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     Determination of Metallographic Cooling Rate of Meteorites and Study of Thermal History of Their Parent Bodies
     陨石金相冷却速率测定及母体热历史研究
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     Effect of HMG-COA Reductase Gene Polymorphism on the Rate of Reaching Lipid Target in Hyperlipidemic CHD Subjects Using Atorvastatin
     HMG-COA还原酶基因多态性及阿托伐他汀对冠心病高脂血症患者降脂达标率的研究
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     The Qualitative Analysis of Discrete Mathematical Models on the Rate of Return in Financial Market
     金融市场收益率离散数学模型及其定性分析
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     Study on Spread of HIV and Influencing Factors in One Village with High Prevalence Rate of Blood-borne AIDS
     血源性艾滋病高发村HIV传播特征及影响因素研究
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     The Analysis of the Factors that Influence the Culture Rate of Dysentery Bacilli
     影响痢疾杆菌分离率的某些因素的分析与探討
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     The developmental rate of D.
     在盐度一定时,的发育速率随温度升高而加快;
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     sowing rate;
     4.播种量;
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     The infection rate of AM.
     老感染区细胞间的菌丝顶端也可见泡囊形成。
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     coincidence rate.
     模型Ⅲ最差,历史符合率仅有14.3%。
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We show that the rate of convergence for this reconstruction algorithm is geometric and computable in advance.
      
Finally, we consider the effect on the rate of convergence of not sampling enough local maxima.
      
We show that the rate of convergence for this reconstruction algorithm is geometric and computable in advance.
      
Finally, we consider the effect on the rate of convergence of not sampling enough local maxima.
      
For compactly supported gm, n (FIR filter banks) we prove an exponential rate of convergence and derive explicit expressions for the involved constants.
      
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(1) Sodium salt of reduced codehydrogenase I has been obtained in good yield as a dry powder from codehydrogenase I by reduction with alcohol and alcohol dehydrogenase. This preparation was stable for at least 5 months when kept dry at -15℃. (2) The properties of the particle-bound codehydrogenase I cytochrome reductase system in heart muscle preparation were found to differ considerably from those of the soluble enzyme as obtained by Mahler et al. Among other things, the affinity for cytochrome c of the particle-bound...

(1) Sodium salt of reduced codehydrogenase I has been obtained in good yield as a dry powder from codehydrogenase I by reduction with alcohol and alcohol dehydrogenase. This preparation was stable for at least 5 months when kept dry at -15℃. (2) The properties of the particle-bound codehydrogenase I cytochrome reductase system in heart muscle preparation were found to differ considerably from those of the soluble enzyme as obtained by Mahler et al. Among other things, the affinity for cytochrome c of the particle-bound enzyme is much greater than the soluble enzyme. The Michaelis constant for cytochrome c of the former is only one twelfth of that of the latter.(Fig. 2A). (3) With either oxygen or excess cytochrome c as electron acceptor, it was found that the overall activity, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption or cytochrome c reduction, when both succinate and reduced codehydrogenase I were oxidized simultanously, did not represent the sum of the rates of oxidation when these two substrates were separately oxidized but equalled only the faster of the two separate oxidation rates(Fig. 5, Tables 1, 2). If 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol was used as the electron acceptor, the overall rate of simultaneous oxidation of these two substrates was found to equal exactly the sum of the rates of separate oxidation(Table 3). (4) When either oxygen or excess cytochrome c was used as the electron acceptor, reduced codehydrogenase I and succinate each inhibited the rate of oxidation of the other(Figs 4, 6 & 7). Evidence has been presented to show that the inhibition of succinate oxidation by reduced codehydrogenase I is not due to the accumulation of oxaloacetate. (5) When malonate was also added to the reaction mixture, succinate no longer produced any inhibition of the oxidation of reduced codehydrogenase I(Fig. 8). (6) It is therefore concluded that in heart muscle preparation both succinate and reduced codehydrogenase I are oxidized by cytochrome c through a common, velocity limiting factor. This is in accordance with the view previously reached by some workers from studies on the action of certain inhibitors. However, it should be noted that in our experiments no agents which might produce any conceivable change in the colloidal structure of the enzyme system has been employed. (7) It should be emphasized that our results clearly show that great caution must be exercised in drawing conslusion on the role an enzyme might play in a complex enzyme system from studies of the properties of a solubilized enzyme. (8) It is believed that the competition of two enzyme systems for a common linking factor as demonstrated in this report has provided a new method for studies on the mutual relations of two or more enzyme systems.

