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primitive characteristics
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  原始特性
     And carried out a fitting in calculation on its equivalent damping coefficient by way of primitive characteristics of hydraulic torque converter, the quantitative relationship among the non-linear equivalent damping coefficients with the speed ratio of turbine and pump wheel and with the rotation speed of pump wheel was obtained.
     再通过液力变矩器原始特性对其等效阻尼系数进行拟合计算 ,得出了液力变矩器非线性等效阻尼系数与涡轮、泵轮速比及泵轮转速的定量关系。
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  “primitive characteristics”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The chromosome numbers are 2n=18 with their length over 2.0 μm in all the investigated species of Whytockia, which represents the most primitive characteristics in the tribe Klugieae.
     该属所研究种类的染色体数目均为2n=18,染色体长度在2.0μm以上,在尖舌苣苔族所报道的染色体中显示出较原始的性状。
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     Purpose To establish culture system of human fetal neural stem cells (NSCs) and to identify its primitive characteristics, and to analyse the effect of epidermal growth factor(EGF)and basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on the proliferative and differentiation of NSCs.
     目的 建立人胎大脑神经干细胞 (NSCs)分离培养的体外培养系统 ,鉴定其干细胞原始特征 ,观察上皮细胞生长因子(EGF)、碱性纤维母细胞生长因子 (FGF2 )和脑源神经生长因子 (BDNF)对NSCs分裂和分化的影响。
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     The lower average heterozygosity and its relative monosomy genetically demonstrated the population's primitive characteristics.
     位点平均杂合度较低,其相对的单一性从遗传上证实了该群体的原始特征。
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     These primitive characteristics of the nucleus distinguish diplomonads from all other presentknown archezoa. Therefore, I would suggest to divide kingdom Archezoa (Cavalier-Smith,1989) into two kingdoms, Proarchezoa (including diplomonads) and Metarchezoa. Both belong to superkingdom Archezoa(Cavalier-Smith, 1989).
     据此,作者建议把Cavalier—Smith(1989)提出的源真核生物(Archezoa)超界中的源真核生物界划分为两个界,即以双滴虫门为代表的前源真核生物(Proarchezoa)界和包含目前所知的其他源真核生物的后源真核生物(Metarchezoa)界。
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     Compared with other genera in the family, the flower of Bljxa japonica shows many primitive characteristics, such as bisexual, actinomorphic and numerous ovules, whereas the number of floral organs is fixed as 3 shows its intermediate evolutionary level.
     与同科其它属的花比较,水筛的花为两性,辐射对称,胚珠多数,体现了较原始的特征。 花各部数目均为3,进化程度居于中间水平。
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  相似匹配句对
     And the characteristics of the G.
     通过仿真和实验,也验证了G.
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     The characteristics of G.
     论文首先对语音编码的各种方案进行了比较,并对G.
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     Comment on aesthetic characteristics of primitive art
     论原始艺术的审美特征
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     On Decorative Artistic Characteristics of Primitive Color Potter
     论原始彩陶装饰艺术的特点
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     In the primitive subsect.
     在原始的菝葜叶铁线莲亚组subsect.
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  primitive characteristics
Biological material ranks, in the series considered, between river water and seawater, still showing primitive characteristics.
      
puncticaule group, may be considered to have primitive characteristics, andCornopteris may have been derived fromAthyrium by abortion of the indusia.Cystopteris is also related toAthyrium on the basis of reniform sori inC.
      
It is not that the sea was a frontier whose primitive characteristics led to the superfluity of government involvement.
      
Auditory stream segregation and auditory scene analysis are shared among human listeners, European starlings, and goldfish, and may be primitive characteristics of the vertebrate sense of hearing.
      
The stereo architecture of the lingual connective tissue cores (CTC) in the treeshrew (Tupaia glis) (which has the primitive characteristics of primates) was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and compared to that of other animal orders.
