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different race
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  不同人种
     Objective:To investigate the gene polymorphism distribution of tumor necrosis factor-beta(TNFβ) with SLE patient and different race in Chinese Han population of Jiangsu province.
     目的 :探讨中国江苏地区汉族人群TNFβ基因多态性在SLE病人中分布特点 ,并与不同人种进行比较研究。
短句来源
     The increasing of immigration in the world made different race and ethnicity live together and contradictions and conflicts more and more, and it is a important social problem in many countries and areas.
     全球化的一个突出特征是移民的增加,从而造成了不同人种和种族间的杂居和交往不断上升,其重要后果之一就是人种和种族间的矛盾与冲突的不断出现。 人种与种族成为世界许多国家和地区的重大社会问题。
短句来源
  不同民族
     METHODS The linear dependence analysis of intemational prostatic symptom score (EPSS), the living quality score( L), the volume and weight of prostate, age of patients and urodynamic parameters were carried out in 71 cases of different race men with BPH.
     方法 对71例住院手术的维汉不同民族前列腺增生症(BPH)患者进行国际前列腺症状评分(IPSS),生活质量评分(L),前列腺体积(V),重量(M)、患者与年龄(age)尿流动力学指标的直线相关分析。
短句来源
     Numerous art masters of the different ages, different race of the art history of mankind according to each from to the human nature, to life of different value comprehend, with the realistic emotion experience and deep humanities concerns, created a great deal of excellent art delicacy, this kind of creation constitute the basic content of the art language of mankind namely, again is the art sign occurrence and develop continuously of the motive and the marriage.
     人类艺术史上的不同时代、不同民族的众多艺术大师基于各自对人性、对生命的不同价值理解,以真切的情感体验和深刻的人文关怀,创造了大量优秀的艺术珍品,这种创造即构成人类艺术语言的基本内涵,又是艺术符号发生和不断发展的动机和归宿。
短句来源
     Concerning the topic of international new order,Jiang Zeming laid claim to take five principles of peaceful coexistence as the foundation to build up international new order,and meanwhile,respect the civilization diversity of different race,nation and region,push international relation democratization,take good order with varied interrelations.
     关于国际新秩序问题,江泽民主张以和平共处五项原则为基础建立国际新秩序,尊重不同民族、不同国家和地区文明的多样性,推动国际关系民主化,处理好多种关系。
短句来源
     We should develop different mental consultation and mental health service according to different race? gender and grade.
     结论:新医大学生心理状况水平低于全国青年组但高于全国大学生水平 ,应开展心理咨询和心理卫生服务 ,在开展工作时应针对不同民族、不同性别、不同年级的特点进行 ,才能收到较好的效果。
短句来源
     From the aesthetics of reception, True Story Of A Q is an empty frame invoke construction, and it can draw a lot of readers, but the meaning is different from different ages, different race and different readers. So True Story Of A Q doesn' t exhaust.
     从接受美学来说,《阿Q正传》是一部空框似的召唤结构的作品,它吸引着历代读者对它的评论和解读,但不同时代、不同民族、不同层次的读者赋予它的意义都是不一样的,因此阿Q是说不尽的、《阿Q正传》也是说不尽的。
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  “different race”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Conclusion A1166C polymorphism of AT1R gene was significantly different in different race of people.
     结论AT1R基因A1166C多态性分布在不同种族之间显著不同。
短句来源
     It shows that different race and area have different alleles. GD is significantly associated with HLA-DQA1*0102 HLA-DQA1*0302/0501 and HLA-DQA1* 0101/0301. It suggests that the HLA-DQA1*0102and HLA-DQA1*0302/0501 might be the genetic markers of susceptibility , HLA-DQA1*0101/0301 might be the genetic markers of protection for GD in Chongqing Han nationality children.
     提示:HLA-DQA1*0102和AHLA-DQA1*0302/*0501可能为易感基因,HLA-DQA1*0101/*0301可能为保护基因。 4.本研究范围内显示: HLA-DQA1与GD儿童的相关性缺乏性别、家族史的差异,但与是否伴发GD眼病相关,HLA-DQA1*0102可能为GD眼病的保护基因。
短句来源
     AIM: Through analyzing the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the 54 Ala/Thr (A/T) of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) in different race, eating habit and age groups, to explore the reason for inducing mutation at encoding 54 A/T in IFABP gene.
     目的:通过对不同种族、不同饮食习惯、不同年龄组人群IFABP基因exonⅡ54位编码丙氨酸(A)/苏氨酸(T)单核苷酸多态性分析,探讨IFABP基因54位点突变诱因。
短句来源
     Objective To observe the dynamic changes of serum Myelin basic protein (MBP) and histological changes on the injured half transection of adult rat after transplantation of the microencapsulated Schwann cells(SCs), in order to study the mechanism how the transplantation of microencapsulated different race of SCs helps to treat the spinal cord injury(SCI).
     目的 观察大鼠脊髓半横断损伤后植入微囊化兔雪旺细胞(Schwann Cells,SCs)对血清髓鞘碱性蛋白(Myelin Basic Protein,MBP)变化的影响及组织学变化,初步探讨微囊化异种SCs移植治疗脊髓损伤(Spinal Cord injury,SCI)的修复机制及对髓鞘再形成的影响。
短句来源
     Objective To observe the influence of the NOS expression on the spinal cord half transection injury of adult rat after transplantation of the microencapsulated rabbit sciatic nerve tissue, Study the mechanism that the transplantation with microencapsulated different race nervous tissue/cells treats the spinal cord injury(SCI).
     目的:观察大鼠脊髓半横断损伤后植入微囊化兔坐骨神经组织对NOS表达的影响,进一步探讨微囊化异种神经组织细胞移植治疗脊髓损伤(spinal cord injury,SCI)的机制。
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查询“different race”译词为用户自定义的双语例句

