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decentralization strategies
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  分散性策略
     By discussingthe forms of political risk particularly, the management strategies of political risk to avoid the disadvantage of political risk are put forward, such as, prevention strategies before investment, decentralization strategies in operation and mitigation strategies after the political risk.
     通过对当前企业跨国经营面临的政治风险及其表现形式的分析,并提出了政治风险的防范策略,具体包括对外直接投资前的预防性策略、经营过程中的分散性策略以及风险发生后的缓解性策略,以避免或减轻企业跨国经营过程中政治风险所带来的不利影响。
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     The ? R Strategies?
     “3R”策略是银行营销的核心内容。
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     Enterprise Strategies
     企业经营战略
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     decentralization of power;
     权力分化 ;
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     and decentralization of the stress.
     要减少应力集中。
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  decentralization strategies
At the same time, decentralization strategies have shifted much of the responsibility for this investment to local governments.
      


Geographical metadata technologies are key to the integrated management and application of distributed heterogeneous geo-spatial data in Internet/Intranet. This paper discusses conception, classification, standards and applications of geographical metadata, then puts forward some solutions in developing a geographical metadata technical system(GMTS), including designing of geqraphical metadata base and realization of tool software. As a case, a GMTS of Jilin province agriculture information network(JPAIN) is...

Geographical metadata technologies are key to the integrated management and application of distributed heterogeneous geo-spatial data in Internet/Intranet. This paper discusses conception, classification, standards and applications of geographical metadata, then puts forward some solutions in developing a geographical metadata technical system(GMTS), including designing of geqraphical metadata base and realization of tool software. As a case, a GMTS of Jilin province agriculture information network(JPAIN) is introduced. Geographical metadata is descriptive information about geographical referenced data. It usually describes content, quality, conditions and other characteristics of spatial data set. In Internet/Intranet based GIS applications,geographical metadata is not only an approach to describe and index data, but also a methedology to support building the operational model of data flow in network system, including data mining, data transforming, data management and data using. So it is necessary to develop powerful tool fortware in order to capture, check, store, process and use geographical data more effectively. JPAIN is a spatial Intranet, based on which agriculture data is captured, shared and applied in Jilin, a province in northeast China. As a main component of clearinghouse, GMTS provides a mechanism of uniformed resources locating and searching. It works by a serial of request-response processes between WWW Browser, WWW Server, metadata Server, GIS Server and database management system Server. Here is a classical scenario in which a consumer orders some maps by Internet. Step one,he or she (by WWW Browser)accesses metadata base and sends a request of viewing attributes and delineation of the maps. Step two, metadata Server queries the metadata base and sends the result to the consumer. Step three, metadata Server requests GlS Server to create delineation from spatial database and transfer them to Browser with image formats directly supported by HTTP.Step four, the consumer decides whether to buy these maps according to attribute inforrnation or not,then fills order forms and puts forward download request. Step five, GIS Server deals with data as the consumer requests,at the same time metadata Server records this process into log file,and all the results are transferred to the consumer. Last step,after an information service process is finished,metadata version is updated by metadata Server. GMTS consists of such components as input subsystem, checking subsystem, searching subsystem, maintaining subsystem and comprehensive application subsystem. Here we used Microsoft Internet Information Server 2. 0 as WWW Server, SQL Server 6. 5 as metadata base management system, and Internet database connector(IDC), which is also a preduct of Microsoft corporation, JavaScript, and transact SQL as program-ming languages and development tools. Geographical metadata can be classified into different levels according to their data contents: feature/record level, attribute data level, data file level, database level or data set level. Accordingly, two management strategises of metadata, centralization strate-gy and decentralization strategy, and two physical storage models, structured model and non-struc-tured medel are put forward and analyzed. At the same time,geographical metadata standards are discussed and selected in JPAIN.In metadata capturing subsystem, four kinds of graphical user interfaces can be chosen in or-der to reduce data input wok: ①non-spatial short input type;②non-spatial long input type;③spatial short input type; ④spatial long input type. Checking subsystem includes such modules as data integrality and consistency checking, data security checking, and metadata version control.Data seaxching subsystem provides three querying methods. Firstly, searching metadata in specified area in index map and then getting spatial data set: Secondly, searching metadata by logical query in metadata base; thirdly, whole-length text searching. In sum, geographical metadata technical system provides a comprehensive resolu

介绍了地理元数据的概念、类型、标准与应用模式,以吉林省农业信息网元数据系统为例,探讨了元数据技术系统的实现方法,并提出地理元数据库设计、元数据登录系统、检查系统和查询系统等关键技术问题的解决方案。

Political risk is very important to multinational corporations in the multinational operation and investment.By discussingthe forms of political risk particularly, the management strategies of political risk to avoid the disadvantage of political risk are put forward, such as, prevention strategies before investment, decentralization strategies in operation and mitigation strategies after the political risk.

政治风险是企业跨国经营和海外投资必须考虑的一个重要风险问题。通过对当前企业跨国经营面临的政治风险及其表现形式的分析,并提出了政治风险的防范策略,具体包括对外直接投资前的预防性策略、经营过程中的分散性策略以及风险发生后的缓解性策略,以避免或减轻企业跨国经营过程中政治风险所带来的不利影响。

The inventory coordination strategies in upstream supply chain consisted of a manufacturer and a supplier are discussed in the paper. On the basis of analyzing the inventory costs in supply chain under decentralization strategy and under centralization strategy, the inventory coordination method is put forward which joins decentralized decision-making with joint coordination. The inventory coordination strategies are studied under different information conditions. Based on analysis...

The inventory coordination strategies in upstream supply chain consisted of a manufacturer and a supplier are discussed in the paper. On the basis of analyzing the inventory costs in supply chain under decentralization strategy and under centralization strategy, the inventory coordination method is put forward which joins decentralized decision-making with joint coordination. The inventory coordination strategies are studied under different information conditions. Based on analysis of the inventory coordination strategy under symmetric information, the inventory coordination strategy under asymmetric information and its validity conditions are derived. In the end, a numerical example illustrates the correlative conclusions.

以供应商和制造商组成的上游供应链为研究对象,分析了供应链成员企业各自独立决策时的库存成本,以及供应链系统集中决策时的库存成本.在此基础之上,提出了分散决策与共同协商相结合的库存协调方法,探讨了不同信息环境下的库存协调策略.在分析对称信息下协调策略的基础上,推导出了信息不对称条件下的协调策略及其有效性条件.最后,用一个算例说明相关结论.

 
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