      
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The present paper deals with a new antiarch——Procondylolepis qujingensis gen.et sp.nov.The specimens,including some detached shoulder joints,several pectoralfins and a few isolated pectoral fin plates were collected from the Lower Devonianof Cuifengshan,Qujing,Yunnan in the past few years.Associated with this antiarchare Yunnanolepis parvus and Phymolepis cuifengshanensis etc.The new genus is char-acterized by the presence of a primitive brachial process at the base of axillary fossa,by its rather complicated...

The present paper deals with a new antiarch——Procondylolepis qujingensis gen.et sp.nov.The specimens,including some detached shoulder joints,several pectoralfins and a few isolated pectoral fin plates were collected from the Lower Devonianof Cuifengshan,Qujing,Yunnan in the past few years.Associated with this antiarchare Yunnanolepis parvus and Phymolepis cuifengshanensis etc.The new genus is char-acterized by the presence of a primitive brachial process at the base of axillary fossa,by its rather complicated axillary fossa margin and its small articular area of pec-toral fin.It differs from Yunnanolepis and Phymolepis in having a V-shaped bonyplate representing an early stage of brachial process at the base of axillary fossa,inhaving the separate dorsal and ventral fossae which are articulated with pectoral finat margin of axillary fossa,and in presence of a quite smooth articulated surfaceat the medial margin of the axillary fossa.The pectoral fin is small,short unjointed,made up of four longitudinal series ofplates,and basically similar to that of Remigolepis of Late Devonian in pattern.Thenew form.however,differs distinctly from Remigolepis in some significant morphologicalcharacters:absence of a helmetlike brachial process;having a very small and convexarticular area of pectoral fin articulated with shoulder girdle;thick lateral and flatmedial margin of pectoral fin,which might imply the difference of motive means.Itis very significant for understanding the development of the shoulder girdle and pec-toral fin in various evolutionary stages and the changes in their evolutionary history,as the Antiarchi is considered to be one of the highly specialized form among the ver-tebrates in regards of its shoulder girdle and pectoral fin.The discovery of Procondylolepis(gen.nov.)has provided new evidences for thestudy of the origin,evolution and classification of Antiarchi.On the basis of characters of the shoulder joint and pectoral fin of Procondylo-lepis,it leads to the following conclusions:1.The pectoral fin armour appeared earlier than brachial process in the evolu-tionary history of the Antiarchi.2.Procondylolepis gen.nov.is a transitional form representing a stage of An-tiarchi evolution which intermediated between the non-brachial process form,as Yun-nanolepiformes in the Early Devonian and the brachial process form,as those in theMiddle and Late Devonian ages. 3.Among the so far known antiarchs of Early Devonian,the shoulder girdle ofProcondylolepis gen.nov.is close mostly to those of ancestoral antiarchs of Middleand Late Devonian morphologically.All the known antiarchs of Middle and LateDevonian may be descended from some forms related to Procondylolepis.4.The unjointed pectoral fin of antiarchs is a primitive characteristic.thedorsal articular plate of the antiarchs known from Middle and Late Devonian whichhas long been thought to be the first dorsal central plate(Cd_1)should be the firstlateral marginal plate(Ml_1).5.The motion pattern of the pectoral fin in Procondylolepis gen.nov.is differentfrom those of antiarchs of Middle and Late Devonian.6.Antiarchi is suggested to be classified into two Superorder,Abrachicondyliaand Brachicondylia.Procondylolepiformes(ord.nov.)is proposed under the Brachi-condylia.

