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sna
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  1993年sna
     The Implementation of the 1993 SNA of the Developed Market Economy Countries
     发达的市场经济国家是如何实施1993年SNA
短句来源
     The Summary of Revising 1993 SNA:the First Report of Series of Researching Reports on Revising 1993 SNA
     1993年SNA修订问题综述——1993年SNA修订问题研究系列之一
短句来源
     Comparison between China's Input output Accounting and UN 1993 SNA Input output Accounting
     中国投入产出核算与联合国1993年SNA投入产出核算的比较
短句来源
     This paper gives the definition of financial stocks and flows in Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual(MFS),compared the statistical valuation between 1993 SNA and MFS in principles,issues and(statistical) valuation system.
     文章给出了《货币与金融统计手册》(MFS)对金融存量流量的界定,并从指导原则、项目详尽性和统计估价体系三个方面对1993年SNA与MFS的统计估价问题进行了比较分析;
短句来源
     How to calculate the nominal interest of deposit loan financial assets——meager opinion on the accounting method in Annex B of Chapter XIX of 1993 SNA
     如何核算存贷款类金融资产名义利息——1993年SNA《第19章附录二》中核算方法的刍议
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  “1993 sna”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The Accounting of Interests in the Circumstance of High Inflation:the Sixth of Researching Report Series of on Revising 1993 SNA
     高通货膨胀条件下对利息的核算——1993SNA修订问题研究系列之六
短句来源
     Discuss on the Problem of Mineral Resource Exploration:the Second Report of Series of Researching Reports on Revising 1993 SNA
     关于矿藏勘探问题——1993SNA修订问题研究系列之二
短句来源
     The Accounting of Employee Stock Options:the Third Report of Series of Researching Reports on Revising 1993 SNA
     关于雇员股票期权的核算——1993SNA修订问题研究系列之三
短句来源
     The Method to Deal with Land and Land Improvement:the Fifth Report of Researching Series on Revising 1993 SNA
     有关土地及土地改良的处理方法——1993 SNA修订问题研究系列之五
短句来源
     The Evaluation of Implementation of 1993 SNA
     SNA(1993)贯彻执行情况的评估
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  相似匹配句对
     The Evaluation of Implementation of 1993 SNA
     SNA(1993)贯彻执行情况的评估
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     In 1993, F.
     1993年F.
短句来源
     SNA?
     SNA;
短句来源
     In 1993, R.
     1993年R.
短句来源
     The Implementation of the 1993 SNA of the Developed Market Economy Countries
     发达的市场经济国家是如何实施1993年SNA的
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  sna
We first review the treatment of the nonprofit organizations in 1968 SNA, and then discuss the 1993 SNA and 1995 ESA approaches, which do not clear up many conceptual difficulties.
      
The 1995 European System of Accounts (1995 ESA), an adapted version of the United Nations System of National Accounts (1993 SNA), will be applied in most European countries.
      
The paper then offers some suggestions on how the treatment of non-profit institutions in the US national income and product accounts might be modified in the light of the 1993 SNA recommendations.
      
The new series is the revised national accounts using the 1993-SNA framework and methodology and uses 1995/96 as the base year.
      
The 1993 SAM was constructed according to the recommendations of the 1993 SNA.
      
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In this investigation, the surface-chemical properties of the mixed aqueous solutions of n-octyltrimethylammonium bromide (C_8 NMe_3Br) and sodium n-octylsulfate (C_8 SNa) have been studied. Some peculiar properties have been observed: (1) there is a very high surface activity of the mixed surfactants. The cmc of 1:1 (molar ratio) mixture is 7.5×10~(-3) m(cmc of C_8NMe_3Br: 2.6×10~(-1) m). The surface and interfaeial tension of 1:1 mixture are very low—down to ~23 and ~0.2 dyne/cm, whereas those of the...

