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enzyme
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     Enzyme mimics
     酶模型
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     Enzyme technology
     酶技术将废料变为饲料
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  enzyme
Recent research on guanidines has focused on enzyme systems such as xanthine oxidase and nitric oxide synthase.
      
PHENYLPYRUVIC ACID DERIVATIVES AS ENZYME INHIBITORS: THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL ON MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR
      
The effect of the most promising ones have been looked on the counterparts from mammalian sources and difference in the susceptibility towards enzyme activity inhibition were noted.
      
Results revealed some definite correlation between the enzyme inhibition with GSH depletion in S.
      
In vitro enzyme inhibition studies have identified three inhibitors (14, 16, 23) of the falcipains with one (14) showing dual activity against both falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 and IC50 values of 6.6 and 29.4 μM, respectively.
      
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(1) Sodium salt of reduced codehydrogenase I has been obtained in good yield as a dry powder from codehydrogenase I by reduction with alcohol and alcohol dehydrogenase. This preparation was stable for at least 5 months when kept dry at -15℃. (2) The properties of the particle-bound codehydrogenase I cytochrome reductase system in heart muscle preparation were found to differ considerably from those of the soluble enzyme as obtained by Mahler et al. Among other things, the affinity for cytochrome c of the...

(1) Sodium salt of reduced codehydrogenase I has been obtained in good yield as a dry powder from codehydrogenase I by reduction with alcohol and alcohol dehydrogenase. This preparation was stable for at least 5 months when kept dry at -15℃. (2) The properties of the particle-bound codehydrogenase I cytochrome reductase system in heart muscle preparation were found to differ considerably from those of the soluble enzyme as obtained by Mahler et al. Among other things, the affinity for cytochrome c of the particle-bound enzyme is much greater than the soluble enzyme. The Michaelis constant for cytochrome c of the former is only one twelfth of that of the latter.(Fig. 2A). (3) With either oxygen or excess cytochrome c as electron acceptor, it was found that the overall activity, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption or cytochrome c reduction, when both succinate and reduced codehydrogenase I were oxidized simultanously, did not represent the sum of the rates of oxidation when these two substrates were separately oxidized but equalled only the faster of the two separate oxidation rates(Fig. 5, Tables 1, 2). If 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol was used as the electron acceptor, the overall rate of simultaneous oxidation of these two substrates was found to equal exactly the sum of the rates of separate oxidation(Table 3). (4) When either oxygen or excess cytochrome c was used as the electron acceptor, reduced codehydrogenase I and succinate each inhibited the rate of oxidation of the other(Figs 4, 6 & 7). Evidence has been presented to show that the inhibition of succinate oxidation by reduced codehydrogenase I is not due to the accumulation of oxaloacetate. (5) When malonate was also added to the reaction mixture, succinate no longer produced any inhibition of the oxidation of reduced codehydrogenase I(Fig. 8). (6) It is therefore concluded that in heart muscle preparation both succinate and reduced codehydrogenase I are oxidized by cytochrome c through a common, velocity limiting factor. This is in accordance with the view previously reached by some workers from studies on the action of certain inhibitors. However, it should be noted that in our experiments no agents which might produce any conceivable change in the colloidal structure of the enzyme system has been employed. (7) It should be emphasized that our results clearly show that great caution must be exercised in drawing conslusion on the role an enzyme might play in a complex enzyme system from studies of the properties of a solubilized enzyme. (8) It is believed that the competition of two enzyme systems for a common linking factor as demonstrated in this report has provided a new method for studies on the mutual relations of two or more enzyme systems.

(一)本報告提供了一個從輔酶Ⅰ,用酶還原法製備還原輔酶Ⅰ的方法。我們所製得的還原輔酶Ⅰ鈉鹽乾粉,可以在低温保存數月而不被氧化。 (二)與心肌製劑中顆粒相結合的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶系,和用乙醇抽出的水溶性的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶的性質頗不相同。其中比較重要的不同點是對於細胞色素c的親力,前者遠大於後者,其米氏常數僅約為後者的十二分之一。 (三)用一心肌顆粒製劑作為材料,無論用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體,還原輔酶Ⅰ與琥珀酸同時氧化時的總速度,不等於二者分別氧化時速度之和,而僅等於其中氧化較快者單獨氧化時之速度。但如用[2,6]二氯靛酚作為氫受體時,二者共同氧化時之總速度完全等於二者分別氧化時速度的和。 (四)當用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體時,琥珀酸與還原輔酶Ⅰ能彼此互相抑制對方氧化的速度。有足夠的實驗材料說明,還原輔酶Ⅰ對於琥珀酸氧化的抑制,不是由於草醯乙酸聚集的緣故。 (五)如果在反應混合物中同時含有琥珀酸脫氫酶的專一抑制劑,丙二酸,則琥珀酸對於還原輔酶Ⅰ氧化作用的抑制即被解除。 (六)根據以上的實驗結果,可以認為,還原輔酶Ⅰ及琥珀酸先通過一個共同的因子與細胞色素c作用。這個共同的因子在一般情形之下,也是...

