The essential characteristic and determination method of two types of phase diagrams for the multicomponent systems were studied. One is pseudo ternary phase diagram, and the other is n-tetrahedroid quaternary phase diagram.

The results show that there are two types of phase transformations in the medium temperature range: one is the precipitation of(αAlFeSi) from the matrix,the other is the phase transformation ofβ′(AlFeSi) to(αAlFeSi).

The results show that when the inside sulfide was formed, the components and types of phase are associated with the content of Cr element around alloy base. In the outside of the inside sulfide where content of Cr is low, (Cr,Fe)_3S_4 phaseis formed. In the inside, (Cr,Fe)_7S_8 phase is formed.

The regular variation of the chemical scale, metallic radius of the atoms, number of valence electrons and the first ionization energy with the Mendeleev numbers and the influence of the crystal structure on the types of phase diagrams were introduced as well.

2) not restricted by the order of PLL, the style of the input signals and the types of phase detector; applicable in analysis of various linear and non-linear PLL; with high adaptability;

The relative interplay of the chemical and magnetic contributions to the stabilities of various types of phase equilibria in binary alloys is also discussed.

The two types of phase equilibria, the normal unconstrained one and the constrained one, and their thermodynamics are discussed.

The relative interplay of the chemical and magnetic contributions to the stabilities of various types of phase equilibria in binary alloys is also discussed.

Analogy between two types of phase-equilibrium diagram

of metallic solutions and metallic compounds are important for the theoretical determination of the nature of the interaction of metals and the prognosis of the types of phase diagrams that will be found in systems not yet studied.

The dependence of the entropy of a homogeneous system on the composition is investigated with the help of a reversible adiabatic process which allows the change of composition by means of a semipermeable wall. The conditions of equilibrinm for phase transition and for homogeneous chemical reaction are derived in a new way. Next the criterion of minimum energy for constant entropy and volume is derived from the principle of increase of entropy. This criterion is then applied to obtain the conditions of equilibrium...

The dependence of the entropy of a homogeneous system on the composition is investigated with the help of a reversible adiabatic process which allows the change of composition by means of a semipermeable wall. The conditions of equilibrinm for phase transition and for homogeneous chemical reaction are derived in a new way. Next the criterion of minimum energy for constant entropy and volume is derived from the principle of increase of entropy. This criterion is then applied to obtain the conditions of equilibrium and stability with the help of Lagrange's multipliers. The conditions of stability are expressed in several alternative forms. Next the equilibrium properties of a binary system arc considered, and some types of phase diagram are explained by means of equations. The theory is extended to the general heterogeneous equilibrium of a system consisting of any number of independent components. A system of equations for the change of temperature, pressure, and composition are obtained and are solved by means of determinants. Next Planck's theory of a binary solution is extended to a solution consisting of several solnte components, with the same conclusion regarding the lowering of freezing point as for a binary solution. Finally Planck's theory on the number of coexisting phases for aone-component system is extended to a system consisting of k components with the result that a state with, σ coexisting phases is more stable than one with σ-1 phases: where σ is an integer not greater than k + 2.

The moire transformation was analysed using communication theory. Based on it, we proposed two new types of phase measurement. The first is a carrier interferometer. It has various applications and advantages, for example, automatic compensation, multiplex recording, shearing of a wavefront, relative compensation of the phase variation in dynamic texts, harmonic interference, etc. The second is a coded mask photographic interferometer using white light. It can be used for measuring strongly varied...

The moire transformation was analysed using communication theory. Based on it, we proposed two new types of phase measurement. The first is a carrier interferometer. It has various applications and advantages, for example, automatic compensation, multiplex recording, shearing of a wavefront, relative compensation of the phase variation in dynamic texts, harmonic interference, etc. The second is a coded mask photographic interferometer using white light. It can be used for measuring strongly varied phase objects.

A series of articles will be published dealing with some solidsolutions of Fe-C and Fe-N, based upon Yu's electron theory of solids.In this first articie we analyse the a-x curve and determine the valenceelectron structures of γFe-C solid solution. The theoretical -x curveappears to be in agreement with the experimental curve satisfactorily tothe first order of approximation.We first assume the solid solution consisting of two types of unit cells.one containing with one carbon atom, and another without carbon...

A series of articles will be published dealing with some solidsolutions of Fe-C and Fe-N, based upon Yu's electron theory of solids.In this first articie we analyse the a-x curve and determine the valenceelectron structures of γFe-C solid solution. The theoretical -x curveappears to be in agreement with the experimental curve satisfactorily tothe first order of approximation.We first assume the solid solution consisting of two types of unit cells.one containing with one carbon atom, and another without carbon atom,at the centers of thee face-centered cubic cells with Fe atoms at the centers of the faces and at the corners of the cells. Both types of cells are distributed at random in the lattice space of the γFe-C solid solution. In terms of crystallography, the former is known as type E-2 and the latter as type A_1 structure. The observed lattice constants a are the weighted averages of the lattice constants a_c and a_o for the different concentrations of C in γFe.It should be pointed out that when the carbon atoms come into the γ-Fe lattice only those Fe atoms, which are the nearest and next nearest neighbours of the carbon atoms, have their electron state changed. All other Fe atoms remain in their original state of pure γ-Fe. The circumstance of Fe atoms, their valence electron structures and the distribution of the bonds in space in conjunction with the similar results of martensite, cementite, ferrite provide fundamental material for the understanding of the physical and mechanical properties and of the mechanisms of various types of phase transformations in the heat treatment of iron and steel.