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combined-mechanical
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The combined actions of added external dead space ( VADS ) and ins-piratory resistance ( RI ) on respiratory pattern, ventilation and respiratory discomfort were studied in 12 healthy male adults under sitting conditions. The results found were; ( 1 ) VADS and R[ acted synergically inincreasing the oral inspiratory pressure amplitude ( PI ) and external ins-piratory work rate ( WI ) , the more severe the combined mechanical stress, the more prominent this synergic interaction.( 2 )No matter what the relative...

The combined actions of added external dead space ( VADS ) and ins-piratory resistance ( RI ) on respiratory pattern, ventilation and respiratory discomfort were studied in 12 healthy male adults under sitting conditions. The results found were; ( 1 ) VADS and R[ acted synergically inincreasing the oral inspiratory pressure amplitude ( PI ) and external ins-piratory work rate ( WI ) , the more severe the combined mechanical stress, the more prominent this synergic interaction.( 2 )No matter what the relative proportions between VADS and RI were, there was a close correlation between the scaling values representing respiratory discomfort caused by loading and the magnitudes of the combined mechanical loads expressed as either PI or WI in all conditions studied. ( 3 ) VADS of 100-600ml did not impair the ability of the human respiratory system to regulate PACO2 and VI during resistive loading, except for resetting the regulated PCO2 level. The implication of our present findings for revising the physiological standard of respiratory protective device is discussed.

以12名男性成年为被试者,观察了外加死腔(V_(ADS))与吸气阻力(RI)对呼吸型式、通气功能以及呼吸不适感觉的联合影响。结果表明:(1)V_(ADS)及R_I对吸气相面罩腔(口腔)压力(P_I)及外呼吸功率(W_I)具有协同的增强作用;复合呼吸机械负荷的强度越大,此种协同作用也越加明显。(2)无论V_(ADS)及R_I的比例关系如何,反应呼吸不适感觉强度的类别量值(S)与P_I(或W_I)之间,总是符合共同的线性关系,故可以P_I(或W_I)作为复合呼吸机械负荷的综合强度指标。(3)在所观察范围内,V_(ADS)并不影响对阻力性机械负荷的呼吸调节功能。以上结果对制订呼吸防护装备生理标准有一定意义。

This paper deals with the structures, properties and fracture modes of Fe-P-C-Cu-Mo sintered alloy. The effects of alloy elements and sintering temperature on structures and properties and the influences of phosphorus distribution on fracture modes at different tempering temperature have been studied. Experimental results showed that good properties of Fe-0.60%P-0.44.%-1.0% Cu-0.50%Mo sintered alloy can be obtained after sintering at the temperature range of 1160-1240℃ for 1-2 hours.Its combined mechanical properties...

This paper deals with the structures, properties and fracture modes of Fe-P-C-Cu-Mo sintered alloy. The effects of alloy elements and sintering temperature on structures and properties and the influences of phosphorus distribution on fracture modes at different tempering temperature have been studied. Experimental results showed that good properties of Fe-0.60%P-0.44.%-1.0% Cu-0.50%Mo sintered alloy can be obtained after sintering at the temperature range of 1160-1240℃ for 1-2 hours.Its combined mechanical properties can be obviousiy improved after futher quenching from 850-900℃ and then tempering at 200℃ or 600℃. It was found in present experiments that when alloy was tempered at 200℃, molybdenum dissolved in matrix inhibited the grain boundary segregation of phosphous,and made the fracture modes of alloy become cleavage facture. Tempering at 400℃ causes intergranular fracture because during tempering at 400℃ molybdenum form molybdenum carbide, phosphorus mainly segregates into grain boundaries After tempering at 600℃, phosphorus segragates on the pore surfaces and fracture modes became ductile dimpled fractures.

研究了Fe-P-C-Cu-Mo系铁基粉末冶金材料中合金元素、烧结温度对合金组织及性能的影响,以及不同回火温度下磷的分布及其对合金断裂方式的影响。通过研究得出:Fe-0.60%P-0-44%C-1.0%Cu-0.50%Mo合金在1160—1240℃烧结,保温1—2小时,可以获得较好的性能;若进一步经过850—900℃淬火,200℃或600℃回火,则合金的综合机械性能可以显著提高。通过试验发现:合金在200℃回火后,固溶在基体中的铝能抑制磷向晶界偏聚,使合垒断裂时呈现为穿晶断裂;400℃回火后,由于钼以碳化物形式析出,磷主要偏聚在晶界,造成合金沿晶断裂;600℃回火后,磷主要偏聚在孔隙表面,合金断口呈韧窝状。

Researches on the pearlite nodulizers used in the above mould treatment have been made in Harbin Institute of Technolgy and Changzhou Diesel Engine Factory since 1980. The results of the six years tests and production indicate that in the ductile iron S195 crankshafts nodulized with this nodulizer, the amount of pearlite is steadly above 85%, the shape of sphere graphite is improved and the free cementite is reduced to a mi-nimum The crankshafts not only remain the high percentage elongation, but also obviously...

Researches on the pearlite nodulizers used in the above mould treatment have been made in Harbin Institute of Technolgy and Changzhou Diesel Engine Factory since 1980. The results of the six years tests and production indicate that in the ductile iron S195 crankshafts nodulized with this nodulizer, the amount of pearlite is steadly above 85%, the shape of sphere graphite is improved and the free cementite is reduced to a mi-nimum The crankshafts not only remain the high percentage elongation, but also obviously possess higher tensile strength and impact value than before so its combined mechanical properties are good, the expectant goal is achieved and the needs of production are satisfied

自1980年起,在哈工大和常州柴油机厂多次进行珠光体型球化剂的试验研究.六年来的试验和生产结果表明,浇注的大量S195球铁曲轴珠光体量稳定在85%以上,石墨球有所改善,渗碳体降至最低;该曲轴除保持原有的高延伸率外,抗拉强度和冲击韧性有明显提高,综合机械性能良好,达到了予期的试验目的,满足了生产要求.

 
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