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small-unit
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     science and technology is so magnifient in ancient china but contemporary science has developed a thriving,in European A study of the reasons for this ancient Chinese science and technology system from the analysis of both external and internal. The main reason is the impact of technological developments outside the shackles of the feudal system : 1.each family to the small-unit system can not provide for the development of modern science and technology suitable for the growth of soil;
     中国古代的科学技术如此的光辉灿烂然而现代科学却在欧洲蓬勃发展起来了,究其原因本文从中国古代科学技术体系的外部和内部两个方面去分析,影响科技发展的外部原因主要是封建制度的束缚,本文主要从以下四点进行阐述:1、一家一户为单位的小农经济体制无法给近代科学技术的发展提供适于生长的土壤;
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     Small.
     Small、为正品。
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     In small population?
     大群体中则稳定下降、波动较小。
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     Daubechis small-wave coefficient
     Daubechis小波系数
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     Small Towns with the Mountains-and-Rivers
     小城市与山水
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     Unit Is Strength
     Unit Is Strength(团结就是力量) (初二适用)
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An experimental verification of the theoretical peak current equation forreversible electrode reactions of the Randles-Sevcik oscillopolarography, i_p=Kn~(3/2)D~(1/2)m~(2/3)θ~(2/3)α~(1/2)cμΑ, is carried out with both single- and multisweep methods. Themultisweep method is essentially that of Delahay, while a simplified circuit isdevised for the single-sweep procedure. The constant K in the above equation has been worked out by Randlesand Sevcikc, but their values differ by some twenty-one percent. Experimentalresults...

An experimental verification of the theoretical peak current equation forreversible electrode reactions of the Randles-Sevcik oscillopolarography, i_p=Kn~(3/2)D~(1/2)m~(2/3)θ~(2/3)α~(1/2)cμΑ, is carried out with both single- and multisweep methods. Themultisweep method is essentially that of Delahay, while a simplified circuit isdevised for the single-sweep procedure. The constant K in the above equation has been worked out by Randlesand Sevcikc, but their values differ by some twenty-one percent. Experimentalresults as to which K value is correct have been contradictory. The authorspoint out that Sevcik's value of K is too low, due to the error in choosing too largea unit in his numerical integration. By taking smaller units and reperformingthe integration, the K value increases and approaches that of Randles. Thus thecorrectness of Randles' K value is ascertained and this value is used in calculatingthe theoretical slope. Their single-sweep results, with concentrations from 2×10~(-4) to 1×10~(-3) m/l andα~(1/2) from 1 to 4 volts/sec, agreement between experimental and theoretical slopesis obtained in the case of Tl~+ in m NaCl. In the case of Cd~(++) in m NaCl, experi-mental results deviate from the theoretical value, and the deviation increases withincreasing c and α~(1/2). Contrary to an unproven idea of Delahay, i_p obtained bymultisweep method is higher than that by the single-sweep procedure. However,in calculation of the theoretical values, a value of 15.0×16~(-6) obtained by polarLographic method is used for D of Tl~(+) in m NaCl. The use of the value of Dat infinite dilution is thought to be unjustified. If a D value of 15.0×10~(-6) is used,Delahay's results of Tl~+ in KNO_3 would be higher than the theoretical equationinstead of agreeing with it. This fact seems to support the findings of this paper. Various methods of correcting for capacity currents are compared and discus-sed. The authors point out that at α~(1/2) less than 2 volts/sec, the method of drawingan hbrizontal line introduces no appreciable error while at, high α, various methodsyield different results. This fact lowers the accurraey of data obtained at high α. The iR drop in the electrolytic cell and on the series resistance causes themeasured α to be different from the a actually applied on the drop electrode. Anelementary approximate correction of this effect is mentioned. Results after thiscorrection show that the deviation of Cd~(++) from theoretical at high c and α maybe due partly to this effect.

(1)以单波法及多波法验证Randles-Sevcik示波极谱理论公式之i_p~c及i_p~α~(1/2)关系,多波法用Delahay线路,单波法则用简化线路。单波法之结果,对亚铊离子在m氯化钠中,在2×10~(-4)~1×10~(-5)m浓度,α~(1/2)为1及4伏特/秒,实测结果和理论符合。镉离子在m氯化钠中,实测结果与理论有偏差,偏差随浓度及α~(1/2)加大而加大。多波法之i_p实测值高于单波法。 (2)在计算理论曲线时,作者肯定Sevcik之系数过低而采用Randles数值。亚铊离子于m氯化钠中之扩散系数D,采用极谱法测得之数值15.0×10~(-6)而不用无限稀时之D值(20.0×10~(-6))。 (3)在α~(1/2)低于2伏特/秒时,可用画水平线法扣除电容电流。在高α时各种扣除电容电流方法所得结果不同,影响结果之可靠性。 (4)电解池线路上之iR降使加在滴汞电极上之α改变。这种改变使实测i_p值偏低。作者曾作初步近似修正,结果说明α及浓度大时,镉离子实测数据对理论的偏差的一部分可能是由于iR降的作用。

Samples of PAN were treated separately in vacuum and in atmospheres of ammonia and air, at each of the temperature, 200°, 250°, 300°, 350°, and 400℃, one after another for a definite length of time. Before and after each step of treatment, the weight of the sample, its infra-red spectrum, its solubilities in conc, sulphuric acid and in glacial acetic acid, as well as the ultra-violet spectrum of its solution in conc, sulphuric acid were examined. The conditions of treatment are given in Table 1, and the results,...

