 1958 showing that the percentages of seeds infected by verticillium ranged 3 to 23% with an average of 12.3%.

(1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉籽內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉籽本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉籽內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉籽所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉籽吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉籽所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种籽带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉籽带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉籽解剖培养結果,轮枝菌不仅存在于棉籽外部的短絨內,并且也存在于籽壳及籽仁上。(6) 从棉籽上分离到的轮枝菌特8号...

(1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉籽內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉籽本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉籽內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉籽所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉籽吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉籽所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种籽带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉籽带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉籽解剖培养結果,轮枝菌不仅存在于棉籽外部的短絨內,并且也存在于籽壳及籽仁上。(6) 从棉籽上分离到的轮枝菌特8号經初步鉴定系Verticillium albo-atrum Reinkeet Berth。(7) 特8号菌种經过接种試驗,确定其具有一定的致病力,并从再分离中获得該菌。(8) 棉籽是否能够传播黄萎病,似系一个检查方法問題。还希各方面进行测定,通过多次的检查和接种試驗始能充分确定。(9) 在分离的菌种中,除特8号菌种具有較深的菌落色泽外,还有一些菌种的顏色較淡,未須鑑定。棉籽所带的轮枝菌类型不一,还有进一步研究的必要。此外,棉籽內的輪枝菌和其他一些菌类究竟如何进入籽內,也有研究的价值。

Black spot of cotton seedlings caused by Alternaria tenuis Nees.Formerly designated as“zenate leaf spot”is differentiated from the true zonate leaf spot of cotton caused by A.macrospora Zimm.The former appears on the cotyledons and the young true leaves asirregular brownish-black spots which then covered with olivaceous sporulations with a fewinconspicuous zonations,while the later occurs most prevalent in the late autumn as circularbrown spot with several zonations.Owing to the fact that spores of this...

Black spot of cotton seedlings caused by Alternaria tenuis Nees.Formerly designated as“zenate leaf spot”is differentiated from the true zonate leaf spot of cotton caused by A.macrospora Zimm.The former appears on the cotyledons and the young true leaves asirregular brownish-black spots which then covered with olivaceous sporulations with a fewinconspicuous zonations,while the later occurs most prevalent in the late autumn as circularbrown spot with several zonations.Owing to the fact that spores of this pathogen was disseminated by air current,the seedtreatment or crop rotation alone,was not sufficient to attain satisfactory control.The disease development was closely correlated with chilling and wind injuries of theseedlings and also with growth-stage of the plant.The date of disease incidence varied withyears and was apparently influenced by the climatic factors.This correlation suggested thepossibity for prognosis.It was suggested that for avoiding the chilling and wind injuries in the seedling stage,anadequate early thining was to be scheduled.The varietal difference in resistance to this diseasewas not significant.However it was demonstrated that,the application of a mixture ofBordeaux mixture and E1059 before the temperature lowering,yielded a fair result.

棉苗黑斑病的致病菌在关中棉区初步认为是 Alternaria tenuis Nees 与棉成株期叶片上的致病菌不同。病菌孢子借气流传布。种子带菌率虽然很高,但诱发苗病率却很低,因此,种子消毒或采用轮栽来控制这个病害,是不能达到预期效果的。病害发生与棉苗受冻、强风对棉苗的伤害以及棉苗阶段发育有密切的关系。各年发病期有早有晚,但以真叶出现时为易感阶段。本文阐述了棉苗生育阶段、气候条件与发病的关系,为预测病害发生的物候与气象参考条件提供了资料。棉株伤害与发病有关系,建议在生产上适当降低播种量,提高播种质量,适期早疏苗、早间苗;以减轻由于伤损而导致病害侵染。品种与病害发生的关系不显著。试验证明,使用波尔多液加1059于降温前喷射效果较好。

Various types of cotton boll rot prevailing in the cotton growing area of Yangtze valley,have been recorded,in order of decreasing importance,as follows:Anthracnose (Glomerellagossypii),Fusarium boll rot,Angular leaf spot Choanephora boll rot (Choanephora cucurbitaindicum,Diplodia boll rot (Diplodia gossypina),Choanephora boll rot (Choanephora cucurbit--rum),Cephalothecium roseum,Aspergillus spp.,Penicillium spp.,Nigrospora sp.,Pestalozziasp.,Helminthosporium sp.,Alternaria spp.,Rhizopus sp.,Phyllosticta...