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  different race
Nelson-Aalen cumulative hazard estimates for the different race and dose combinations revealed that Caucasians who received daily interferon were most likely to have an initial response (logrank, P >amp;lt; 0.001).
      
The question we should like to answer in this study is whether a similar pattern obtains for the factors which influence subjective well-being among the different race groups in South Africa.
      
Reactions to different race isolates of SCN were distinguishable among different groupings of the clusters and PCA results, and various origins of the PIs and the pedigree information of the cultivars could be associated with the different clusters.
      
In five, each with a different race, no randomization of the 20 wheat genotypes was carried out.
      
It was found that the isolate fromDahlia was a different race to the isolates fromRosa andPrunus spp.
      
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Among collections chiefly from North China,different races of Pucciniaglumarum were identified by means of differential hosts used by Gassner & Straibor a set of improved varieties of wheat grown in China. Among 14 improved varieties,marked differences in resistance to stripe rustwere observed.Li-Yung I was resistant to 40 out of 50 collections of striperust,with unstable reactions to 7 collections; Nanking 4197 was resistant to 37 ??collections with unstable reactions to 9 collections; while Yechao 35368...

Among collections chiefly from North China,different races of Pucciniaglumarum were identified by means of differential hosts used by Gassner & Straibor a set of improved varieties of wheat grown in China. Among 14 improved varieties,marked differences in resistance to stripe rustwere observed.Li-Yung I was resistant to 40 out of 50 collections of striperust,with unstable reactions to 7 collections; Nanking 4197 was resistant to 37 ??collections with unstable reactions to 9 collections; while Yechao 35368 and Ye-Ta 1885 were susceptible to all except 5 collections from FJymus ckinense.Theinstability of varietal reactions is one of the principal obstacles in identification.As a consequence,tests with 6 improved varieties including Early Premium,Pi-Ma 1,etc.,only 21 out of 50 stripe rust collections could be differentiated into10 distinctly different races (Y 1 to Y10).However,there were great differencesin pathogenicity among different races so far identified.All the 6 improvedvarieties were resistant to race Y 1 and susceptible to race Y 2.The virulenceof other races differed from one another also pronouncedly. Races Y2,Y3,Y4,Y5 ,Y6,Y7 ,and Y8 were collected from wheat; Y 9 andY10 from Agropyron spp.; and Y1 was collected mainly from Elymus chinense(including 1 collection from wheat).Races Y 1,Y 3.Y 4,Y 5,Y 7,Y 8,Y 9,Y 10were found in Hopeh; Y 1,Y 2,Y 6,Y 7 in Shansi; and Y 6 in Shantung. All collections could be readily grouped into 16 different forms if the highestreaction type was taken as a basis for identification (this method of groupingwas adopted by Fang et al).Comparing the results with that of Fang et al,itappeared that reactions of certain varieties,such as Early Premium,Li-Yung 1 tocollections from North China were distinctly different from their reactions tocollections from East China.This suggested strongly that races of stripe rustorganism between these two regions might be quite different. All wheat varieties tested were found to be resistant to stripe rust collectionsfrom Elymus chinense.whereas collections from Elymus sibiricus and Agropyronspp.were capable of attacking many wheat varieties. Single spore infection of stripe rust frequently resulted in sporulation on thewhole leaf blade.This is definitely much more systemic than infections of eitherstem rust or leaf rust organism.Inoculations with single uredospores and mono-uredospore lines often produced mixtures of infection types ranging from resistantto susceptible on same leaf blades.This is analogous to "X" type reactions re-ported in stem rust and leaf rust literature; therefore,"X" type reaction shouldalso be recognized in the study of stripe rust.

