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A local-global principle is proved by the second named author in the adjacent paper of this volume.
      
A local-global principle for finiteness properties ofS-arithmetic groups over number fields
      
In this paper a local-global principle forS-arithmetic groups over number fields is proved.
      
We give criteria for a divisor to be Cartier, globally generated and ample, and apply them to a study of the local structure and the intersection theory of aG-variety.
      
LetG=GL(m, D) whereD is a central division algebra over a commutative nonarchimedean local fieldF.
      
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A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a...

A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a surface covering of leaf litter and a surface soil with high content of organic matter.In places at an elevatin from 3,900 to 7,000 feet the yellow podzolic soil is dominant.At an elevation below 3,000 foot the red podzolic soil and the sketetal soil are fonnd. The analytical data of the soils of this area may be summarized as follows: 1.pH values of the soils:In the whole area,since the parent rock (gneiss) is poor in basic constituents,soils are all acid in reaction.The pH of the different horizons of the soils ranges from 4.0 to 5.5.The A_0 and A_1 horizons are usually less acid than B horizon,the A and B horizons are much more acid than the parent rock.This shows the leaching process of the soils under such a humid atmosphere. 2.Organic Matter of the soils:The organic matter content of the soils in this area is greatlg influenced by the kind of the vegetation cover.At an elevation of 8,500 feet, the soil developed under forest has 38.92% of organic matter in the A_1,while that under grass has only 11.08% of organic matter in the corresponding horizon.However as the vegetation cover is constant,the dopth of the A_1 and its organic matter content are evidently affected by the elevation.At an elevation of 3,000 feet,the A_1 horizon of the red podzolic soil is only 1 cm.in depth,and it has 3.37% of organic matter.At an elevation of 8,500 feet,howerver,the A_1 horizon of the podzolic soil is 7 cm.in depth, and it has 11.08% of organic matter.In addition,deposition of organic matter in the B horizon is clearly found in the podzolic soil,but it has not been seen in soils found at lower elevation. 3.Active aluminum of the soils:All the soils in this area are high in active aluminum. They contain from 20 to 16 p.p.m.of active aluminum.The content of active aluminum in the different horizons of the same profile has a very close relationship with the pH values of the corresponding horizon.The less acid the reaction the smaller is the amount of acitve aluminum.The active aluminum of the soil is usually higher in amount than that of the parent rock from which the soil is derived. 4.Available calcium magnesium,and potassium of the soils:All the soils are general- ly low in available calcium,magnesium,and potassium.The comparatively high content of these elements in the A horizon is derived from the leaves of the vegetation which are grown on that soil. 5.Available phosphorus of the soils:All the soils of this area are low in available phosphorus. 6.Available nitrate:All soils in this area are very low in nitrate. B.The Vegetation 1.The plants growing on soils of this area are most calcifuge species which are acid- loving (Vaughan and Wishe,1937).As far as the chemical analysis of the soil is concer- ned,those species may be assumed as not only acid-loving,buy also active aluminum- loving (Hutchinson,1943). 2.The distribution of the calcifuge plants In this area is apparently affected by the local climate in terms of elevation.Some of them (temperate plants) are confined to high elevation,others(tropical plants) being limited to low elevation,Two groups of the plants may be given as follows.Many of them are of the same species as those found in southwestern China (Hou,1944). (a) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevations from 7,000 to 8,500 foot (temperate plants): Pteridophyta: Destaedtia Scabra (Wall.) Moore Diranopteris linearis Under. Hicrioptris glauea Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lidsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pyphylla (Kunze) Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym Pteris aspericaulis Wall. Flowering Plants: Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium refersceda HK. Vaccinium serrasum Wight (b) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevation from 1,000 to 3,000 feet (tropical plants): Pteridophyta: Adiantum philippense L. Blechnum orientale L. Aglaoorpha coronaus Copel Lycopodium cernum L. Nephrolepsis cordifolia Presl Tectaria spp. Polypodium ucidum Roxb. Flowering plants: Oxyspora paniculate DC. Themeda arundinacea Ridl.