本文记述的曲靖始突鱼(Procondylolepis qujingensis gen.et sp.nov.)是近几年在云南曲靖早泥盆世地层中发现的有肢突胴甲鱼一原始类型。它和已知胴甲鱼(包括早泥盆世无肢突的和中、晚泥盆世有“盔”状肢突的)不同的最大特点是在其肩带与胸鳍相接的肩关节处有原始的肢突和简单的关节窝;胸鳍甲近端的关节区很小。它展现出胴甲鱼类这一高度特化、长期使人迷惑不解的肢突,在胴甲鱼演化史上发展变化的梗概,填补了肢突从无到有中间的缺环,使人了解到胸鳍的具体结构。文中主要根据肢突的有无和特化程度等,对胴甲鱼早期演化史作了初步探讨,将胴甲鱼分为无肢突超目(Abrachicondylia)和有肢突超目(Brachicondylia)两大部分。始突鱼则代表有肢突超目一早期成员。

Mimomys, as an important guide fossil was mainly found in the Late Cenozoic deposits of Europe. More than 40 local species of the genus have been docmnented in Europe since Forth-Major, created the genus in 1902. Two corresponding genera, Cosomys and Ogmodontomys, have also been identified in North Ameriea. In China, Kormos recognized the first Mimomys, named as Mimomys chinensis sp. nov., in 1934 when he revised the material described originally by Teilhard de Chardin and J. Pivetean (1930) as Arvicolide indet....

Mimomys, as an important guide fossil was mainly found in the Late Cenozoic deposits of Europe. More than 40 local species of the genus have been docmnented in Europe since Forth-Major, created the genus in 1902. Two corresponding genera, Cosomys and Ogmodontomys, have also been identified in North Ameriea. In China, Kormos recognized the first Mimomys, named as Mimomys chinensis sp. nov., in 1934 when he revised the material described originally by Teilhard de Chardin and J. Pivetean (1930) as Arvicolide indet. from Nihewan basin, Hebei. Since then, several species of the genus, M. orientalis Young, 1935, M. banchiaonicus Zheng et al, 1975, M. gansunicus Zheng, 1976, M. heshuinicus Zheng, 1976 and M. youhenicus, Xue, 1981 have been found one af- ter other in the different horizons of the Late Cenozoic deposits of North China. Unfortunately, all the materials collected are so fragmentary and most of the original description of these taxa are so sketchy and scattered in a number of different Chinese publications that the utilization for comparison in detail and for the stratigraphical correlation with other continents, has undoubtly been obstructed. The purpose of the present paper is trying to give a general review of the Chinese Mimys: on reexamination, systematic phylogeny, stratigraphical successions. Some new materials, including a new species——Mimomys peii, collected frown 5 new localities are describad in this paper. Description Mimomys (Villanyia) chinensis Kormos, 1934 Type A right lower jaw with M_(1-3) of young individual (IP 156, Teilhard et Piveteau, 1930, p.123, text-fig. 40; Kormos, 1934, p. 6, text-fig, 1c) (IVPP cat. no. RV 30011). Type locality Xia Sha-gou village, Yangyuan, Hebei. Referred materials A right lower jaw with I and M_(1-3)(V 8109) from Xi Yingzi, Lin Xi, Liaoning; a fragmentary left lower jaw with M_(1-2) (V 4766) and a left M_1 (V 4766. 1) from Jing-gou, Heshui, Gansu (Zheng, 1976, p. 115); a right M~1 (V 6043. 1) and a left M_3 (V 6043. 2) from locs. 77076 and 77078 of Gonghe basin, Qinghai (Zheng et al., 1985, p. 111). Diagnosis Size small. Without cement in the reentrant folds of molars. Prismfold, Mimomys-ridge and enamel-islet lacking. Anterior loop long and anterior cap situated labialy on M_1. Remarks Teilhard de Chardin et J. Piveteau (1930, p. 124) pointed out that the M_1 of Sangkan-ho is identical with that of Mimomys intermedius in having similar design and same degree of hypsodonty, but "rien ne nous autorise encore rattacher l'espce chinoise un genre europen caractris normalement par une brachydonite accentue et la prsence d'un bizarre lot d'mail entre le premir triangle externe et la boucle de la premire dent infrieure." Kormos (1934, p. 5) considered that "L'Arvicolid de Chine tait justement en train de dvelopper ses racines et tant donn cette circonstance, et en considration du dessin des dents, on doit, en premier lieu, le computer au Mimomys." After comparing it with M. neutoni, he cache to the conclusion that "il n'y a