1950年以来自华北以及少数其他地区搜集的条銹菌种,不論在Gassner和Straib所用的鑒定寄主或在国內推广品种上鑒定,都可区分出許多不同的类型。所用14个推广品种对于这些条绣菌种的抗病性有着很大的差別;其中以驪英1号最抗病,对50个菌种中的40个菌种是抵抗的,对7个菌种反应不稳定;金大4197次之,对37个菌种是抵抗的,9个菌种反映不稳定;燕交35368及燕大1885除了对5个碱草(Elymus chin-ense)条銹菌种抵抗外,对其他所有菌种的反应都是感染型。品种反应的不稳定,是鑒定工作中的主要困难。加根据早洋麦、农大3号、碧螞1号、碧螞4号、驪英3号、玉皮麦等6个品种的稳定反应加以分析,仅能將50个菌种中的21个区分成10个显著不同的类型。这6个品种对第一类型均为抵抗,对第二类型均为感染,其他类型的致病力介于二者之間。在这10个类型中,类型Y_2,Y_3,Y_4,Y_5,Y_6,Y_7,Y_8采自小麦;类型Y_9,Y_(10)采自Agropyron spp.;类型Y_1主要采自Elymuschinense(包括一个小麦菌种)。河北出現的类型有Y_1,Y_3,Y_4,Y_5,Y_7,Y_8,Y_9,...

1950年以来自华北以及少数其他地区搜集的条銹菌种,不論在Gassner和Straib所用的鑒定寄主或在国內推广品种上鑒定,都可区分出許多不同的类型。所用14个推广品种对于这些条绣菌种的抗病性有着很大的差別;其中以驪英1号最抗病,对50个菌种中的40个菌种是抵抗的,对7个菌种反应不稳定;金大4197次之,对37个菌种是抵抗的,9个菌种反映不稳定;燕交35368及燕大1885除了对5个碱草(Elymus chin-ense)条銹菌种抵抗外,对其他所有菌种的反应都是感染型。品种反应的不稳定,是鑒定工作中的主要困难。加根据早洋麦、农大3号、碧螞1号、碧螞4号、驪英3号、玉皮麦等6个品种的稳定反应加以分析,仅能將50个菌种中的21个区分成10个显著不同的类型。这6个品种对第一类型均为抵抗,对第二类型均为感染,其他类型的致病力介于二者之間。在这10个类型中,类型Y_2,Y_3,Y_4,Y_5,Y_6,Y_7,Y_8采自小麦;类型Y_9,Y_(10)采自Agropyron spp.;类型Y_1主要采自Elymuschinense(包括一个小麦菌种)。河北出現的类型有Y_1,Y_3,Y_4,Y_5,Y_7,Y_8,Y_9,Y_(10);山西出現有类型Y_1,Y_2,Y_6,Y_7;山东出現有类型Y_6。品种不稳定反应除通过选擇反应較为稳定的品种来克服外,同时还須严格掌握温室条件。如以品种的最高反应为标准(如方中达、陈迺用所采用),則可將上面50个菌种分成16个不同的类型。与华东的結果比較,許多品种如早洋麦、驪英1号等对兩个地区条銹病菌的反应适相反,表明华东和华北条锈菌的致病力可能有很大的差別。Elymus chinense的条銹菌与小麦条绣菌的致病力有極大差异,所测定的小麦品种对前者均抵抗。Elymus sibiricus和Agropyron spp.的条绣菌則能正常侵染多种小麦品种的幼苗。条銹菌在小麦叶片內能适当的扩展,較秆銹菌和叶銹菌更有系統性,單孢子接种約在二星期左右可蔓延到整个叶片。同一叶片上常出現抗病和感病的反应,用單孢及單孢菌系接种,得出同样結果。条绣菌的鑒定标准中除了原有的反应型外,还应加入混合型“X”一項。

(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which...

