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     The Molecular Mechanism of Beta-amyloid protein ^-induced Apoptosis in Rat Cortical Neurons and the Protective Effects ofGinsenoside RglPostgraduate: Chen Limin Supervisor: Chen Xiaochun, Associate Professor Lin Tingyan, Associate ProfessorObjective: To investigate the neurotoxicity of preaggregated beta-amyloid protein1-40 (A 1-40) in rat cortical neurons and to explore the molecular mechanisms of A a1-40-induced apoptosis and the protective effective of ginsenoside Rgl.
     目的:探讨_(1-40)(β淀粉样蛋白_(1-40),beta-amyloid protein_(1-40))对原代培养的大鼠皮层神经元凋亡的诱导作用及可能机制,并研究人参皂甙Rgl(ginsenoside Rgl)对大鼠皮层神经元凋亡的保护作用及可能机制。
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     The stacking sequence of the layer planes along the C axis was found from the relation between the intensity of the spots of the electron diffraction pattern and the stage of SbCl5-GIC. The electron diffraction patterns shown SbCl5 are intercalated in the spaces of the carbon atom layer planes in the form of the hexagonalα, β and the epitaxialγ- phases, in which aα = aβ = 15. 5A,aγ = 17. 22A.
     从 SbCl5-GIC的电子衍射花样得出: SbCl5以六方结构的α和β相以及外延生长的γ-相形式层间到碳层层面之间,其中aα==15. 15A,aγ=17.22A;
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     The effects of me mbrane cholesterol and buffer pH on the fibril formation of A a 40 and A a 42 were investigated respectively in this paper.
     分别研究了膜中胆固醇含量及溶液pH对40和42形成纤维的影响。
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     Further conformational measurements showed that the membrane in sertion had different effects on the secondary structure of A a 40 and A a 42. Therefore, the results of this paper indicate that the mechanisms to inh ibit the fibril formation of the two proteins are different, while the membrane insertion of A a 40 or A a 42 can reduce the fibril formation to a certain extent.
     构象研究表明插膜会诱导40和42的二级结构发生不同的变化。 结果说明,40和42的插膜作用能够在一定程度上抑制蛋白形成纤维,但两者具有不同的抑制机制。
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     a-Amyloid peptide (A a ), the core protein of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease, is a mixture of multilength peptides which are all derived from the amyloid precursor protei n (APP), and A a 40 and A a 42 are the two major components of the mixture.
     作为老年性痴呆(AD)患者脑中淀粉样斑块的核心蛋白,β-淀粉样蛋白()是从淀粉样前体蛋白(APP)水解而来。 该蛋白是多种长度多肽的混合物,其中40和42是主要组分。
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     Study the Effect on Expression Profiling of Hepatocelluar Carcinoma (HCC) by Trichostatin A, a HDAC Inhibitor
     组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂曲古抑菌素A对肝癌细胞表达谱的影响研究
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     DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS (AA) IN FEEDS ON PENAEUS ORIENTALIS
     对虾(Penaeus orientalis)对饵料蛋白质及氨基酸的消化率
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     Preparation of a,a'-dithiobis [β-(2-furan) acrylic acid] and its Influence on the Serum Zinc Levels in Rats
     α,α′-联硫二[β-(2-呋喃)丙烯酸]的制备及其对大鼠血清锌含量的影响
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     Studies of the Effect of a,a'-dithiobis [β-2-furan) acrylic acid] on Binding of Zinc to HSA by Gel Chromatography
     用凝胶色谱法研究α,α′-联硫二[β-(2-呋喃)丙烯酸]对锌和人血清清蛋白结合的影响
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     Principle Analysis and Applications of 5200AA.C.Programmable Calibrator
     交流标准源5200A的原理分析和使用
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Acute phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) is a well-known marker of inflammation.
      
For this, two different cases are studied: a) a system under a constant external pressure, b) a system with fixed volume.
      