(一)本報告提供了一個從輔酶Ⅰ,用酶還原法製備還原輔酶Ⅰ的方法。我們所製得的還原輔酶Ⅰ鈉鹽乾粉,可以在低温保存數月而不被氧化。 (二)與心肌製劑中顆粒相結合的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶系,和用乙醇抽出的水溶性的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶的性質頗不相同。其中比較重要的不同點是對於細胞色素c的親力,前者遠大於後者,其米氏常數僅約為後者的十二分之一。 (三)用一心肌顆粒製劑作為材料,無論用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體,還原輔酶Ⅰ與琥珀酸同時氧化時的總速度,不等於二者分別氧化時速度之和,而僅等於其中氧化較快者單獨氧化時之速度。但如用[2,6]二氯靛酚作為氫受體時,二者共同氧化時之總速度完全等於二者分別氧化時速度的和。 (四)當用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體時,琥珀酸與還原輔酶Ⅰ能彼此互相抑制對方氧化的速度。有足夠的實驗材料說明,還原輔酶Ⅰ對於琥珀酸氧化的抑制,不是由於草醯乙酸聚集的緣故。 (五)如果在反應混合物中同時含有琥珀酸脫氫酶的專一抑制劑,丙二酸,則琥珀酸對於還原輔酶Ⅰ氧化作用的抑制即被解除。 (六)根據以上的實驗結果,可以認為,還原輔酶Ⅰ及琥珀酸先通過一個共同的因子與細胞色素c作用。這個共同的因子在一般情形之下,也是...

(一)本報告提供了一個從輔酶Ⅰ,用酶還原法製備還原輔酶Ⅰ的方法。我們所製得的還原輔酶Ⅰ鈉鹽乾粉,可以在低温保存數月而不被氧化。 (二)與心肌製劑中顆粒相結合的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶系,和用乙醇抽出的水溶性的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶的性質頗不相同。其中比較重要的不同點是對於細胞色素c的親力,前者遠大於後者,其米氏常數僅約為後者的十二分之一。 (三)用一心肌顆粒製劑作為材料,無論用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體,還原輔酶Ⅰ與琥珀酸同時氧化時的總速度,不等於二者分別氧化時速度之和,而僅等於其中氧化較快者單獨氧化時之速度。但如用[2,6]二氯靛酚作為氫受體時,二者共同氧化時之總速度完全等於二者分別氧化時速度的和。 (四)當用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體時,琥珀酸與還原輔酶Ⅰ能彼此互相抑制對方氧化的速度。有足夠的實驗材料說明,還原輔酶Ⅰ對於琥珀酸氧化的抑制,不是由於草醯乙酸聚集的緣故。 (五)如果在反應混合物中同時含有琥珀酸脫氫酶的專一抑制劑,丙二酸,則琥珀酸對於還原輔酶Ⅰ氧化作用的抑制即被解除。 (六)根據以上的實驗結果,可以認為,還原輔酶Ⅰ及琥珀酸先通過一個共同的因子與細胞色素c作用。這個共同的因子在一般情形之下,也是這兩個酶系統的速度限制因子。應該指出在我們的實驗中,並未使用任何可能影響酶系統結構的條件,因此我們的結果是在一個比較接近於生理狀態的情形之下獲得的。 (七)應該着重指出,從本報告的結果可以看到,一個用人為的方法從複雜酶系上溶解下來的酶的性質,有時並不能代表這個酶在有組織的酶系統中的真實情况。 (八)我們相信,本報告所說明的兩酶系競爭一個共同因子的一些現象,將为研究複雜酶系之間的相互關係,提供一個新的方法。

The velocities of reaction of ethyl acetate with sodium hydroxide in dioxane- water mixture have been determined in seven different temperatures(5°,10°, 15°,20°,25°,30°and 35°).For each temperature,the compositions of solvent mixture are 0,5,10,15,20,25 and 30% of dioxane.We thus obtain 49 velo- city constants as summarized in the following table. At low temperatures,the velocity constant decreases slightly with decrease of dielectric constant of solvent.At higher temperatures,such decreases of k' become more...