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物...

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物发育下的灰壤的表土,仅含有机质11.08%,但在相同的植物环境下,拔海高度或局部气候,也是支配土壤有机质含量的重要因素,例如在拔海3000尺地带,长有草类的灰化红壤,仅有极薄之有机质层,该层有机质含量为3.37%,而在拔海8500尺地带,长有草类的灰壤,则有较厚层有机质,其含量为11.08%。 (3)可溶性铝质:全区土壤含有高量可溶性铝,大约自20至160 p.p.m.,其含量与 pH 值高低相关,土壤 pH 值愈酸,可溶性铝含量就愈高。 (4)可溶性钙镁及钾质:全区土壤之可溶性钙,镁及钾等之含量均较低,但就同一土壤剖面而言,富于有机质的 A。或 A_1层的钙镁和钾质,常较 B 层为高,此点显示此等成份是来自植物遗体,亦即指示土壤中有机质与肥力之关系。 (5)全区土壤有效磷含量均甚低。 (6)全区土壤硝酸态氮之含量均极低,并有下淋现象。植物本文所论植物,仅以作者所采集而经各专家鉴定为限,其中以蕨类植物为主。本区的土壤都是酸性反应,所见的植物是以嫌钙性者为主,这些嫌钙性植物与拔海高度的关系很显著,兹将常见的植物种类,叙述如下: (一)主分布于拔海7000—8500尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物 Dennstaedtia scabra(Wall.)Moore Dicranopteris linearis Under. Hicriopteris glauca Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lindsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pycniphylla(Kunze)Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym. Pteris aspericaulis Wall.种子植物 Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium referesceda HK. Vaccinium Serrasm Wight(二)主分布于1000—3000尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物Adiantum philippense L.Blechnum orientale L.Aglaomorpha coron(?)us copelLycopodium cernuum L.Nephrolepsis cordifolia PresslTectaria spp.Polypodium lucidum Roxb.种子植物Oxysoira paniculata DC.Themedra arundinacea Ridl.

Two kinds of the Chinese drug, Pai-pu, obtained from the local market were subjected to an experiment. One of them has been identified to be Stemona sessilifolia, and the other not ascertained yet. However, a known alkaloid, tuberostemonine, has been isolated from the latter, which, therefore, is likely to belong to Stemona tuberosa. It has been found that the base of this alkaloid can be easily seperated from the mixture in the form of a crystalline hydriodide with a melting point of 252°, and further...

Two kinds of the Chinese drug, Pai-pu, obtained from the local market were subjected to an experiment. One of them has been identified to be Stemona sessilifolia, and the other not ascertained yet. However, a known alkaloid, tuberostemonine, has been isolated from the latter, which, therefore, is likely to belong to Stemona tuberosa. It has been found that the base of this alkaloid can be easily seperated from the mixture in the form of a crystalline hydriodide with a melting point of 252°, and further comfirmed by analyses of its crystalline salts: perchlorate, m.p. 242° and methiodide, m.p. 236°. From the Stemona sessilifolia, a new alkaloid, provisionally named as sessilistemonine, has been isolated with an empirical formula of. C_(25)H_(35)O_7N, m.p. 172°, [α]_D~9=+122.5° (CH_3OH, 1%). It may form the following crystalline salts: (1) picrate, C_(25)H_(35)O_7N· C_6H_3O_7N_3, yellow needles, m.p. 165°; (2) perchlorate, C_(25)H_(35)O_7N·HClO_4, needles, m.p. 201-205°; (3) methiodide, C_(25)H_(35)O_7N·CH_3I, needles, m.p. 231-232°; (4) percrolonate, C_(25)H_(35)O_7N·C_(10)H_8O_5N_4, yellow needles, m.p. 236°.