ancun doute que l'Arvicolid du Sangkan-ho soit un reprsentant du genre Mimomys, connu jusqu'ici seulement en Europe. Quoique ce type soit trs proche du Mimomys newtoni..." Although Teilh ard and Leroy (1942, pp. 32, 92) still referred it to Arvicola terraerubrae, yet Schaub (1943, p. 286, foot-note 19)regarded it as M. newtoni. Hellet ()957, p. 223) emphasized that Mimomys chinensis "...eine Form vorliegt, die nicht nur aussere Ahnlichkeit mit M. newtoni F. Major hat, sondern offenbar zu dieser sogar recbt nahe Verwandtschaft unterhlt." Both "Mimomys heshuinicus Zheng, 1976" from Jing-gou, Heshui and "Mimomys (Villanyia) laguriformes Erbajeva, 1973" from Transbeigal region, USSR seem to be synonymous with M. (V.) chinensis. Mimomys chincnsis also comforms to the definition of the subgenus Villanyia (Kretzoi, 1956) in lacking cement in the reentrant folds of molars and having an elongated and simplified anteroconid complex on M_1, so, we would like to bake the Chinese species as Mimomys (Villanyia) chinensis. Mimomys orientalis Young, 1935 Type A right M_1 of young individual (be lost) (Young, 1935, p. 33, text-fig. 12). Type locality Dongyan, Pinglu, Shanxi. Referred materials Fragment of a right lower jaw with M_(1-2) (IVPP cat. no. RV 42009) (Teilhard de Chardin, 1942, p. 96, text-fig. 59) from Haiyan, Yushe, Shanxi; fragment of a right lower jaw with M_(1-2) (V 8110) from Jizi-gou, Yushe; a right M, (75 Wei ①1.4, Xue, 1981, p. 37, Pl. II, fig. 6c). Diagnosis A more primitive species of Mimomys, characterized by 1) complete lack or poverty in cement of the molars; 2) the islet-fold, prism-fold and Mimomys-ridge in M_1 persistiug laterally to a lower place and the enamel-islet disappearing late, and 3) Paraneters E, Ea and Eb are 2.33, 2.25 and 1.00-1.25 respectively. Remarks Young (1935, p. 34) wrote that "the closest European form, in shape and in size, seems to be M. savini. From M. savini, M. orientalis difers only by the less opposite position of the third triangle with the third outer folds and the more complicated appearance of the prism-fold of the antcrior lobe." However, Kowalski (1960b, p. 479) pointed out "...this species represents an evolutionary stage similar to that of M. gracilis (Kretzoi) and M. stehlini Kormos." It is quite obvious that some primitive characteristics, for example, relative brachyodont molars, earlier formed roots, later disappeared enamel-islet, more confluent triangles, less or no cement, narrower reentrant folds, shortened and broad anterior loop and lower enamel-free area etc. are not close M. savini, but similar to one of the primitive European species. M. orientalis in size (M_1=2.8-3.12 mm in length) is larger than M. gracilis (2.5-2.6, Csarnota-2 type loc.), smaller than M. polonicus (3.1-3.4) and closer to both M. occitanus (2.70-3.33) and M. stehlini (2.8-3.36). The Parameter E(=2.33) of M. orientalis is inferior than that of M. polonicus (about 2.76-4.07), superior than that of M. occitanus (about 0.7-1.84) and falls within the variation range of that of M. stehlini (about 1.82-4.05). The disappearance of the enamel islet on the M_1 of M. oricntalis is earlier (about at the half of the height of crown) than all the species mentioned above. The noticeable confluence and symmetry of the outer and inner triangles might indicate that both M. orientalis and M. stehlini are in the same evolutionary stage. It is not even impossible that these two species may be synonymous. If so, the immigration of Mimomys between Europe and Asia during the Late Pliocene should be considered. Mimomys youhenicus Xue, 1981 Lectotype A right M_1 of young individual (75 Wei① 1.1, Xue, 1981, p. 37, Pl. II, fig. 6b). Type locality Youhe, Weinan, Shaanxi. Referred material A right M_1 (75 Wei ①1.2, Xue, 1981, p. 37, Pl. II, fig. 6a). Diagnosis A Mimomys slightly more advanced and smaller than M. orientalis, with