The velocities of reaction of ethyl acetate with sodium hydroxide in dioxane- water mixture have been determined in seven different temperatures(5°,10°, 15°,20°,25°,30°and 35°).For each temperature,the compositions of solvent mixture are 0,5,10,15,20,25 and 30% of dioxane.We thus obtain 49 velo- city constants as summarized in the following table. At low temperatures,the velocity constant decreases slightly with decrease of dielectric constant of solvent.At higher temperatures,such decreases of k' become more pronounced. The“isocomposition”energy of activation decreases slightly with increase of percentage of dioxane in the solvent mixture. The“isodielectric”energy of activation shows practically no change,when the dielectric constant changes from 80 to 50.Its value is 11300 calories. The experimental data are compared with the three modern theories of ion- molecule reaction,namely,by(1)Moelwyn-Hughes,(2)Laidler and Eyring and (3)Amis and Jaffe.From the viewpoint of influence of dielectric constant on the rate of the present reaction,the first two theories disagree qualitatively with our experimental data,while the last one,though qualitatively successful,fails quantitatively.(The “enhanced moment” and index of refraction as calculated from the last theory with the use of our data are unreasonably large.)

作者在7具不同温度(5°,10°,15°,20°,25°,30°,35°)下,研究了乙酸乙酯和氢氧化钠在二氧六圜和水的混合溶剂中的反应速度。每个温度有7个不同的二氧六圜和水的成分(0%,5%,10%,15%,20%,25%,30%的二氧六圜),因此得到49个速度常数。在每个温度里,反应速度常数随溶剂介电常数的减小而略为下降:温度愈高,下降趋势愈为显著。同溶剂成分的活化能随着溶剂里二氧六圜成分的增加而略为下降。同介电常数的活化能,在80至50的介电常数范围中,却和介电常数的变化无关。它的平均值是11300卡。我们用实验结果检验最近三个溶液里离子和分子反应速度理论:(1)Moelwyn-Hughes 的、(2)Laidler-Eyring 的和(3)Amis-Jaffe 的理论。就介电常数对反应速度的影响来说,理论(1)和(2)在质上就不和实验相符。理论(3)在质上似和实验相符,但在量上却相差太远。因此就乙酸乙酯对氢氧化钠的反应来说,三个理论都是不合的。

The oxygen consumption of some pondfishes—Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis has been investigated. The results thus obtained are summarized as follows:The oxgen consumption of the fingerlings of the above-mentioned fishes, which weigh 0.4—1.7 gm, is on average 0.325 to 0.532 mg/gm/hr at a temperature varying between 28.5℃ and 31.7℃; that of the yearlings of these fishes with body weight of 38.9 to 172.3 gm. is 0.161 to 0.264 mg/gm/hr at a temperature of 26.3—30.5℃;...

The oxygen consumption of some pondfishes—Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis has been investigated. The results thus obtained are summarized as follows:The oxgen consumption of the fingerlings of the above-mentioned fishes, which weigh 0.4—1.7 gm, is on average 0.325 to 0.532 mg/gm/hr at a temperature varying between 28.5℃ and 31.7℃; that of the yearlings of these fishes with body weight of 38.9 to 172.3 gm. is 0.161 to 0.264 mg/gm/hr at a temperature of 26.3—30.5℃; and that of Ctenopharyngodon of two years old, weighing 1103—1355 gm., is 0.139 to 0.151 mg/gm/hr at 21—23.5℃. In the same species of fishes, oxygen consumption decreases as the age or the body weight increases. This indicates that the younger fish require higher oxyen consumption than do the older ones.It was found that the rate of oxygen consumption of a fish is directly proportional to the temperature of the water; thus oxygen consumption increases as the water temperature rises. The rate of oxygen consumption of Aristichthys nobilis in the winter season is only 1/6 of that in the summer. Differences in the rate of oxygen consumption among these species of fishes were also noticed. The rate of oxygen consumption in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix is higher than in Aristickthys nobilis, and that of the latter is still higher than that of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

1.草鱼、白鲢、花鲢的鱼苗和第2年鱼,以及草鱼的第3年鱼在夏季水温下的耗氧率,均经连续至少7小时以上的测定。 体重0.4-1.7克的鱼苗,在28.5-31.7℃的水温中,平均耗氧率篇0.325-0.632毫克/克/小时;体重38.9-172.3克的第2年鱼,在26.3-30.6℃的水温中,平均耗氧率为0.161-0.264毫克/克/小时;体重1103-1355克的第3年鱼(草鱼)在水温21-23.5℃时,平均耗氧率为0.139-0.151毫克/克/小时。 2.耗氧率随体重的增加而减低;同种之内,小鱼的耗氧率较大鱼为高。 3.耗氧率随水温的上升而增加;花鲢在冬季的耗氧率不及夏季的1/6。 4.在体重和水温相仿的情形下,白鲢的耗氧率较花鲢为高,花鲢的耗氧率又较草鱼为高。

 
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