(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which has made the ethnic position of the Malayans as well as the ethnicrelationship between the Malayans and the other related peoples unclear scientifically. Therecent anthropological studies revealed the close ethnic relation between the brown raceand the yellow race, hence the Malayan stock is regarded as one branch of the Mongo-loids and given a new term "Oceanic Mongoloid". The Malayan stock now stands closelywith its two brothers the Northern Mongoloid and the Southern Mongoloid. The term "Malayans" is used here in its broader meaning which includes all thepeoples in Malaysia with a physical characteristics mostly of yellowish-brown colour.brachycephalie (broad) head form, black and straight hair, scanty beard, Malayan eye.medium stature and speaking branches of Malayo-Polynesian language which is agglutina-tive in its nature. Scientifically, both the "proto-Malays" and the "deutero-Malays", orboth the "true Malays" (Orang Malayu) and the other Malayans outside of it are to beconsidered here as the Malayan stock. Generally speaking, largest part of the peoplesliving in Malaya, Indonesia, Philippines and other islands bear this common name inscientific sense. Within the country of Indonesia the term Indonesians is most usuallyused, but in this article, the Indonesians is also included in the term Malayan stockbecause the latter is larger in its scope and more generally used in science. The Malayan stock is not a pure, single race but one of many elements intermixedtogether. The first element is the Oceanic Mongoloid which came from the north, pro-bable Chinese continent, its physical characteristics survived are the black, straight hair,broad head, yellowish-brown colour, medium stature and certain degree of Mongolian eye(narrow eye with Mongolian fold which covers the upper eye-lid). The second elementis the Indonesian stock, (This is used in scientific, narrower meaning instead of thatused in common sense) and early branch of the Caucasian race, originated in westernAsia and migrated eastward to Malaysia through Indo-China; it gives the present people the physical characteristics of Malayan eye, (broad eye without Mongolian fold hence theeye-lashes and a concave line on the eye-lid can be seen clearly) a certain degree of doli-chocephalie (long) head together with the agglutinative Malayo-Polynesian language. Thethird element is the Oceanic Negroid whose part contributed to the Malayans is not solarge that it still has pure descendants in present day viz. the Negritoes and the Papuans;while the fourth element is the Veddas came from India. The third and fourth one arri-ved earliest in probably Palaeolithic age, but played no important role in ethnic composi-tion of the Malayan stock because of their small number in population. The second onereached Malaysia after the above two probably in early period of Neolithic age, while thefirst one arrived latest in later period of Neolithic age. Though later in time, the OceanicMongoloids and Indonesians came in large numbers hence they formed the two principalelements of the Malayan stock. As the outcome of the intermixing of blood there appea-red a great mixed racial stock which looks different from its original elements, conseq-uently the original names are no longer suitable to be used. The term Indonesian is usedhere in its original meaning which is different from that of the so-called "Indonesians"in present day use. The mixed stock is no more called Indonesian but Malayan stock inthis article. Ⅱ. Is there Any Connection Between the Malayan Stock and the Ancient Peoples in Southern China? The cradle of the mix-blooded Malayan stock may be in the meeting point of the twoprincipal elements. Indo-China, a necessary meeting point on their ways, was naturally thecradle of the Malayan stock. From Indo-China floods of racial migration appeared fromtime to time and peopled the islands of Malaysia from west to east. As the Oceanic Mongoloid might be originated in the east Asia continent and mig-rated southward to Indo-China, naturally there must be a time in which they lived insouthern China as well as in Indo-China. Furthermore, the ancient peoples in SouthernChina consisted of various aboriginal tribes different from the Chinese Proper, it seemsnot very unreasonable to suggest that besides the Mongoloids there might existed too acertain primitive branch of Caucasian race or even Negroid race in southern China eventhough in small number before the Chinese Proper migrated southward. Possessing theability of migrating southward by the difficult way of water, why the Indonesians couldor would not proceed further eastward from Indo-China by an easier way of land tosouthern China During or preceding Chow dynasty (before 250 B. C.) in the coastal regions of sout-hern China (Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, Kwangsi provinces) there existedan ancient aboriginal stock with the name of "Yueh" which was looked by the Chineseproper as a different race because they lived in different way, followed their own queerhabits and customs and spoke in a different tongue. This stock was indeed more strangethan the other aboriginal stocks in southem China. The formation of such a stock mightbe the outcome of blending of the Mongoloids arrived from the north with some other peoples came from the southwest. As there really existed a different people-the In-donesians-migrated from the west and the blending of the two races-the Indonesiansand the Mongoloids-was actually taking place in Indo-China, it is far from impossiblethat such a phenomenon might extend and appear also in southem China. Being theproduct of mixing blood of the two principal races-the Mongoloids and the Indonesians-the Yueh stock might be in the same condition as the Malayan. If the intermixing of the Mongoloids with the Indonesians really took place in sout-hern China, the ancient people Yueh then was the brother of the Malayan stock. At thebeginning they might resemble to each other, but in later days both of them lived indifferent places and mixed with more other peoples, hence appeared also different fromeach other. Since the Chin dynasty (220 B. C.) the Yueh stock began to be assimilatedby the Chinese Proper from the north; the process of assimilation of culture and theblending of blood reached its conclusion in about 6th century. Later on no survivor ofYueh stock with pure blood or tribal name ever appeared in China. Their mix-bloodedoffspring, however, have existed up to present time as the population of the southeastcoastal region viz. Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung Provinces. Ⅲ. Three Evidences From the historical and geographical point of view, we get the above hypothesis ofthe ethnical Connection between the Malayan and the Yueh stock in southern China. Ifthis is true there must be, between them, physical and cultural resemblances which aresound enough as the evidence. Three sorts of facts, as I seek, may do this service: (1) Resemblances in Physical Characteristics--Though there is still no enoughamount of prehistoric skeletons of both the Indonesians and the Oceanic Mongoloidsunearthed in Malaysia and southern China for scientific research, the Iiving offsprings ofboth the two ancient races may give us some hints about this question,. It is often observedthat the physical characteristics of the southern Chinese of present day are different insome respects from the northern ones although basically they are of the same type viz.the Chinese type. Among them, the peoples of Kwangtung and Fukien have espicially adifferent appearence: Firstly, the eyes of them are broader and less in degree of Mongolian fold on theupper eye-lid. The eye of this type is the medium form between the Mongolian and theMalayan eye, and may be called Half-Malayan eye. Generally most of the Mongol Properand the northern Chinese have the Mongoian eye, while the Malayans have the Malayaneye. The intermediate eye suggests that the human group possessing it must be the mixedblood of the two kinds of peoples with these two sorts of eyes. Wherefrom did the sout-hern Chinese get the half-Malayan eye? Unless they had as one part of their compositeelement a sort of people with Malayan eyes, it is quite impossible to explain the derivationof this eye form. this eye form, therefore, tells us that the southern Chinese, especiallythat of Kwangtung, Fukien and perhaps Chekiang provinces had as one part of theirancestors a people with Malayan eyes. The Malayans may get their malayan eye from the Indoncsians, because the Indonesians belong to the Caucasian race whose eye is calledEuropean eye which is the same as the Malayan one. In fact, the European eye formappeared on the Malayan face is called Malayan eye. The eyes of the southern Chinesetherefore might he derived from the same way as the Malayans. Secondly, the stature of the southern Chinese especially those of Kwangtung andFukien is generally lower than that of the northern Chinese; while compared with theMalayans, they are nearly the same with each other. Thirdly, some of the faces of the southern Chinese looks different from the northernones but appears resembling the Malayans. The Southerns have a shorter face while thenortherners have a longer one. As the physical characteristics of both the southem Chinese and the Malayans resem-bling each other, it is hardly possible to distinguish some Chinese in Malayan costumesand vice versa. The Chinese new comers in Malaysia are often astonished to find thatthe so-called strangers or foreigners viz. the Malayans, look quite like themselves in theirphysical respect. Sometimes it is not easy too for the Europeans to distinguish betweenthe Chinese and the Malayans, because most of the Chinese immigrated to Malaysiancountries were from the southeastern coastal regions which was the home country of theancient Yueh people. (2) Resemblances in Early Cultural Respects--Of course the cultural life ofthe southern Chinese and the Malayans in present day are different to each other, butthe historical records about the ancient Yueh people reveal that the Yueh stock had intheir material life, social customs and languages some points suggesting the connectionwith the Malayans. These may be enumerated as the following: 1, Hair cutting: The ancient northern Chinese never cut their hair, the Miao stockbound their hair too, only the Yueh people was noted for their hair cutting. The primitivebranches of the present Malayan also cut their hair, the early Malayans probably had thiscustom in ancient times too. 2, Tattooing: The Yueh was also well-known for their tattooing which made themlook quite wonderful to the other Chinese, The Malayans of today still have kept thiscustom in Borneo, Philippines etc. 3, Snake worship: The Yueh worshipped the snakes and those in Fukien even tookthe snake as their totem. The aborigines in Taiwan province, which belong to Malayanstock too, still preserve the remnant of such belief, Snake worship is not unknown tothe Malayans in Malaysia too. 4, Pile-house: At present the pile-houses of the Malayans is quite well-known forits specialty; such form of building, however, was also adopted by the ancient southernChinese because it is recorded that the Yueh lived in nest, and the later southern peopleslived actually in the pile-houses which was called "kan-lan". 5, Naked foot: The Yueh's naked foot custom was also noted in ancient times.while the Malayans in history also kept their feet naked even though they were officersin the kings courts. 