more developed cement in the reentrant folds and higher enamel-free area on the labiai side of M_1 (Parameter E=3.67, Ea=3.33, Eb=2.17-2.58). Remarks Originally, Xue (1981) referred 4 specimens to her new species, M. youhenicus. During the reexamination, we found that these four isolated teeth might represented three different forms: M. orientalis (75 Wei ① 1.4, vide supra.), Mimomys sp. 2 (75 Wei ① 1.3, vide infra.) and M. youhenicus. The lectctype and another M_1 of M. youhenicus differ from M. orientalis in smaller size, higher crown, slightly smaller enamel-islet, simpler anterior cap and thicker cement. The specimen, an anterior part of M_1 (75 Wei ① 1.3), referred to Mimomys sp. 2 is larger in size and with more primitive characters. Although the Parameter E(=3.67) of M. youhenicus falls still in the variation range of M. stehlini (about 1.82-4.05), it can not be regarded as to be identical with the latter because of its obvious hypsodonty and more abundant cement in the reentrant folds. It is likely that M. youhenicus is at a slightly more advanced evolution stage than booth of M. orientalis and M. stehlini, but primitive than that of M. pliocaenicus and M. polonicus. Perhaps it is nearly at the same stage with M. kretzoii of Hajnk. Mimomys gansunicus Zheng, 1976 Holotype A right M_1 of adult individual (V 4765). Type locality Jing-gou, Heshui, Gansu. Referred materials Fragment of a right upper maxilla with M~(1-2) (V4765. 1) two left M~2 (V 4765.2-3), collected from the same locality as Holotype. Diagnosis Medium sized. In M_1, dentine space between outer and inner salient angles closed, prism-fold wider and extending down to the base of the tooth, islet-fold narrower and ending laterally at a higher level of crown, enamel-islet lacking or disappearing earlier, enamel-free area labially rather higher. Two roots present on M~(1-2). Thick cement in the folds of molars. Remarks The elosed dentine spaces of M_1 between outer and inner salient angles, the absence of the eannel-islet, the thick cement and the rather higher enamel-free area obviously indicate that M. gansunicus is more advanced than M. orientalis, M. youhenicus and M. banchiaonicus of China. Although M. gansunicus is closer in size (M_1=2.92 mm in length) to M. cf. intermedius (M_1=3.14mm) from Lishi of Shanxi (vide infra) or the M. intermedius of Europe, it differs from the latters in having more downward extending islet-fold, Mimomys-ridge and prism-fold, while in European species, "die komplikationen des M_1 (Prismenfalte, Inselfalte, Mimomys-kante, Schmelzinsel) nur zuoberst an der Krone nachzuweisen sind und noch vor Beginn der eigentlichen Wurzelbildung der Abfragung verfatlen. "Konmos, 1931, p. 10) M. gansunicus seems to be closer to "Cromeromys irtyshensis Zazhigin, 1980" (M_1=2.95 mm) both in size and structure, but its narrower prism-fold, robuster Mimomys-ridge and more downwards extending islet fold perhaps suggest that the Siberian form may represent a slightly primitive animal. Mimomys banchiaonicus Zheng et al., 1975 Holotype A left M_1 of an old indivicdual (V 4755). Type locality Lang-gou, Heshui, Gansu. Diagnosis Very large in size; much thick cement on the molars; enamel-islet probably disappearing earlier; prism-fold, Mimomys-ridge and islet-fold persisting down to the base of crown; enamel-free area rather low (Parameter E=0.47); the thickness of enamel on the occlusal surface less differential. Remarks Comparison with the large-sized group of European Mimomys, the M. banchiaonicus is still larger in size. (M_1=4.00 mm) than M. pliocaenicus (M_1=3.41-3.92 mm, after Chaline, 1974), yet close to both M. ostramosensis (M_1=3.10-4.15) and M. rex (M_1=3.8-4.2). Morphologically, it differs from M. pliocaenicus in more downwards extending prism-fold and islet-fold, and the low enamel-free area (Parameter E of M_1 in M. pliocaenicus is