A study of the convergence of the differentiation formula '(f(A))'=f' (A)A'+fm(A)/21[A'A]+fm(A)/3l[[A'A]A]'+...
      
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In the spectrochemical analysis of high speed steels with a small current activated a.c. arc (after Aбрамсон), the results of analysis were found to be affected by different previous heat-treatments given to the steel samples. To study this effect we selected 10 chromium steel samples of different carbon content. Spectrochemical analysis of these samples under different procedures of heat treatment shows that with an a.c. arc (5 amp.) the results of analysis of Cr for annealed and for hardened samples...

In the spectrochemical analysis of high speed steels with a small current activated a.c. arc (after Aбрамсон), the results of analysis were found to be affected by different previous heat-treatments given to the steel samples. To study this effect we selected 10 chromium steel samples of different carbon content. Spectrochemical analysis of these samples under different procedures of heat treatment shows that with an a.c. arc (5 amp.) the results of analysis of Cr for annealed and for hardened samples of the same steel are different and the difference increases with the increase of carbon content. We are inclined to think that in a low energy light source, the evaporation and the excitation of the alloying elements vary according to the existing form of carbon and this directly affects the results of spectrochemical analysis. The magnitude of this effect is different for different alloying elements, it is considerable in the case of Cr but is inappreciable in the case of Mn and Si.

我们用爱氏光源(低电流交流电弧)作高速钢的光谱分析时,发现样品的组织结构对于分析结果有影响。为了对这个现象得到进一步的了解,我们选择了10种含碳量不同的铬钢进行热处理试验和光谱分析。一系列实验的结果指出,用小电流(5安)电弧光源时,铬的光谱分析结果由于试样是退火组织或淬火组织而有差别,这个差别又随着钢中含碳量的增加而增加。我们认为,这种影响是由于碳在试样中存在状态的不同所引起的。在低功率光源中,这种不同使合金元素被蒸发和被激发的情况有所差别,因而就影响了光谱分析的结果。这种影响由于合金元素之不同而有程度上的不同,对铬的影响很显著,对锰和矽的影响则很小。此外,所选择的分析线对是弧线还是火花线,对于这种组织结构的效应也有显著的影响。 曾经进行了一些消除组织结构影响的实验。发现在应用低功率光源时,增加预燃时间并不能消除这个效应。用火花光源或大电流(8安)电弧光源时,这种影响大为减小。

On the assumption that the bond length and bond polarity contribute to ,bond energy (bond A-B) independently, an empirical relationship among them has been found as follows: D = ab / r~1.66 + 23.06-(x_A-x_B)~2 or 1/2(D_(A-A) + D_(B-B) = ab/r~1.66_(AB) where constant a (or b)=8.03 for N, O, F, H; a (or b)=13.40 for other elements; a (or b)= 4.63-1-4.7r4 for H in hydrides (r_A is the covalent radius of the atom with which H is com-bined); D and r (i.e. r_(AB)) represent the bond energy and bond length respectively;...

On the assumption that the bond length and bond polarity contribute to ,bond energy (bond A-B) independently, an empirical relationship among them has been found as follows: D = ab / r~1.66 + 23.06-(x_A-x_B)~2 or 1/2(D_(A-A) + D_(B-B) = ab/r~1.66_(AB) where constant a (or b)=8.03 for N, O, F, H; a (or b)=13.40 for other elements; a (or b)= 4.63-1-4.7r4 for H in hydrides (r_A is the covalent radius of the atom with which H is com-bined); D and r (i.e. r_(AB)) represent the bond energy and bond length respectively; x_A and x_B are the electronegativities of the two bond-forming elements, A and B. The validity of the relationship has been tested for the bond energy of 83 kinds of single bonds. In the majority of cases, the calculated values deviate from the experimental data within ± (1-2) kcal.