In this investigation, the surface-chemical properties of the mixed aqueous solutions of n-octyltrimethylammonium bromide (C_8 NMe_3Br) and sodium n-octylsulfate (C_8 SNa) have been studied. Some peculiar properties have been observed: (1) there is a very high surface activity of the mixed surfactants. The cmc of 1:1 (molar ratio) mixture is 7.5×10~(-3) m(cmc of C_8NMe_3Br: 2.6×10~(-1) m). The surface and interfaeial tension of 1:1 mixture are very low—down to ~23 and ~0.2 dyne/cm, whereas those of the single ionic surfactant solution (at cmc or above) are ~40 and ~10 dyne/em, respectively; (2) the bubble-life and the drop-life of 1:1 mixture are both much longer than those of the single surfactant solution; (3) the 1:1 mixture has a much better wetting power on paraffin wax than a single ionic surfactant solution; (4) the total surface and interracial adsorptions of the non-1:1 mixture are nearly equal to those of the 1:1 mixture, in most cases the surface and interfacial tensions are very low, and the surface mole-ratio of C_8NMe_3~+ to C_8S~- approaches 1:1; and (5) there is no obvious effect upon the surface and interfacial adsorptions and cmc by adding an inorganic salt (NaBr) to the solution of the mixed surfactants. The Gibbs equation should be written as:-dγ=RTΓ_(Total)d In mC_5NMe_3~+(or C_8S-) rather than the 2RT form as applied in the case of an ionic surfactant. From this equation the minimum average "molecular" area of the surface film of 1:1 mixture has been calculated to be 27~29 ~2, which is much smaller than that of a single ionic surfactant (in general, >40~2), indicating a closer packing of the surfactant ions on the surface.The above mentioned characteristics show that there are strong interactions between cationic and anionic surfactants in the mixed solution. The nature of these interactions is essentially due to the Columbic attractions between the positive and negative charges of the surfactant ions in addition to the hydrophobic interactions between hydrocarbon chains.

本工作研究了碳氢链较短的溴化辛基三甲铵(简写为C_8NMe_3Br)及辛基硫酸钠(简写为C_8SNa)混合水溶液的一些表面化学性质:在表面及“油-水”界面上的混合吸附、在表面上的气泡寿命和在界面上的液滴寿命以及溶液在石蜡表面上的润湿性能。从这些性质了解正、负离子表面活性剂的相互作用。结果表明:(1)混合表面活性剂有很高的表面活性。1:1C_8NMe_3Br-C_8SNa混合物的临界胶团浓度(cmc)为~7.5×10~(-3)m,远小于单一表面活性剂。在此浓度时,表面张力低达~23达因/厘米;溶液-正庚烷的界面张力更低,达~0.2达因/厘米,亦远低于单一表面活性剂;(2)混合表面活性剂溶液有很高的气泡寿命及液滴寿命,亦即有较大的表面膜及界面膜强度;(3)混合溶液比单一表面活性剂的润湿性能好;(4)不同比例的C_8NMe_3Br-C_8SNa混合溶液的表(界)面总吸附量与1:1混合溶液的相近,当浓度较大时,吸附层中两者比例大多接近1:1,且表(界)面张力亦甚低:(5)与一般离子型表面活性剂的情形完全不同,无机盐对1:1混合溶液的表(界)面张力影响很小。计算吸附量时,Gibbs公式应取1RT形式,而不采用对一般离子...

本工作研究了碳氢链较短的溴化辛基三甲铵(简写为C_8NMe_3Br)及辛基硫酸钠(简写为C_8SNa)混合水溶液的一些表面化学性质:在表面及“油-水”界面上的混合吸附、在表面上的气泡寿命和在界面上的液滴寿命以及溶液在石蜡表面上的润湿性能。从这些性质了解正、负离子表面活性剂的相互作用。结果表明:(1)混合表面活性剂有很高的表面活性。1:1C_8NMe_3Br-C_8SNa混合物的临界胶团浓度(cmc)为~7.5×10~(-3)m,远小于单一表面活性剂。在此浓度时,表面张力低达~23达因/厘米;溶液-正庚烷的界面张力更低,达~0.2达因/厘米,亦远低于单一表面活性剂;(2)混合表面活性剂溶液有很高的气泡寿命及液滴寿命,亦即有较大的表面膜及界面膜强度;(3)混合溶液比单一表面活性剂的润湿性能好;(4)不同比例的C_8NMe_3Br-C_8SNa混合溶液的表(界)面总吸附量与1:1混合溶液的相近,当浓度较大时,吸附层中两者比例大多接近1:1,且表(界)面张力亦甚低:(5)与一般离子型表面活性剂的情形完全不同,无机盐对1:1混合溶液的表(界)面张力影响很小。计算吸附量时,Gibbs公式应取1RT形式,而不采用对一般离子型表面活性剂适用的2RT形式。由此得出的最小平均“分子”面积为27~29(?)2,表明吸附层中表面活性离子排列紧密,膜凝聚性强。上述结果充分说明正、负离子表面活性剂在水溶液中有强烈的相互作用,其本质主要在于附加的正、负电荷的库仑引力,由此导致正、负离子表面活性剂混合溶液的一系列表面化学特性。