about 4.32-5.27, after Chaline, 1974, p. 340, text-fig. 2). M. banchiaonicus differs from M. ostramosensis of Hungary by 1) enamel-islet and Mimamysridge persisting until very late stage of wear, and 2) the enamel-free area obviously much lower than in latter species. According to the characteristics of M. rex given by Kormos (1934): size very large, absence of prism-fold and Mimomys-ridge, islet-fold deeper, with or without enamel-islet, abundant cement and dentine space between outer and inner salient angles closed etc., it should be cosidered that M. rex is more advanced than M. banchiaonicus. Probably M. banchiaonicus represents an ancestor form of the largesized group of Mimomys with thick cement in folds of molars. Mimomys cf. intermedius (Newton, 1881) A fragment of right lower jaw with M_(1-3) (V 8111) from Chaojia-yan, Lishi, Shanxi may be referred to this species, The lower incisor crosses the jaw from lingual to labial side between M_2 and M_3, the muscular impressions sharply defined and the masseter medialis muscle is divided into two parts as in M. intermedius figured by Hinton (1926, p. 369, Pl. XIV, fig. 2). Judging from 1) the length of the lower tooth row (7.17 mm), 2) the disappearing of prism-fold and Mimomys-ridge at a very early stage of wear, and 3) the absence of enamel-islet on M_1, the Chao-jia-yan specimen is identical with that of M. intermedius or M. savini of Europe. The only difference might be that the lingual fold of the anterior loop on M_1 of Shanxi specimen is deeper. Mimomys sp. 1 Materials A right lower jaw with M_(1-3) of a very old individual; a right lower jaw with M_2 and an isolated right M_3 (V 6338). Locality Xicun, Tunliu, Shanxi. Remarks This sample was described originally by Zong et al. in 1982 under the name of M. cf. banchiaonicus. However, its smaller size (M_1=3.68 mm), absence of cement and the persisting of the enamel-islet of M_1 to base of crown are definitely different from M. banchiaonicus and may represent the most primitive species of Mimomys known in China to present. Mimomys sp. 2 Anterior part of a right M_1 (75 Wei ① 1.3) from Youhe, Weinan, Shaanxi described as M. youhenicus by Xue in 1981 is different from either M. youhenicus or M. ori- entalis in its larger size, more downward extending of the islet-fold, thicker and stronger salient angles and more abundant cement of molar, but more similar to that of M. banchiaonicus. Mimomys peii sp. nov. Holotype A right M_1 of an adult individual (V8112). Paratype An anterior part of right M_1 of a juvenile (V 8113). Referred materials 7 left and 5 right M_1 (V 8114. 1-12); 3 left and 3 right M_2 (V 8114. 13-18) ; 2 left and 1 right M_3 (V8114. 19-21); 8 left and 12 right M~1 (V 8114. 22-41); 5 left and 5 right M~2 (V 8114. 42-51); and 2 left and 2 right M~3 (V 8114. 52-55). Derivation nominis Named in honor of late Prof. Pei, W. C, a well-known paleontologist and paleoanthropologist in China. Type locality Dachai, Xiangfeng, Shanxi. Diagnosis Later sized, hypsodont, enamel-islet present only at early stage of wear on M_1, but at very worn stage on M~3; islet-fold, Mimomys-ridge and prism-fold persisting to the base of crown on M~1; dentine spaces of molars partly confluent; thicker cement in reentrant of molars. Remarks M_1 of M. peii (3.20-3.95 mm in length) differs from that of M. banchiaonicus (M_1=4.00mm) in smaller size, higher enamel-free area, less developed cement and lack of enamel band at post-external base of crown. The new species is comparable with European M. pliocaenicus in size, but differs also by higher enamel-free area, earlier disappearance of the enamel-islet, late eruption of molar roots and possessing only 2 roots on M~2 etc. The differences may indicate that M. peii is phylogenetically more advanced than M. pliocaenicus. M. peii is close to M. rex in size, but its later disappearance of