The 110 kV Tuotuohe and Wudaoliang substations supplying power for Qinghai-Tibet railway locate in high-cold permafrost area, how to obtain the soil models of the substations is the prerequisite of grounding system design.

According to the on-site test results of soil resistivities in two substations, the multi-layered soil models for two substations are obtained by use of the inversion theory of soil lamination.

By means of statistical analysis on the seasonal variation of the ground temperature of two substations, the resistivity of surficial soil in winter is determined to reflect the impact of seasonal factors on soil models.

The unification of processing softened and hardened soil models is realized by the modified model, which can reflect not only pile-soil slip and degradation of frictional resistance, but also reflect asynchronous action of lateral friction and lateral resistance. It is very useful for further research on load transfer mechanism of piled foundations.

(2) based on the detail analysis on soil models and machine gun firing dynamics, the Drucker-Prager model is introduced to study machine gun firing dynamics, the soil is modeled like a box by finite element.

The effects of different parameters to the dynamic response of soil have been compared and analyzed: first, as to soil models, the depth of soil, the elastic half - space foundation model and rigid foundation model have been considered;

Soil models as a basis for modelling the behaviour of geophysical materials

The instruments and procedure used to identify parameters of elasto-plastic soil models are cited.

Flexible, generic root system models are needed that can easily be coupled to various process-based soil models and can easily be modified to test various hypotheses about how roots respond to their environment.

The stability of qanats was evaluated considering both elastic and elasto-plastic soil models.

The soil models were not successful in modelling RRoot/RSoil.

The visco-elastoplatic soil model, introduced in this paper, is consistent with the experimental relationships, such as shear modulus vs shear strain, damping ratio vs shear strain, pore pressure ratio vs cycle ratio and stress ratio vs number of liquefaction cycles, etc. The loading-reloading rules control the hysteresis loops beneath skeleton curve. The "apparent applied forces"method is suggested to evaluate the effects of soil viscosity. The generations of pore pressure are evaluated by"fraction...

The visco-elastoplatic soil model, introduced in this paper, is consistent with the experimental relationships, such as shear modulus vs shear strain, damping ratio vs shear strain, pore pressure ratio vs cycle ratio and stress ratio vs number of liquefaction cycles, etc. The loading-reloading rules control the hysteresis loops beneath skeleton curve. The "apparent applied forces"method is suggested to evaluate the effects of soil viscosity. The generations of pore pressure are evaluated by"fraction cycle method", which is simple and effective, especially for waved increases of pore water pressure.The soil model have been applied to a computer program (SRHSL-1978) for the total stress analysis of seismic response of site soil.

So far,to the authors' knowledge,the application of elastoplastic soil model in the superstructure-foundation-soil interaction has not yet been worked out in China. The purpose of this paper is to study whether the elastoplastic soil model can be used or not in the interaction between silty-sand and box foundation for tall buildings in Shanghai. Now the comparison between the calculated results from incremental method and the measured results in the similar foundation soil gives sufficient...

So far,to the authors' knowledge,the application of elastoplastic soil model in the superstructure-foundation-soil interaction has not yet been worked out in China. The purpose of this paper is to study whether the elastoplastic soil model can be used or not in the interaction between silty-sand and box foundation for tall buildings in Shanghai. Now the comparison between the calculated results from incremental method and the measured results in the similar foundation soil gives sufficient proof that this model can be used under some simplified assumptions.The reaction forces ( contact pressures ) and foundation settlement agree reasonably with those measured in similar foundation soil.It is worth mentioning that the distribution of reaction forces is essentially different from that of elastic half space model.

Thegeotechnical ordinary model test (uncentrifug model test)can only provide a guideto the mech anism and parametric numbers associated with the deformation and the collapse of the soilfoundation and earth structures. It is not suitable to predict the prototype behaviour directly from the model test resultsby using scale factors, because of the mechanical properties of soil on the ambient stress conditions and the importance of gravity-induced stresses, scaling can only be satisfi- ed undercentrifugal modeling...

Thegeotechnical ordinary model test (uncentrifug model test)can only provide a guideto the mech anism and parametric numbers associated with the deformation and the collapse of the soilfoundation and earth structures. It is not suitable to predict the prototype behaviour directly from the model test resultsby using scale factors, because of the mechanical properties of soil on the ambient stress conditions and the importance of gravity-induced stresses, scaling can only be satisfi- ed undercentrifugal modeling conditions. Since thereis a serious defect as mentioned before,the model laws applied to geotechnical ordinary model test for sliding and dynamic response of foundation arl derived herein based on the concept of similarity, Buckingham's theorem and soil characteristics. These model laws can avoid problems associated with testing, at earth gravity, small soil models involving material with strongly nonlinear and stress-dependent behaviour. So that they may be used for the prediction of prototype behavior. Therefore the applicability of geotechnical ordinary model test is extend- ed.