The surface and bulk properties of the mixed aqueous solutions of cationic and anionic surfactants containing double hydrocarbon chain di-n-hexyl sodium sulfosuccinate [(C_6)_2SNa]—di-n-octyl-hydroxyethyl-methylammonium chloride [(C_8)_2NCl] system and (C_6)_2SNa—n-octyl-hydroxyethyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride [C_8NCl] system have been studied.

本文研究了具有双烃链的正、负离子表面活性剂混合水溶液的表面和液相性质。负离子表面活性剂是琥珀酸二己酯磺酸钠[简写为(C_6)_2SNa],正离子表面活性剂是氯化二正辛基羟乙基甲基铵[(C_8)_2NCl]和氯化辛基羟乙基二甲基铵[C_8NCl]。为了增加复合物的溶解度,在铵基上引入了羟乙基。测定了表面张力-浓度关系,用Gibbs公式计算了表面吸附量和吸附分子面积。结果表明,由于正、负表面活性离子之间的强烈相互作用,所研究的两种混合物体系的表面活性远高于单独的表面活性剂。在等摩尔混合和离子强度0.1mol/kg情况下,(C_6)_2SNa-(C_8)_2NCl体系的吸附层组成是对称的(摩尔比为1∶1),且在临界胶团浓度(cmc)以上析出新相,表明此cmc实质上是复合物的溶解度;而(C_6)_2SNa-C_8NCl体系的吸附层为不对称组成(摩尔比非1∶1),在cmc以上可能形成相当大的胶团。两种体系混合溶液的起泡性有极大差异。

The surface adsorption and micelle formation of mixed solution of cationic and anionic surfactants (dodecyl-trihydroxyethylammonium chloride-sodium dodecylsulfate system and dodecyltrihydroxylethyianamonium chloride-sodium octylsufate system have been investigated.The surface tension of the aqueous solution has been determined by drop-volume method. The total mixed adsorption and the individual adsorption have been calculated by applying Gibbs equation, and the critical micelle concentrations of the mixed solutions...

The surface adsorption and micelle formation of mixed solution of cationic and anionic surfactants (dodecyl-trihydroxyethylammonium chloride-sodium dodecylsulfate system and dodecyltrihydroxylethyianamonium chloride-sodium octylsufate system have been investigated.The surface tension of the aqueous solution has been determined by drop-volume method. The total mixed adsorption and the individual adsorption have been calculated by applying Gibbs equation, and the critical micelle concentrations of the mixed solutions have been determined.It is shown that (1) The surface activity of the mixture of cationic and anionic surfactants is rather high. The cmc of the equi-molar C12NE-C12SNa sloution is 4.0×10-5m, far lower than the cmc of C12SNa or sole C12NE solution. The mixed cmc is 1/208 of that of C12SNa and 1/240 of C12NE. The cmc of the equi-molar C12NE-C8SNa solution is 7.4×10-4m, also far lower than the cmc of the single surfactant solution. It is 1/13 of the cmc of C12NE and 1/189 of that of C8SNa. (2) As a mixed solution of cationic and anionic surfactants with the same number of carbon atoms (such as C12NE-C12SNa), the total adsorption (saturated) is nearly 6.7 ×10-10mol/cm2 irrespective of the mix ratio of the two components, and there is nearly equi-molar adsorption in adsorption layer, the area occupied by each molecule is 25A, This close packing of molecules in the surface layer is due to the strong mutual interaction between the surface active cations and anions. For the mixed solution of cationic-anionic surfactant with different hydrocarbon chain length (such as C12NE-C8SNa), the total adsorption (saturated) is all nearly 5.4 × 10-10mol/cm2 with different mixed ratio of the two components, Because of the two components have different surface activity, the adsorption of cationic and anionic surfactant in surface layer are not equi-molar, the ratio is Γc12NE/Γc8SNa=1.3, the surface active ion with a longer hydrocarbon chain adsorbs preferentially at the surface. (3) The introduction of hydroxyethyl group into the hydrophilic part of the cationic surfactant makes the 1:1 mixture more hydrophilic and more soluble. Thus a solution of 1:1 C12NE-C12SNa can be prepared with a concentration of 2.64 10-4m. This is about 6.6 times of the cmc of mixture. The solution had been leaved there for two years, no turbidity was observed.