Samples of PAN were treated separately in vacuum and in atmospheres of ammonia and air, at each of the temperature, 200°, 250°, 300°, 350°, and 400℃, one after another for a definite length of time. Before and after each step of treatment, the weight of the sample, its infra-red spectrum, its solubilities in conc, sulphuric acid and in glacial acetic acid, as well as the ultra-violet spectrum of its solution in conc, sulphuric acid were examined. The conditions of treatment are given in Table 1, and the results, in Figs. 1-4.From a careful examination of these measurements, it was discovered that different schemes of mechanism have to be assigned for the reactions taking place in the different atmospheres and also at different temperatures.At lower temperatures, the first stage reactions taking place in vacuum (200°) and in atmospheres of ammonia (≤ 180°) and air (200℃) are considered to be the formation of the respective structure units: (V1b), (N1) and (O1).After this, cyclization follows and it will proceed with the formation of (V2), (N2) and (O2) one after another. But as soon as any two of the following groups: C-X, C=NH, C-NH2, C=O should come to meet at neighbouring positions, cyclization will be immediately stopped. Moreover, the different orientations of the CN groups with each other in atactic samples will also prevent cyclization to proceed further.With the increase of temperature, the rate of cyclization may be accelerated, and besides, additional cyclization may be obtained by the splitting of NH3 from the neighbouring C=NH, C-NH2 groups. But here again, the increased cyclization will be limited by the C-X and C=O groups, and by the atactic nature of the sample. Each of the molecules thus obtained will still be composed of a series of small units of polynuclear pyridine rings of different lengths and orientations, irregularly scattered along a carbon chain, [(V3) and (O3)].The schemes of reaction mechanism suggested above agree nicely with all of the chief characteristics of our experimental facts given in Figs. 1-4, and also with the low values of semiconductivity of the products, which are generally of the order of 10-9-10-7 Ω-1 CM-1, obtained from measurements at 20°-300℃. From these, it will be seen that no large extended polynuclear pyridine systems of uniform composition and regular structure could be formed as would be expected from the simple theories suggested by previous authors. And hence the explanation made by some writers for the semiconductive properties of the products based on the formation of such an ideal structure is considered to be inadequate.

本文作者将聚丙烧腈样品分别在200°,250℃……的真空和空气中,以及在180°, 200℃……的氨气中,以逐步升温的方式进行热处理。在每一阶段处理的前后,对样品和产物的红外光谱、重量、它们在浓硫酸和冰醋酸中的溶解度、在浓硫酸中的紫外光谱、以及它们在冰醋酸回流抽提后所余残渣的红外光谱都进行了测量。提出了足以解释所有主要现象的反应机理,其中包括三个重要步骤的反应:(1)特征基团的产生,(2)分子内部的环化,(3)较高温度下的脱氨反应。从每个步骤反应的分析可以看出,热处理所得产物只能是含多核呲啶骈环不长、结构杂乱的高聚物。由于过去学者提出的反应机理只是根据部分实验结果考虑了分子内部环化的发生,而不可能发现到环化的必然中断,因此有些作者根据这机理所作关于产物的半导体电磁性能的解释是值得进一步研究的。

Land type is an abstract concept. It is not an objective entity. Type exists only in certain concrete local forms. The scale size and complexity degree of the land individuals are varied. So different units of land should be distinguished. Only if the types are summarized within the local forms at the same level, a logical system of toxonomy can be taken. Therefore,the dividing of land individuals is the prerequisite of land classification. Meanwhile, this dividing also has following effects. To provide a framework...

Land type is an abstract concept. It is not an objective entity. Type exists only in certain concrete local forms. The scale size and complexity degree of the land individuals are varied. So different units of land should be distinguished. Only if the types are summarized within the local forms at the same level, a logical system of toxonomy can be taken. Therefore,the dividing of land individuals is the prerequisite of land classification. Meanwhile, this dividing also has following effects. To provide a framework for land data bank. To promise the statistical analysis to random samples of individuals in order to prove the correctness of land classification. To differentiate the details of the utilization to local forms that have been grouped into the sametype.Since the beginning of this century,geographers have been devoting themselves to the dividing hierarchy unit of physical geographical entities. This work is called Iand units hierarchy. The units of some authors and the definitions of the chief units are compared in this paper.Land units hierarchy is a scale concept, which relates to the size of area to a certain extent but means essentially the degree of complexity.The isomeric decreases and the homogeneous increases from the higher level units to the slower.The basic theory of land units hierarchy is the law on region differentiation, which depend mainly upon the geomqrphological differences,especially in middle and small areas. Therefore geomorphology is the chief factor of dividing land units hierarchy.The change of complexity degree between land units is continuous. So the hierarchy of land units can be divided iuto some continuous level. But it should be simple so that the result map can be recognized clearly. This demands a definition of a few basic level from the continuous series. These essential units and their characteristics are as follows.(1)Land element. It is a part of a land facet, and is the smallest units of land. All the physical geographical components within it are uniform. The exactly same measure of management can be taken in it for intensive kinds of land use. It should be called "Tu Di pian" (Iand piece) in Chinese.(2)Land facet. It is a group of linked land elements. Each land facet is homogeneous in form and fairly distincts from the surrounding land. Its li-thology and deposit is also the same.One utilization should be exercised within its extent. It is called "Tu Di Mian" (land face) in Chinese.(3) Land system. It is a recurrant pattern of several kinds of land facet There is an associated pattern of simple land forms, vegetations, and soils over its range. One combination of land use (i.e. regional agricultural type) should be given to a land system. It is called "Tu Di Qun" (land crowd) in Chinese

划分土地个体是土地分类的前提。本文对比了各国所划分的土地单位,探讨了划分土地个体的方法论,进而提出三级基本的土地单位:土地片、土地面、土地群,并阐明了它们的定义和划分标准。

 
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