6, Agglutinative language: The Yueh spoke in a different and queer tongue fromthe Chinese Proper and even the other peoples in ancient times, the translation of Yuehwords gave the Chinese Proper a hard question; to denote the sound of a Yueh word,one Chinese word is not enough, while two or three words sound too much. Thiscondition suggests that though the Chinese language was isolating in its nature, that ofthe Yueh might belong to agglutinative one, because one agglutinative word usually pro-nounces just like two or more isolating words connected. Heine-Geldern and other scholarealso suggested that the Malayo-Polynesian or Austro-Asiatic language was originated inthe continent. The present south-eastern Chinese still speak in different dialects whichproves that the ancient Yueh language was quite strange to the northern Chinese. Thedifficulty to compare the ancient Yueh language with the Malayan one lies in the factthat both the present tongues used by the modern Malayans and the southern Chinesehave been changed by nearly two thousand years' assimilation with other languages. (3) Resemblances of Prehistoric Remains--Before the prehistoric archaeologicaldiscoveries took place in southern China, the question of the derivation or origin of someprehistoric objects in malaysia and even Polynesia had been very hard to be solved. Poly-nesia is famous for one special type of stone implements viz. the tanged adze or steppedadze, the origin of it was traced to that unearthed in Philippines; the derivation of thestepped adze of Philippines, however, was also very hard to be traced. Since about 1930the prehistoric findings began to take place in southern Chinese continent. the newmaterials enable the old questions easier to be solved. The prehistoric remains are difte-rent to those found in northern China, the latter consists of the painted pottery, blackpottery, thick stone axe, holed stone axe etc., whilc the former consists of the pressedgeometric-designed pettery, the stepped adze, the shouldered axe etc.. Strange to say thatthe southern prehistoric objects of China really resemble those of Malaysia and evenPolynesia. These objects may be pointed as the following: 1, Stepped stone adze: Stepped adze is found in large numbers in the south-easternregions viz. Fukien, Kwangtung, Chekiang, Kiangsi, Kiangsu etc., but appears veryrare in the eastern part of northern China and is entirely unknown in the western partof it. The shape suggests that it was developed in three stages just like that of Phi-lippines and Polynesia. Furthermore, the stepped adze of primary and intermediate stagesappeared more in number in south-eastern China, while that of the higher stage appearedmore in Philippines and Polynesia; such a condition reveals that the stepped adze of Phi-lippines and Polynesia was derived from south-eastern China. The way of transmigrationof the stepped adze is probably through Taiwan, Philippines and other islands. 2, Shouldered stone axe: The shouldered axe appeared in Indo-China. Malay pe-ninsula, Philippines etc., but was not found in the intermediate islands viz Sumatra,Java etc.. It was unearthed in Taiwan and Hainan islands too. In the southern part ofthe Chinese continent it appeared less in number but more will be found in future. Inthe north-eastern China very rare was obtaine(?) too. The shouldered axe might be ori-ginated in Indo-China and then spreaded eastward to the south-eastern coastal region of Chinese continent, therefrom it crossed the sea and arrived in Philippines through Tai-wan island, On the way a northward route led it to the north-eastern region. Anotherroute led it southward to Malay Peninsula. Shouldered axe is also an object of evidenceshowing the relation of the Malayans and the southern Chinese, because the prehistoricpeoples in Indo-China was the Malayans instead of the Annamese etc.. 3, Pressed geometric-designed pottery: In southern, especially south-eastern China,the prehistoric pottery was that with geometric designs pressed with pottery prints, thisis quite different to the painted pottery of north-western China and the black pottery ofnorth-eastern China. In Malaysia and Indo-China the prehistoric potteries found resembleto that of south China, some of the shape of the potteries as well as the pressed designsare quite like each other. Some potteries of this type were actuaily found in Indo-China,Java and Sulawesi, which are comparable with that of south China. This kind of potteryalso suggests the prehistoric connection between Malayans and the southern Chinese. Ⅳ. Conclusions (1) The Malayan stock is a mixed blood of chiefly the Oceanic Mongoloid raceand the Indonesians which is an early branch of the Caucasian race. These two raceshave been blended to such a degree that a new stock appeared which is called the Ma-Jayan stock, and the two elements have no more pure offsprings survived. The presentMalayans show more Mongolian physical features than the Indonesian ones, hencs it istaken as a branch of Mongoloids. (2) The Oceanic Mongoloid came from southern China, hence these should beethnic connection. between the Malayans and the ancient southern Chinese. Moreover,the other two elements of the Malayans, the Indonesians and the Negritoes probablyalso arrived and lived in southern China earlier than the Mongoloids and became partof the ethnical elements of the southern Chinese in later days, therefore the Malayansand the southern Chinese may have the same ethnical element. (3) The present southern Chinese, especially the south-eastern ones have some phy-sical characteristics like the Malayans, their ancestor Yueh stock had some customs andlanguage showing some resemblances to the Malayans, finally, the prehistoric discoveriesalso show the relationship between these two races. (4) The processes of the formation of the Malayan stock might proceeded in Indo-China and southern China. Since Neolithic age the Malayans migrated step by step toMalaysian islands, while those remained in Indo-China and southern China were assimi-lated by the Chinese Proper, Annamese, Siamese and Burmese. The ancient Yueh stockin southern China might have nearly the same ethnic composition as the Malayans, butwas assimilated by the Chinese Proper since two thousand years ago. (5) There might be two routes of southward migration of the Malayans. The firstand principal one was the west route which started from Indo-China, penetrated Suma-tra, Java and Borneo, and finally reached Philippines; the evidences are the pressedgeometric designed pottery and the shouldered axe. The second was the east route whichstarted from the south-eastern coast of Chinese continent, passed Taiwan and other islets,finally reached Philippines, Sulawesi and eastern Borneo. The stepped

