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buddhist disciplines
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  佛教戒律
     Buddhist Disciplines and Women's Family Life in Tang Dynasty
     佛教戒律与唐代妇女家庭生活
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  相似匹配句对
     Buddhist Disciplines and Women's Family Life in Tang Dynasty
     佛教戒律与唐代妇女家庭生活
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     Buddhist and music
     禅与音乐
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     Schools and Disciplines
     学派与学科
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     Theory on Disciplines
     学科论
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     On Art of the Buddhist Statue
     关于佛像艺术
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The kuangyan qiyu (wild words and flowery expressions) as a popular literary style prevailed during the mid and late Tang Dynasty. Textual research shows that Bai Juyi (AD 772-846), one of the great Tang poets, is the first man who used the kuangyan qiyu as a literary term. From the first year of Japan's Kouhou reign (AD 964), this concept of his was accepted by the representative groups of Japanese literati, gradually becoming an important trend of thought in art and literature in the middle and late...

The kuangyan qiyu (wild words and flowery expressions) as a popular literary style prevailed during the mid and late Tang Dynasty. Textual research shows that Bai Juyi (AD 772-846), one of the great Tang poets, is the first man who used the kuangyan qiyu as a literary term. From the first year of Japan's Kouhou reign (AD 964), this concept of his was accepted by the representative groups of Japanese literati, gradually becoming an important trend of thought in art and literature in the middle and late Heian Period and ultimately the mainstream in Middle Ages. It also made some considerable impact in Japan in modern times. Although the kuangyan qiyu did not go down history as a literary concept in China, it is necessary for us to trace its origin and study the background of its emergence so that further research can be made into the reason why it has exerted such a widespread and profound influence on Japanese art and literature.In the 4 th and 5 th year of the Kaicheng Period of Emperor Wenzong of the Tang Dynasty (AD 839-840), Bai Juyi advanced the concept of kuangyan qiyu . From his point of view, the kuangyan qiyu could find expression in poems and prose whose writers did not confine themselves to the accepted rites but indulged in wild words and sensual pleasures. Nevertheless, while examining his “wild words and flowery expressions” that could supposedly violate Confucian tradition and Buddhist disciplines, Bai Yuji confirmed the reasonableness of the kuangyan qiyu by complying with his original wish that the “non religious language” and the “ kuangyan qiyu ”, taken as “Karma” and “demerit” respectively, should serve to disseminate Buddhism constantly.The emergence of the kuangyan qiyu was due to the new prevailing custom of the Tang Dynasty. The unification of the country, the unity of different ethnic groups, the stability of the society, and the free, active and relaxed ideological environment all contributed to the formation of the new custom characteristic of sensual pleasures as its superficial phenomenon. In this context, therefore, the Southern Chan School became popular and Mizong (Esoteric Buddhism or Tantrism) came to appear. While the Southern Chan School advocated that “being natural to its extreme” should be a person's ultimate ideal of life, which served as the general guiding principle of Chinese literati and scholar officials for their attitude towards life, Mizong advocated the “interdependence between pollution and pureness” and “becoming pure hearted by being exposed to pollution”, which also had great influence on people's attitude towards life. These two Buddhist schools pushed forward the development of the new custom and vice versa. From a certain perspective, it was the new Tang custom, the Southern Chan School and Mizong that facilitated the growth of the kuangyan qiyu.

自日本康保元年 ( 964)起 ,“狂言绮语观”逐渐成为平安中晚期的重要文艺思潮 ,进而发展成为中世文艺思潮的主流 ,在近世和近代也有过不可忽视的影响。“狂言绮语观”源于中国唐代诗人白居易的《苏州南禅院白氏文集记》( 83 9)和《香山寺白氏洛中集记》( 840 )。在这里 ,白居易在反省自己那些有违于儒教传统和佛教戒律的“狂言绮语”的同时 ,又以“世俗文字之业”和“狂言绮语之过”可转为“赞佛乘之因 ,转法轮之缘”的本愿 ,肯定了“狂言绮语”的存在价值。“狂言绮语”作为一种文学艺术的风格 ,盛行于中国唐代中晚期。以纵情声色为表象的唐代新风尚的形成 ,将一种推到极致的“自然”作为人生最高理想的南宗禅的盛行 ,提倡“以染为净”和“大染欲”的密宗的兴起 ,可被视作“狂言绮语”的源头。

 
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