(一)本報告提供了一個從輔酶Ⅰ,用酶還原法製備還原輔酶Ⅰ的方法。我們所製得的還原輔酶Ⅰ鈉鹽乾粉,可以在低温保存數月而不被氧化。 (二)與心肌製劑中顆粒相結合的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶系,和用乙醇抽出的水溶性的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶的性質頗不相同。其中比較重要的不同點是對於細胞色素c的親力,前者遠大於後者,其米氏常數僅約為後者的十二分之一。 (三)用一心肌顆粒製劑作為材料,無論用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體,還原輔酶Ⅰ與琥珀酸同時氧化時的總速度,不等於二者分別氧化時速度之和,而僅等於其中氧化較快者單獨氧化時之速度。但如用[2,6]二氯靛酚作為氫受體時,二者共同氧化時之總速度完全等於二者分別氧化時速度的和。 (四)當用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體時,琥珀酸與還原輔酶Ⅰ能彼此互相抑制對方氧化的速度。有足夠的實驗材料說明,還原輔酶Ⅰ對於琥珀酸氧化的抑制,不是由於草醯乙酸聚集的緣故。 (五)如果在反應混合物中同時含有琥珀酸脫氫酶的專一抑制劑,丙二酸,則琥珀酸對於還原輔酶Ⅰ氧化作用的抑制即被解除。 (六)根據以上的實驗結果,可以認為,還原輔酶Ⅰ及琥珀酸先通過一個共同的因子與細胞色素c作用。這個共同的因子在一般情形之下,也是這兩個酶系統的速度限制因子。應該指出在我們的實驗中,並未使用任何可能影響酶系統結構的條件,因此我們的結果是在一個比較接近於生理狀態的情形之下獲得的。 (七)應該着重指出,從本報告的結果可以看到,一個用人為的方法從複雜酶系上溶解下來的酶的性質,有時並不能代表這個酶在有組織的酶系統中的真實情况。 (八)我們相信,本報告所說明的兩酶系競爭一個共同因子的一些現象,將为研究複雜酶系之間的相互關係,提供一個新的方法。

Although the occurence of a coenzyme I-independant, particle-bound α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle of higher animals has long been recognized, little is known about its relation to the cytochrome system. Green has found that it is linked to cytochrome c but details of the electron transporting pathway has remained obscure. This problem has now been studied using the method of simultaneous action of two or more enzyme systems as described previously. Enzyme preparation obtained...

Although the occurence of a coenzyme I-independant, particle-bound α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle of higher animals has long been recognized, little is known about its relation to the cytochrome system. Green has found that it is linked to cytochrome c but details of the electron transporting pathway has remained obscure. This problem has now been studied using the method of simultaneous action of two or more enzyme systems as described previously. Enzyme preparation obtained from thoroughly washed rabbit muscle mince has been employed in the present investigation. It has been found that in the presence of the rabbit muscle enzyme preparation, succinate and α-glycerophosphate each interferes with the rate of oxidation of the other when they are oxidized simultaneously. The inhibition of α-glycerophosphate oxidase by succinate can be reversed by the addition of pyrophosphate, a powerful inhibitor of succinic dehydrogenase. With cytochrome c as electron acceptor, the overall rate of simultaneous oxidation of α-glycerophosphate, succinate and reduced coenzyme I (CoIH) does not represent the sum of the rates of their separate oxidation, but corresponds only to the highest of the three rates, i.e. the rate of oxidation of CoIH. It is, therefore, believed that the α-glycerophosphate-, succinate- and CoIH-cytochrome c reductase systems have a common, velocity limiting electron carrier which is most probably the linking factor first proposed by Slater. In agreement with this conclusion, the α-glycerophosphate oxidase of rabbit muscle preparation has been found to be sensitive to the action of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol. Using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, as acceptor, the overall rate of the simultaneous oxidation of succinate and α-glycerophosphate equals exacdy to the sum of the rates of their separate oxidation. Similar results have also been obtained even in presence of phenylurethane, which markedly inhibits the activity of succinic dehydrogenase and does not affect the activity of α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. These facts suggest that cytochrome b is not involved in the oxidation of α-glycerophosphate in rabbit muscle preparation. The pathway of hydrogen or electron transfer of the particulate α-glycerophosphate oxidase system may, therefore, be represented as follow: (See also Fig. 4)

