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They estimate that the theoretical maximum wholebody gammaray doserate from external exposure to depleted uranium is 0.025mSv per hour.




 For measurements of environmental gammaray dose rate byusing GM counter dose rate monitors ,thepaper diseusses the methods ofenergy response improvements relative to H_(10). The energyrespones of energycompensated GM tubes will be better than± 30%inmonoenergy field(include the narrow spectrum and lowair kerma rate Xradiation field of ISO 4037).Meanwhile,in some special garmma radiationfield,the maxium errors will be less than± 15%.The effects of internal radioactiVlty... For measurements of environmental gammaray dose rate byusing GM counter dose rate monitors ,thepaper diseusses the methods ofenergy response improvements relative to H_(10). The energyrespones of energycompensated GM tubes will be better than± 30%inmonoenergy field(include the narrow spectrum and lowair kerma rate Xradiation field of ISO 4037).Meanwhile,in some special garmma radiationfield,the maxium errors will be less than± 15%.The effects of internal radioactiVlty background of GMcounter on the lower limit of gamma dose rate measuring assembly are also discussed.If theinternal background could be substractedcarefully ,the lower limit ofdetection will be down to level of 10￣(8)Gy/h,so the instruments can beused to measure the environmental gammaray dose rate.(  本文针对Ｇ－Ｍ计数管剂量率仪器用于测量环境辐射水平，讨论了其能量响应的改进方法、自身本底的影响以及在典型Ｙ辐射场中能量响应所造成的极端误差。Ｇ－Ｍ计数管经过包适当的能量响应补偿层，单能能响可以达到好于±３０％．在典型Ｙ辐射场中能量响应所造成的极端误差不超过士１５％。经过扣除自身本底，测量下限可以达到ＩＯ￣（－８）Ｇｙ／ｈ的量级，兼顾一般环境辐射水平的测量。  In the process of measurement and calibration of gamma ray dose rate,GD 40 is used as gamma ray detector to measure gamma ray dose rate. The laboratory calibration of detector sensitivity is done in 60 Co gamma ray source. 60 Co gamma ray average energy is 1.25 MeV. When the detector is used for practice radiation field, its energy spectrum is significantly different, so the sensitivity of laboratory calibration... In the process of measurement and calibration of gamma ray dose rate,GD 40 is used as gamma ray detector to measure gamma ray dose rate. The laboratory calibration of detector sensitivity is done in 60 Co gamma ray source. 60 Co gamma ray average energy is 1.25 MeV. When the detector is used for practice radiation field, its energy spectrum is significantly different, so the sensitivity of laboratory calibration must be corrected. Using the method of Monte Carlo particle transportation simulation, the ratio of doses of the radiation with a given energy spectrum that of a mono energy(1.25 MeV) radiation is calculated as the correction coefficient. The method is described and the results are given for a GD 40 detector.  在γ剂量率测量标定中，使用ＧＤ－４０管作为γ探头来测量γ剂量率。实验室标定γ探头灵敏度在钴源上进行，６０Ｇｏ源平均能量为１．２５ＭｅＶ，而在实际测量中，辐射场的γ射线包含了各种能量成份，因此对实验室标定的灵敏度在实际应用中就需要进行修正。本工作通过蒙特卡罗粒子输运模拟方法，计算了单能与辐射场能谱的剂量比值，给出了修正因子，从而使γ剂量率灵敏度标定更加准确。  >=The neutron spectrum of the fast neutron device in Xi’an Pulse Reactor was measured with multiple foil activation method and unfolded with SANDII, the uncertainty of the experimental neutron spectrum was analyzed with Monte Carlo method, its distribution was about 10%~30%.The theory neutron spectrum was simulated and calculated with Monte Carlo method, the bias of the theory spectrum was about 10%. The resolved experiment neutron spectrum was agree well with the experiment spectrum. The resolved total neutron... >=The neutron spectrum of the fast neutron device in Xi’an Pulse Reactor was measured with multiple foil activation method and unfolded with SANDII, the uncertainty of the experimental neutron spectrum was analyzed with Monte Carlo method, its distribution was about 10%~30%.The theory neutron spectrum was simulated and calculated with Monte Carlo method, the bias of the theory spectrum was about 10%. The resolved experiment neutron spectrum was agree well with the experiment spectrum. The resolved total neutron fluence φt of the measurement neutron spectrum for the fast neutron device is 2.97×1011n/(cm2.sec), the equivalent 1MeV neutron fluence, Фeq,1MeV is 1.68×1011n/(cm2.sec). The fast neutron fluence φf with neutron energy above 0.1MeV is 2.01×1011n/(cm2.sec), the epithermal neutron fluence φepi with neutron energy between 0.4eV to 0.1MeV is 9.75×1010n/(cm2.sec), and the thermal neutron fluence φth with neutron energy below 0.4eV is 4.75×108n/(cm2.sec). The gamma ray dose rate of the device was measured with thermoluminescent detector(7LiF(Mg,Ti)1007M) which was nonsensitive to neutrons, the measured gamma dose rate of the device was 0.35Gy(Si)/s, the uncertainty of the measurement gamma dose was about 30%.The experiment value of φf / D? γ for the fast neutron device is about 5.74×1011 n/(cm2.Gy(Si)). The experiment results prove that the indexes of the device designed were satisfied well. In the end of the paper, the difference between the experiment and calculation results were analyzed.  The neutron spectrum of the fast neutron device in Xi’an Pulse Reactor was measured with multiple foil activation method and unfolded with SANDII, the uncertainty of the experimental neutron spectrum was analyzed with Monte Carlo method, its distribution was about 10%~30%.The theory neutron spectrum was simulated and calculated with Monte Carlo method, the bias of the theory spectrum was about 10%. The resolved experiment neutron spectrum was agree well with the experiment spectrum. The resolved total neut... The neutron spectrum of the fast neutron device in Xi’an Pulse Reactor was measured with multiple foil activation method and unfolded with SANDII, the uncertainty of the experimental neutron spectrum was analyzed with Monte Carlo method, its distribution was about 10%~30%.The theory neutron spectrum was simulated and calculated with Monte Carlo method, the bias of the theory spectrum was about 10%. The resolved experiment neutron spectrum was agree well with the experiment spectrum. The resolved total neutron fluence φt of the measurement neutron spectrum for the fast neutron device is 2.97×1011n/(cm2.sec), the equivalent 1MeV neutron fluence, Фeq,1MeV is 1.68×1011n/(cm2.sec). The fast neutron fluence φf with neutron energy above 0.1MeV is 2.01×1011n/(cm2.sec), the epithermal neutron fluence φepi with neutron energy between 0.4eV to 0.1MeV is 9.75×1010n/(cm2.sec), and the thermal neutron fluence φth with neutron energy below 0.4eV is 4.75×108n/(cm2.sec). The gamma ray dose rate of the device was measured with thermoluminescent detector(7LiF(Mg,Ti)1007M) which was nonsensitive to neutrons, the measured gamma dose rate of the device was 0.35Gy(Si)/s, the uncertainty of the measurement gamma dose was about 30%.The experiment value of φf / D? γ for the fast neutron device is about 5.74×1011 n/(cm2.Gy(Si)). The experiment results prove that the indexes of the device designed were satisfied well. In the end of the paper, the difference between the experiment and calculation results were analyzed.   << 更多相关文摘 
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