林惠祥同志三十多年来除了对人类学(包括古学、民族学)进行系统的研究,并获得很大的成就和贡献外,他一生对南洋问题的研究,也曾下过工夫,做过不少工作和贡献。“南洋马来族与华南古民族的关系”这篇论文是林惠祥同志关于南洲问题最后的遗著。前篇于一九三八年以“马来人与中国东南方人同源说”为题曾在南洋发表过,后篇是他二十年后对这问题进一步深入研究的成果,提出更丰富、更可靠的有关人类学(包括考古学、民族学)的材料和证据,把我国和南洋民族的历史关系以及将东南亚这一大片地方过去被遗忘的历史补充起来,这是他三十年多年来对南洋研究的重要贡献,也是他一生对南洋问题研究总结的一部份。

Dibrachys cavus (Walker) is an ectoparasite of the cotton pink bollworm. It pro-duces 11--12 generations annually at Hangchow, Chekiang Province. It overwintersmainly in the larval stage within the cocoon of the parasitized overwintering cotton pinkbollworm. A maximun of 21, a minimun of 1, and an average of 10.67 hosts is parasi-tized by a single female. The average number of the offspring is 100.47, but when theparasite could not find sufficient hosts for oviposition, the number of the offspringrapidly decreased....

Dibrachys cavus (Walker) is an ectoparasite of the cotton pink bollworm. It pro-duces 11--12 generations annually at Hangchow, Chekiang Province. It overwintersmainly in the larval stage within the cocoon of the parasitized overwintering cotton pinkbollworm. A maximun of 21, a minimun of 1, and an average of 10.67 hosts is parasi-tized by a single female. The average number of the offspring is 100.47, but when theparasite could not find sufficient hosts for oviposition, the number of the offspringrapidly decreased. The sex ratio of D. cavus is usually 80--90%. This species can re-produce parthenogenically, and individuals developed from the unfertilized eggs are allmales. The longevity of an adult varies according to sex and temperature. Under labo-ratory conditions, it was found that those adult parasites supplied with honey or hosts sur-vived longer than those without such. The egg stage lasts 2--5 days, the larval stagegenerally lasts 5--14 days, while the overwintering larval stage lasts 141--145 days, andthe pupal stage generally 5--35 days. A list of 148 host species (including subspecies) in 36 families, representing 6 orders,reported by other authors is given. In the laboratory D. cavus also attacked and com-pleted its development on Anchonoma xeraula Meyrick, Pristomerus chinensis Ashm. andan undetermined species of Apanteles, the last two being primary parasites of the cottonpink bollworm. It is easy to rear the parasite. A simple and inexpensive method of large-scaleproduction is reported. In April of 1961, over 1.16 million parasites were released tomore than 200 cotton warehouses in the villages of Siaoshan district. The average per-centage of parasitism in the colonized warehouses was more than two times that of theuntreated warehouses (check). In the check warehouses the average percentage of livingcotton pink bollworm was 19.32%, while that in the colonized warehouses was 0.86%. The overwintering cotton pink bollworm may be induced to spin its cocoon in thesandy loam and cocoons so formed are also suitable for rearing the parasite. It may bea desirable method for overcoming the difficulty of collecting the host in large numbers.The writer has kept the larvae of the parasite in a refrigerator at 0--10℃ for a periodof 64 days, and found them pupating and emerging normally after removal from the re-frigerator. These adults were normal with respect to longevity, capacity of parasitismand reproduction. But when the larvae of the parasite were kept too long in the re-frigerator (e.g., 300 days), they were severely impaired in longevity, capacity of parasi-tism and reproduction of adults. The succeeding generation from such larvae appearedto be nearly normal in vitality. The result of a preliminary comparison test showedthat the race of the parasite collected from Kiukiang, Hangchow or Yungtzi is better thanthat from Yuncheng. It was found possible to increase vitality of this parasite bybybridization with different races from distant localities. D. cavus may be a beneficialparasite or undesirable one depending on whether the hosts present are harmful or useful,a fact to be kept in view before starting to make use of this parasite. In the writer'sopinion, this parasite seems to be harmless when used for combating the overwinteringcotton pink bollworm.