prism-fold, isletfold and Mimomys-ridge; labially uncurved anterior cap and more confluent dentine spaces between outer and inner salient angles may indicate that it is more primitive than M, rex. M. peii is close also to M. ostramosensis (M_1=3.10-4.15) in size and in the number of roots of upper molars. From M. ostramosensis, however, the new species differs by the more persistent islet-fold and Mimomys-ridge of M_1, the later disappearance of cnamel islet on M~3 and the more confluent dentine spaces of molars. M. peii is similar to M. reidi in number of roots of upper molars, but distinguishable from the latter in larger size, later disappearance of islet-fold and Mimomys-ridge. As a whole, it may be suggested that M. peii is phylogenetically more advanced than M. pliocaenicus and somewhat primitive than M. ostramosensis, M. reidi and M. rex. Conclusion I. Based on the above descriptions, we set up the Chinese Mimomys zones and their correlation with the European zones tentatively as in the table 5 (see Chinese text). II. Evolutionary trend of Chinese Mimomys 1. The roots of upper molar reduced in number M. orientalis has 3 roots in all of upper cheek teeth; in M. peii sp. nov., the last two upper molars possess 2 roots; while all the upper cheek teeth of M. gansunicus have only 2 roots. Such an evolution trend has been observed in European forms, e.g.M, stehlini, M. ostramosensis and M. newtoni. 2. The deposits of cement There are two different lines concerning the olcarrenee of cement in the reentrant folds cf molars: a) represented by M. orientalis——M. youhenicus M. gansunicus, cement deposits gradually thickened as shown in the European forms of the correlated ages; b) M. banchiaonicus may be near the ancestor of the species filled with thick cement. 3. Height of crown The parameter E of M. orientalis (=2.33) and M. youhenicus (3.67) fall into the range of change of M. stehlini——M. polonicus (about 1.82-4.07), while the M. banchiaonicus (0.47) is roughly the same as the stage of M. occitanus (0.32-1.79). 4. Variation of the anteroconid complex of M_1 a. Anterior cap: The presence of a shorter and broader anterior cap with deeper lingual fold in M. banchiaonicus, M. orientalis, M. youhenicus and M. peii might represent a primitive nature or property. b. Enamel-islet and islet-fold: Morphologically, the evolution trend can be shown as (1) islet-fold beeoming shallow, even lost; (2) enamel-islet disappeared ontologically gradually early; and (3) the shape of enamel-islet changing from oval to circle and the direction of its long axis from anterointernal-postexternal to transverse. The persistance of the islet-fold on the lateral side is almost equal to that of the prism-fold in M. banchiaonicus and M. occitanus; somewhat shorter than the latter in M. orientalis and M. stchlini, and shorter obviously in M. youhenicus, M. kretzoii and M. polonicus. c. The phylogenetic evolution line is characterized by the reduction of both Mimomys-ridge and third labial salient angle projecting outward and by the regression of prism-fold extending to the base of the shaft of M_1. In this case, the M. banchiaonicus, M. orientalis, M. youhenicus and M. peii should be considered as prhnitive forms. III. Chronological sequence of various species of Mimomys in China The following paragraph will discuss shortly on the faunal assemblages associated with the various species of Mimomys found in China. The chronological sequence among the related faunas reflected in accordance with the morphological evolution trend of Chinese Mimomys. M. (V.) chinensis has been found in the fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Nihewan and Gonghe and also in the upper part of Wucheug loess (eqtal to the Zone B of reddish clay of Teilhard and Young, 1931) from several localities in North China (vide supra.) Associated with M. (V.) chinensis are the following