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cyclic compression load
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To study changes of fixation rigidity and fusion height with cyclic compression load using human lumbar spine.Steffee Plates were applied on four fresh male lumbar spine between L1 and L3 with an two third of vertebral body removed on L2,loaded cyclically in compression (maximum 650 N and minimum 350 N)for up to 30 000 cycles.Rigidity and strain at L1-L3 were calculated.Results:Rigidity in compression at L1-L3 with normal state and fixation were 5.55kN/mm and 0.29kN/mm respectively.Relative...

To study changes of fixation rigidity and fusion height with cyclic compression load using human lumbar spine.Steffee Plates were applied on four fresh male lumbar spine between L1 and L3 with an two third of vertebral body removed on L2,loaded cyclically in compression (maximum 650 N and minimum 350 N)for up to 30 000 cycles.Rigidity and strain at L1-L3 were calculated.Results:Rigidity in compression at L1-L3 with normal state and fixation were 5.55kN/mm and 0.29kN/mm respectively.Relative rigidity increased with cycles before 10 000 cycles,and then hold almost at the same level.Relative rigidity increased 80% after 30 000 cycles.Fusion height at L1 - L3 decreased with cycles,and lowered 3.7 mm after 30 000 cycles.Conclusion:the fatigue model in our study represented fatigue characteristics of Steffee Plates.The decrease of fusion height with cycles related to bending of pedical screws.The increase of rigidity with cycles during initial fatigue represented an interaction between bone and pedical screws.This interaction made rigidity unchanged in the following fatigue.

分析Stefee椎弓根钢板在疲劳载荷作用下,腰椎节段刚度和“融合”高度的变化.对4例新鲜成人男性腰椎标本(L2~L4),在L1和L3安放国产Stefee椎弓根钢板,行L2椎体前2/3切除.在MTS858双轴液压伺服生物材料试验系统上对标本施加疲劳压缩载荷(50050)N,疲劳30000次,记录节段刚度和高度变化.结果:正常L1~L3节段刚度为5.55kN/mm,L2椎体前2/3切除并安放Stefee椎弓根钢板后刚度为0.29kN/mm.在疲劳10000次之前,相对刚度随疲劳次数的增大明显,之后相对刚度基本保持不变.疲劳30000次后,刚度相对平均增加80%.“融合”高度随疲劳次数的增加而减少,疲劳30000次后,“融合”高度平均缩短3.7mm.建立的疲劳模型能较好地反映Stefee椎弓根钢板的疲劳特性;器械固定后腰椎高度随周期性载荷作用而减少与椎弓根螺钉的折弯有关;在疲劳初期节段刚度随疲劳次数的增加而上升,反映了螺钉-骨界面间有一个相互适应的过程,这使得器械固定节段的刚度在疲劳后期维持不变.

Objective: It is hypothetical that low back pain may be related to vertebral microfracture caused by repetitive stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the thoracolumbar vertebral microfracture on young human spine under physiological cyclic compression loads. Methods: Thirty three thoracolumbar vertebrae(T 12 to L 4) were obtained from 7 adult male cadavers and were randomly divided into 5 groups. Cyclical compression was performed for 20,000 cycles at 2 Hz and the load...

Objective: It is hypothetical that low back pain may be related to vertebral microfracture caused by repetitive stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the thoracolumbar vertebral microfracture on young human spine under physiological cyclic compression loads. Methods: Thirty three thoracolumbar vertebrae(T 12 to L 4) were obtained from 7 adult male cadavers and were randomly divided into 5 groups. Cyclical compression was performed for 20,000 cycles at 2 Hz and the load magnitude was determined respectively as 10%, 20% and 30% of the ultimate compressive load. Four cylindrical sections were obtained from each vertebra after fatigue loads and cross sectional slides were made, and histomorphometry was observed. Results: No fracture was detected in the radiographs after fatigue compression. Microfracture density in the cyclic compression group increased from 0.46#/mm 2 in Group Ⅲ to 0.66#/mm 2(Group Ⅳ) and 0.94#/mm 2 (Group Ⅴ) under different loading levels ( P<0.05 ). These results provide evidence for the existence of microfractures caused by fatigue loads that are undetectable by X ray. The microfractures may contribute to the increased chance of fracture occurrence.

目的 :详细研究在正常生理负荷范围内 ,疲劳负荷强度对腰椎椎体微损伤造成的影响。方法 :将 33个取自7具成年男性尸体之T12 ~L4 椎体标本随机性分组。疲劳试验组以 2Hz频率反复加压 2万次。所加负荷分别为造成骨折之平均最大负荷的 10 %、2 0 %及 30 %。疲劳试验后 ,自受检椎体各采取圆柱状标本 4个 ,进行组织形态学检查。结果 :疲劳试验后 ,X线检查未发现骨折。而显微镜下可见到骨小梁微骨折。微骨折密度随疲劳负荷强度的增加而逐渐增加 (从最大负荷 10 %组的 0 .46 # /mm2 ,逐渐增加至 2 0 %组的 0 .6 6 # /mm2 及 30 %组的 0 .94# /mm2 ,(P <0 .0 5 )。以上证据显示生理范围内疲劳负荷可造成X线片下不可见之微骨折发生。而微骨折的累积 ,最终会增加椎体发生宏观骨折的机会

It was demonstrated that crack could grow under far field cyclic compression load in experiments. However, this kind of crack growth phenomena is difficult to be observed and described accurately by mathematic methods because the tension residual stress area is too small and crack face contact exists. Finite element method was used to calculate the residual stress fields of three crack tip geometries. It was found that tension residual stress is a key factor for crack growth under cyclic compression....

It was demonstrated that crack could grow under far field cyclic compression load in experiments. However, this kind of crack growth phenomena is difficult to be observed and described accurately by mathematic methods because the tension residual stress area is too small and crack face contact exists. Finite element method was used to calculate the residual stress fields of three crack tip geometries. It was found that tension residual stress is a key factor for crack growth under cyclic compression. The rationality of different crack tip geometries is discussed. Meanwhile, this work shows that crack propagation is limited and stable under cyclic compression.

裂纹在循环压缩载荷作用下的扩展已经被实验证实 ,但是由于难以进行观测因而无法准确描述 ,另外裂纹面在压缩载荷的作用下会出现闭合现象也增加了问题的复杂性。文中通过有限元方法 ,建立三种几何条件的裂纹模型 ,考虑裂纹面接触问题 ,进而对循环压缩载荷作用下的裂纹萌生扩展进行分析。结果表明 ,裂尖区域在循环压缩载荷作用下的残余拉伸应力是导致裂纹扩展的重要因素。同时 ,还对不同裂尖几何在裂纹描述的合理性方面提出一些看法。研究表明 ,裂纹在循环压缩载荷作用下的扩展能力是有限的、稳定的

 
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