Follow that, this paper gives a detailed description of the most often used permeability measurements and their theoretical models, which includes the shearing effects theory, the edge effects theory, and so on. One emphasis of this paper is the study of transverse permeability measurement of reinforcement common used in china which was less investigated.

Study proved that high carbon wax content in oil sample would has influence on medium and low speed shearing effects, and the degree of the effect has close relationship with temperature cooling rate and shearing time.

The effects of pulsed electric fields(PEF) on the activity of papain were studied. Some affective factors such as the electric field strength,number of pulses,treatment temperature and shearing effects were changed.

However, compared with single screw thread twin-screw structure, the combined twin-screw structure can take more stirring effects due to the delivery, shearing, mixing mechanism, strengthening homogenization of the melt and shearing effects, thus the structure of semi-solid magnesium with finer and more round can be obtained.

Our probabilistic embedding model builds texture mapping with minimal shearing effects.

There is a tendency for the background-field features with strong fields to resist to some extent the shearing effects of differential rotation.

Despite the general high sensitivity of protozoa to shearing effects,Tetrahymena rostrata was cultivated using a controlled fed batch fermentor; the feeding medium contained 15 % skimmed milk.

The shearing effects were characterized by slow kinetics.

Experimental results obtained with transmission and reflection gratings are presented and discussed considering shearing effects, and the values of the shear angles calculated from the Bragg-angle deviation measurements are also provided.

Based on the modified principle of Complementary energy,a hybrid stress shell element is formulated in the cylindrical coordinate system.The complete linear membrane stresses and bending moments are included in the expressions in thiselement and the transverse shears are assumed to be constant.It has 4 nodes and20 d.o.f.in displacement.The transverse shear effects can be taken in to accountin the complementary energy and then this element can be used to analyse eitherthin shells or morderate thick...

Based on the modified principle of Complementary energy,a hybrid stress shell element is formulated in the cylindrical coordinate system.The complete linear membrane stresses and bending moments are included in the expressions in thiselement and the transverse shears are assumed to be constant.It has 4 nodes and20 d.o.f.in displacement.The transverse shear effects can be taken in to accountin the complementary energy and then this element can be used to analyse eitherthin shells or morderate thick shells.Combined with the compatable element ofcurved beam,this hybrid element can be used to analyse the stiffened shells.Some minor problems about selecting the stress parameters in the element andthe boundary displacements of the element are discussed in this paper.In order toavoid the singularity,the rank of the transformation matrix[G]must not be lessthan n-1(n is the d.o.f.of the boundary displacements and 1 is the number ofthe rigid body motion).

A stiffness matrix of rectangular element with 12 parameters for orthotropic plateunder bending and shear effects is derived from the concept of partial strain energy appro-ximation.To calculate the approximate value of strain energy of the element,differentshape functions are used for different terms.The basic shape functions,in which the ratioof bending stiffness to shear stiffness D/C is included,are obtained from a consideration ofdisplacements of a beam,in which the shear strain effects...

A stiffness matrix of rectangular element with 12 parameters for orthotropic plateunder bending and shear effects is derived from the concept of partial strain energy appro-ximation.To calculate the approximate value of strain energy of the element,differentshape functions are used for different terms.The basic shape functions,in which the ratioof bending stiffness to shear stiffness D/C is included,are obtained from a consideration ofdisplacements of a beam,in which the shear strain effects are considered.Therefore,thestiffness matrix so obtained is applicable to plates with various values of shear stiffnessincluding thin plates as a limiting case of C→∞.The stiffness matrix is expressed inexplicit form so it is easy to use.The calculations of typical static and dynamic problemshowy that it behaves quite well.

A triangular plate bending hybrid element is constructed according to Reis-ner's principle. It has 9 degrees of freedom and takes, the shear effect into account. The C0 formulation of the thick plate is extended to the thin plate and the"shear locking"phenomenon can be avoided through imposing the discrete type of Kirchhoff's constraints. It is interesting to note that the kind of discrete constraints can be directly imposed by means of Hermite interpolation. This is one of the features which distinguish...

A triangular plate bending hybrid element is constructed according to Reis-ner's principle. It has 9 degrees of freedom and takes, the shear effect into account. The C0 formulation of the thick plate is extended to the thin plate and the"shear locking"phenomenon can be avoided through imposing the discrete type of Kirchhoff's constraints. It is interesting to note that the kind of discrete constraints can be directly imposed by means of Hermite interpolation. This is one of the features which distinguish the paper from ref. [ 5 ]and [ 1 ]. On the other hand, the specific matching between bending and shearing is discussed in the analysis of the thick plate. It is shown that the reasonable matching between bending and shearing complementary energies may be destroyed by inhomogeneous magnification of the discretization errors. Furthermore, a principle of energy regulation is put forward, with the aid of which this matching problem is effectively treated so that the unified analysis of the thick and thin plates is achieved. Finally, numerical examples are given.