taxa: Myospalax arvicolinus, M. tingi, Ochotonoides complicidens, Hypolagus brachypus, Proboscidipoarion sinensis, Equus sanmeniensis, Cervus boulei, Gazella sinensis, Cynailurus pleistocaenicus, Machairodus nihowanensis, Pliohyaena licenti etc.. Such an assemblage, representing Nihewan (s.s) stage, might correspond with the Late Villafranchian of Eutrope (MN 18). M. peii, sp. nov. associaied with Trogontherium minus and a primitive Myospalax (M. omegodon) was found in the gray-green clay of Dachai, Xiang-feng, Shanxi, which may be correlated to the lower part of Wueheng loess (or. Zone A of Reddish clay) in China and might be equivalent to the Middle of Villafranchian (MN 17). The association of M. orientalis and M. yovhenicus in Youhe locality is Chardinomys sp., Kowalskia sp., Hipparion houfengensc etc., which indicate a slightly earlier age and may be equivalent to Early Villafranchian (in part of MN 16). Mimomys sp. l from Xicun, Tunliu, Shanxi probably represents the first appearance of this genus in China. We are not sure at present, however, whether the Xicun fauna, including Hipparion sp., Gazella of. blacki and Stegodon cf. chaii etc., can be roughly compared w

本文详细综述了中国的 Mimomys 属材料.分布青海共和、甘肃合水、河北阳原及辽宁林西的 M. (Villanyia) chinensis Kormos、在甘肃合水与 M. gansunicus Zheng 共生,其时代为泥河湾期(或晚维拉方期,相当于 MN 18); 分布陕西渭南、山西平陆、榆社及河北阳原的 M. orientalis Young 和欧洲种 M. stehlini Kormos、分布渭南的 M. youhenicus 和欧洲种 M. kretzoii Fejfar 分别处于大致相同的进化阶段并和一个与 M. banchiaonicus 相似的种类共生, 其时代均为游河期(或早维拉方期,相当于 MN 16); 山西襄汾的 M. peii sp. nov. 的时代为大柴期(或中维拉方期,相当于 MN 17); 山西离石的 M. cf. intermedius (Newton) 的时代为泥河湾期;山西屯留的 Mimomys sp. 的时代可能偏早,为西村期(可能相当于路西南期或 MN 15).

The main axis of the plantconsists of a short stem. from the base of which arises numerous fibrous roots, The apical top of the axis is crowded with the sheathing leaf bases forming a rosette.There is a great variability in the type and shape of leaves according to the locality and water depth in which the plant in growing. Submerged leaves, floating leaves and aerial leaves occur successively in its ontogenetic development. Common features of them are stomatas, large air spaces a less amount of sclerenchyma...

The main axis of the plantconsists of a short stem. from the base of which arises numerous fibrous roots, The apical top of the axis is crowded with the sheathing leaf bases forming a rosette.There is a great variability in the type and shape of leaves according to the locality and water depth in which the plant in growing. Submerged leaves, floating leaves and aerial leaves occur successively in its ontogenetic development. Common features of them are stomatas, large air spaces a less amount of sclerenchyma and a weak development of vascular system; and the stomata are moreor less raised above the leaf surface. The submerged leaves have a relatlvely undifferentiated. mesophyll differentiation of palisade, and spongy tissue is absent.primary root commonly lives a relatively short time and the root system is formed by adventitious roots arising from the base of the shoot. A the primary root grows, the apical meristem acquires a definite cellular pattern. The adventitious root also shows characteristic arrangement of cellsis its apical meristem similar to that of the primary root. The vascular cylinder, the cortex, and the rootcap are traceable to independent layers of cells in the apical meristem, with the epidermis differentiating from the outermost layer of the cortex. Thus the root is a closed type of apical organization.This paper also describe the progress and structure of seed germination and discusses the evolutionary adaptations of the vegetative body to the water environment, the terrestrial features and its primitive characteristics.

本文着重介绍慈菇个体发育中营养器官的建成,五种叶型结构及两种根的比较解剖;同时对慈菇种子的结构与萌发过程进行了较为详细的描述。並对慈菇营养体对水环境的适应,陆生特征及其原始性进行了探讨。

 
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