作者認為單價鍵的鍵能主要決定於鍵長及鍵的極性,並假定此二因素對鍵能各有獨立的影響,從而獲得如下的經驗關係式: D=ab/r~(1.66)+23.06(x_A-x_B)~2或 1/2(D_(A-A)+D_(B-B))=ab/r_(AB)~1.66其中x_A,x_B為成鍵二原子的元素電負性;a舆b為常數,其數值如下: a(或b)=8.03 (N,O,F,H的常數) a(或b)=13.40 (其他元素的常數) a(或b)=4.63+4.7r_A (氫化物中H的常數,r_A為化合原子的共價半徑) 利用此三常數,曾計算83種單價鍵的鍵能。與實驗值比較,極大多數鍵的平均差異均在實驗誤差±(1-2)千卡以內。

Our previous studies indicated that tetrandrine and demethyl-tetrandrine caused a fall of blood pressure in anesthetized cats. Both compounds produced a direct as well as a reflex vasodilatation in the isolated rabbit's ear. In order to elucidate the mechanism of these effects, the interaction of these two alkaloids with acetylcholine and adrenaline, the influence on the sympathetic ganglian and the pressor response by occlusion of the common carotid arteries were investigated with the following results: (1)...

Our previous studies indicated that tetrandrine and demethyl-tetrandrine caused a fall of blood pressure in anesthetized cats. Both compounds produced a direct as well as a reflex vasodilatation in the isolated rabbit's ear. In order to elucidate the mechanism of these effects, the interaction of these two alkaloids with acetylcholine and adrenaline, the influence on the sympathetic ganglian and the pressor response by occlusion of the common carotid arteries were investigated with the following results: (1) Tetrandrine 0.5 mg/kg and demethyl-tetrandrine 1.5 mg/kg injected intravenously prolonged the hypotensive effect of acetylcholine. The hypotensive effect of these two alkaloids was reduced to some extent by previous administration of atropine. (2) The effects of tetrandrine and demethyl-tetrandrine on blood pressure was not influenced by adrenaline and vice versa. (3) Tetrandrine and demethyl-tetrandrine did not reveal ganglion-blocking action, but during an abrupt and severe fall of blood pressure induced by these alkaloids, the sympathetic ganglion was temporarily excited (for about 5 min.) as indicated by spontaneous contraction and prolongation of contraction of the nictating membrane of the cat. (4) In view of the fact that these two alkaloids could inhibit or eliminate the pressor response to serial occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries in the cat, and that the hypotensive effect was not influenced by bilateral section of the sinus nerves, the vasomotor center or central sympathetic structures might be affected. (5) Repeated administration of demethyl-tetrandrine resulted in tachyphylaxis in its effect on blood pressure. (6) It can be concluded from the above experiments that the hypotensive effect of tetrandrine and demethyl-tetrandrine is caused by the following factors: (a) a direct and reflex vasodilatation, (b) an inhibition of vasomotor center or central sympathetic structures, and (c) a parasympathetic effect.

1.甲素及乙素預先作靜脉注射,能使乙醯胆硷的降压作用加强及作用时間延長,同时阿託品可部分取消甲素及乙素的降压作用,可以認为其有拟似胆硷反应系統(M-系統)的作用。 2.甲素及乙素对腎上腺素之升压作用並無影响。 3.甲素及乙素对交感神經节並無阻断作用,相反,当甲素及乙素产生显著血压下降时,往往引起交感神經节的短暫兴奋現象。 4.甲素及乙素可取消或減弱因压迫頸动脉所引起的升压反射,二者的降压作用並不受切断二侧竇神經所影响,可以推想其对血管运动中樞或交感神經中樞有抑制作用。 5.甲素及乙素对血管的直接及反射性舒張作用,对血管运动中樞或交感中樞之抑制及对胆硷反应系統的拟似作用等,应可視为它們降压作用之主要机制。 6.甲素及乙素之药理性質相似,但乙素之降压作用較甲素为弱且易产生急速耐受現象。

 
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