黑青小蜂系棉红铃虫的外寄生蜂。在杭州,年发生11代,少数12代。主要以幼虫在越冬红铃虫的茧内越冬。每雌平均寄生红铃虫10.67头,产子蜂100.47头。若寄主供应不充分,则子蜂数量显著减少。性比高,通常为80-90%。成虫寿命与温度关系密切,雌蜂一般长于雄蜂。喂以蜂蜜或给以寄主供其寄生,寿命均能显著延长。卵期2—5天;非越冬幼虫历期5—14天,越冬幼虫历期141—145天;非越冬蛹历期5—35天。 综合文献记载,已知寄主6目36科148种(包括亚种)。经室内试验,能顺利地寄生并育出子蜂的,尚有米淡墨虫、中国齿腿瘦姬蜂以及一种绒茧蜂。后二者均为红铃虫的寄生蜂。 此蜂易于饲养,采取一系列简易的办法,能顺利地进行大量繁殖。在二百余棉仓放蜂116万余头的结果,对活红铃虫的寄生率自33.61%提高至95.93%,增高1.85倍,红铃虫活虫率则自19.32%降至0.86%,抑低95.55%。 越冬红铃虫能在沙土中作茧;所结之茧,此蜂同样寄生、发育并羽化,可望通过这一途径,改进繁殖用寄主的采集方法,以节约劳力。幼虫于5℃上下、0—10℃范围内冷藏64天后表现仍正常,但长期冷藏则生活力大受影响,而繁殖一代后又显然有所恢复。各...

黑青小蜂系棉红铃虫的外寄生蜂。在杭州,年发生11代,少数12代。主要以幼虫在越冬红铃虫的茧内越冬。每雌平均寄生红铃虫10.67头,产子蜂100.47头。若寄主供应不充分,则子蜂数量显著减少。性比高,通常为80-90%。成虫寿命与温度关系密切,雌蜂一般长于雄蜂。喂以蜂蜜或给以寄主供其寄生,寿命均能显著延长。卵期2—5天;非越冬幼虫历期5—14天,越冬幼虫历期141—145天;非越冬蛹历期5—35天。 综合文献记载,已知寄主6目36科148种(包括亚种)。经室内试验,能顺利地寄生并育出子蜂的,尚有米淡墨虫、中国齿腿瘦姬蜂以及一种绒茧蜂。后二者均为红铃虫的寄生蜂。 此蜂易于饲养,采取一系列简易的办法,能顺利地进行大量繁殖。在二百余棉仓放蜂116万余头的结果,对活红铃虫的寄生率自33.61%提高至95.93%,增高1.85倍,红铃虫活虫率则自19.32%降至0.86%,抑低95.55%。 越冬红铃虫能在沙土中作茧;所结之茧,此蜂同样寄生、发育并羽化,可望通过这一途径,改进繁殖用寄主的采集方法,以节约劳力。幼虫于5℃上下、0—10℃范围内冷藏64天后表现仍正常,但长期冷藏则生活力大受影响,而繁殖一代后又显然有所恢复。各地蜂种比较结果,以运城的为最差,九江、杭州、永济表现良好,三者之间差异尚不显著。种内杂交有可能提高生活力,“杭?

 
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