本工作研究了十二烷基三羟乙基氯化铵(C_(12)NE)和十二烷基硫酸钠(C_(12)SNa),十二烷基三羟乙基氯化铵(C_(12)NE)和八烷基硫酸钠(C_8SNa)两体系的正、负离子表面活性剂混合溶液的表面吸附和胶团形成。用液体积法测定了一系列不同比例C_(12)NE~C_(12)SNa、C_(12)NE~C_8SNa混合水溶液在25℃、总离子强度为0.1000m时的表面张力,用Gibbs公式计算了总吸附量和分吸附量。另外,初步探索了混合溶液的某些胶团性质。结果表明: 1.正、负离子表面活性剂混合物具有较高的表面活性。等摩尔C_(12)NE~C_(12)SNa混合溶液的cmc为4.0×10~(-5)m,分别为单个C_(12)SNa、C_(12)NEcmc的1/208和1/240。等摩尔C_(12)NE~C_8SNa混合溶液的cmc为7.4×10~(-4)m,分别为单个C_(12)NE、C_8SNa cmc的1/13和1/189。 2.对于碳原子数相同(如C_(12)NE~C_(12)SNa)的正、负离子表面活性剂的混合溶液,不论其混合比例如何,在饱和吸附时,总吸附量接近6.7×10~(-10)mol/cm~...

本工作研究了十二烷基三羟乙基氯化铵(C_(12)NE)和十二烷基硫酸钠(C_(12)SNa),十二烷基三羟乙基氯化铵(C_(12)NE)和八烷基硫酸钠(C_8SNa)两体系的正、负离子表面活性剂混合溶液的表面吸附和胶团形成。用液体积法测定了一系列不同比例C_(12)NE~C_(12)SNa、C_(12)NE~C_8SNa混合水溶液在25℃、总离子强度为0.1000m时的表面张力,用Gibbs公式计算了总吸附量和分吸附量。另外,初步探索了混合溶液的某些胶团性质。结果表明: 1.正、负离子表面活性剂混合物具有较高的表面活性。等摩尔C_(12)NE~C_(12)SNa混合溶液的cmc为4.0×10~(-5)m,分别为单个C_(12)SNa、C_(12)NEcmc的1/208和1/240。等摩尔C_(12)NE~C_8SNa混合溶液的cmc为7.4×10~(-4)m,分别为单个C_(12)NE、C_8SNa cmc的1/13和1/189。 2.对于碳原子数相同(如C_(12)NE~C_(12)SNa)的正、负离子表面活性剂的混合溶液,不论其混合比例如何,在饱和吸附时,总吸附量接近6.7×10~(-10)mol/cm~2,吸附层中也是近于等摩尔吸附,每个分子所占面积约为25A~2,这是由于正、负表面活性剂离子之间相互强烈作用导致表面层中成紧密排列结构。 碳原子数不同的正、负离子表面活性剂(如C_(12)NE~C_8SNa)的混合溶液,不论其比例如何,其饱和吸附时总吸附量接近5.4×10~(-10)mol/cm

 
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