從上海市購得的百部根中,分離出對葉百部鹼。其氫碘酸鹽的熔點爲252°。又從母液中分得一種氫碘酸鹽,熔點218°。 從直立百部中分得一新植物鹼,暫命名為直立百部鹼,C_(25)H_(35)O_(7)N,熔點172°, [α]_D~9=+122.5°。此植物鹼是一個叔胺鹼,並製得幾種晶體鹽。

The study of the distribution of hydrogen in steel ingots, despite its practical importance, has not received due attention from previous workers. Available experimental results are mainly fragmentary and non-systematic, and therefore many disputable opinions exist. Desirous of investigating this problem in greater details, the authors employed several annealed ingots of high chromium steels which were considered to be particularly suitable because they evolved little gas at room temperature and consequently...

The study of the distribution of hydrogen in steel ingots, despite its practical importance, has not received due attention from previous workers. Available experimental results are mainly fragmentary and non-systematic, and therefore many disputable opinions exist. Desirous of investigating this problem in greater details, the authors employed several annealed ingots of high chromium steels which were considered to be particularly suitable because they evolved little gas at room temperature and consequently the inherent difficulty to avoid the loss of hydrogen during sampling was, to a very large extent, overcome. For this purpose also, suitable apparatus capable of determining relatively small amount of hydrogen was constructed. The results obtained show that the hydrogen distribution in the annealed ingots follows a significant and regular pattern, thus dismissing certain misgiving conclusions based on contradictory results given by previous workers. Although the average hydrogen content of the anealed ingots amounted to not more than half that of the liquid stael, yet in certain parts of their interior the local hydrogen content was found to be higher than that of the liquid steal. This affirms the existence of hydrogen segregation in steel ingots. Moreover, from maps of hydrogen contour lines drawn for the ingots it can be seen that the regions of the highest hydrogen content roughly coincide with the last solification. Indeed, the effect due to certain external irregularities encountered in the course of solification is detectable rather from the hydrogen maps than by the usual method of macro-etching.In the longitudinal or the transverse direction of the annealed ingots, the general trend of hydrogen variation based on average hydrogen content is shown to be governed by the law of hydrogen diffusion. Further examinations reveal that the ingot structure and its internal porosity exert considerable influence upon the distribution. It is likely that hydrogen diffusion may be faster in columnar crystals than in equi-axed crystal regions. The presence of porosities in ingots seems to retard the removal of hydrogen. Such implications have not been sufficiently realized in the past.Based on the discussion of the experimental results, certain immunizing treatment suitable for preventing hairline cracks in certain types of steel is explained.

氢在鋼锭中的分佈是一个具有重要实际意义的问题,但在过去未得到研究工作者足够的重视.本文利用高铬型合金鋼在常温下不损失氢的特点,并建立了適宜的半微量定氢装置,对退火后的鋼锭中各个部位进行了定氢试验。结果证明,氢在鋼锭中的分佈是具有规律性的,指出了前人根据不全面的实验结果所提出的错误结论. 经过退火处理后的鋼锭,其平均含氢量虽然只及原来钢液含氢量的一半,伹在某些局部其含氢量反而高於钢液.这说明钢锭中确有氢的偏析现象存在.根据等氢曲线的分布情况来看,钢锭中氢偏析严重之处大致与最后凝固的部分相符.凝固过程中钢锭一面受到中注管散热的影响,也能从等氢曲线的分佈情况反映出来,而这种影响从低倍检验结果来看是没有能够觉察到的. 从氢含量变化的平均趋势来看,退火钢锭中的氢分佈不管是沿横方向抑是沿縱方向都服从於扩散规律,伹必须考虑到结晶构造和内部缺陷的影响.譬如,沿柱状晶轴方向的氢扩散似乎比等轴晶区域内的氢扩散速度大,而钢锭中心疏松对於去氢则起阻碍作用,过去对於这些方面的了解是不够的. 根据上述结果的分析讨论,本文还为某种防止钢中白点的热处理方法提供了理论上的解释.

 
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