Various types of cotton boll rot prevailing in the cotton growing area of Yangtze valley,have been recorded,in order of decreasing importance,as follows:Anthracnose (Glomerellagossypii),Fusarium boll rot,Angular leaf spot Choanephora boll rot (Choanephora cucurbitaindicum,Diplodia boll rot (Diplodia gossypina),Choanephora boll rot (Choanephora cucurbit--rum),Cephalothecium roseum,Aspergillus spp.,Penicillium spp.,Nigrospora sp.,Pestalozziasp.,Helminthosporium sp.,Alternaria spp.,Rhizopus sp.,Phyllosticta sp.,Phytophthora sp.andCeratostoma sp.The outbreak of Anthracnose boll rot was closely related to the amount ofrainfall in August and September.Field inoculation tests demonstrated that the pathogene wasable to invade the intact boll directly,provided that it was kept under humid condition for4 days at 25-30℃.Infection took place favorably on the bolls which were mechanically woundedor injured by insects or infected by Xanthomonas malvacearum.The green bolls within 10 daysafter flowering were more resistant to attack than mature ones,because crevics on the latterprovided a suitable condition for infection,especially under the warm and wet weather.Loss from the boll rot could be reduced by cultural practices,including proper distance ofplanting,reasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer,clipping and defoliation.

长江流域棉区常见的烂铃病菌有:炭疽病菌(Glomerella gossppii)、角斑病菌(Xanthomonas malvacearum)、花腐病菌(Choanephora cucurbitarum)、黑果病菌(Diplodia gossypina)、印度炭疽病菌(Colletotrichum indicum)、面包霉菌(Rhizopus nigricans)、红粉病菌(Cephalothecium roseum)、红腐病菌(Fusarium spp.)、疫菌(Phytophthora sp.)、轮纹斑病菌(Alternaria spp.)、褐斑病菌(Phyllosticta spp.)、青霉菌(Penicillium spp.)、黑子菌(Nigrospora sp.)、斑纹病菌(Pestalozzia sp.)、(?)腐病菌(Aspergillus spp.)、蠕子菌(Helminthos-porium cuverlaria)、黑斑病菌(Ceratostoma sp.)、汚叶病菌(Cladosporium sp.)等18种,某些年分以炭疽、角斑、红腐等为最主要。1950—51年田间观察结果表明,棉花生长期...

长江流域棉区常见的烂铃病菌有:炭疽病菌(Glomerella gossppii)、角斑病菌(Xanthomonas malvacearum)、花腐病菌(Choanephora cucurbitarum)、黑果病菌(Diplodia gossypina)、印度炭疽病菌(Colletotrichum indicum)、面包霉菌(Rhizopus nigricans)、红粉病菌(Cephalothecium roseum)、红腐病菌(Fusarium spp.)、疫菌(Phytophthora sp.)、轮纹斑病菌(Alternaria spp.)、褐斑病菌(Phyllosticta spp.)、青霉菌(Penicillium spp.)、黑子菌(Nigrospora sp.)、斑纹病菌(Pestalozzia sp.)、(?)腐病菌(Aspergillus spp.)、蠕子菌(Helminthos-porium cuverlaria)、黑斑病菌(Ceratostoma sp.)、汚叶病菌(Cladosporium sp.)等18种,某些年分以炭疽、角斑、红腐等为最主要。1950—51年田间观察结果表明,棉花生长期8、9二个月久雨多湿是引起炭疽病及其他烂铃发生的重要因子。田间接种试验证明:气温平均在25—30℃以及长期保湿,炭疽病菌能直接侵害棉铃。机械损伤、虫孔、角斑病等都是病菌侵害的有利条件。以生长10天的幼铃抗力最强。接近吐絮时的自然裂口,在高湿多雨时,也可成为各种菌类侵害的重要途径。适当密植,合理施用氮肥,进行整枝摘叶,使株行间通风透光,减低湿度,对减轻烂铃损失有一定的作用。

 
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