(一) 在經徹底冲洗的兔骨骼肌製劑中,[L-α]甘油磷酸和琥珀酸的氧化彼此干涉。琥珀酸對[L-α]甘油磷酸氧化的抑制作用能因加入抑制琥珀酸脫氫酶的焦磷酸而解除。 (二) 當用細胞色素c作受體時[L-α]甘油磷酸,還原輔酶I和琥珀酸三者同時氧化時總氧化速度僅相當其中氧化速度最高者即還原輔酶I單獨氧化的速度。[L-α]甘油磷酸氧化酶系也因[2,3]二氫硫基丙醇的處理而失效。 (三) 當用[2,6]二氯酚靛酚作受體時[L-α]甘油磷酸和琥珀酸同時氧化時速度完全等於二底料單獨氧化時速度的和。[L-α]甘油磷酸的氧化不受苯代氨甲酸乙酯的影響。 (四) 本文結果說明[L-α]甘油磷酸的氧化不通過細胞色素b而通過中間因子和細胞色素c連接。

In phosphate buffer the optimal pH for the activity of the particle-bound CoIH cytochrome c reductase system of heart muscle preparation is between pH 7 and 8, whereas in glycylglycine buffer it is pH 8.0. The activity of this enzyme system in the latter buffer is considerably lower than that in the former (Fig. 1). Addition of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid caused considerable stimulation of its activity in glycylglycine buffer, indicating that the lowered activity in the latter buffer is probably due...

In phosphate buffer the optimal pH for the activity of the particle-bound CoIH cytochrome c reductase system of heart muscle preparation is between pH 7 and 8, whereas in glycylglycine buffer it is pH 8.0. The activity of this enzyme system in the latter buffer is considerably lower than that in the former (Fig. 1). Addition of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid caused considerable stimulation of its activity in glycylglycine buffer, indicating that the lowered activity in the latter buffer is probably due to disturbance in the physical state of the enzyme preparation. The optimal pH for the particle-bound CoIH cytochrome c reductase system of heart muscle preparation, whether in phosphate or in glycylglycine buffer, differs markedly from the value of 8.7 reported by Mahler et al for their soluble CoIH cytochrome e reductase in glycylglycine buffer. It has been found that addition of a relatively large amount of the soluble CoIH cytochrome c reductase to heart muscle preparation does not result in any increase in activity of the CoIH oxidase system. The amount of soluble CoIH cytochrome c reductase added had an activity about 8 times that of the reductase system already present. The addition of this amount of the soluble enzyme also fails to restore to any appreciable extent the CoIH oxidase activity of heart muscle preparations previously treated with 2,3-dimercaptopropanol. It is known that 2, 3-dimercaptopropanol treatment does not affect cytochrome c or cytochrome oxidase. These show that the soluble CoIH cytochrome c reductase of IV[abler et al reacts only with soluble cytochrome c but not with the cytochrome c firmly bound to the particulate matter of enzyme preparations. The cytochrome c reductase activity of the Keilin-Hartree heart muscle preparation can be easily extracted by 9% alcohol at pH 5.4 using the procedure of Mahler et al. However even when the CoIH cytochrome c reductase activity of the heart muscle preparation has been completely destroyed by 2, 3-dimercaptopropanol treatment, the alcohol extract still contains the soluble reductase with an activity comparable to that extracted from an untreated control (Table 5). This seems to indicate that the soluble reductase of Mahler et al is formed during the extraction procedure and is therefore different from the enzyme originally present in the heart muscle preparation. The evidence presented above together with those previously obtained by us and by other workers all point to the conclusion that the soluble reductase of Mahler et al is an artifact.

(一)心肌上的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素c還原酶系活力的最適pH和水溶性輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素c還原酶活力的最適pH顯著不同,酶系物理狀態對酶活力影響頗大。 (二)水溶性輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素c還原酶不能和心肌製劑顆粒上的細胞色素c作用。心肌製劑在經過[2,3]二氫硫基丙醇處理完全破壞原有輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素c還原酶系活力以後仍能抽提出活力很強的水溶性輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素c還原酶。這些以及我們過去曾經討論過的一些事實都說明Mahler等所獲得的水溶性輔酶Ⅰ细胞色素C還原酶是一個矯作物。 (三)本研究指出根據用人為的方法從複雜酶系中抽出的酶的性質簡單地判斷該酶在整個酶系中的作用不一定是可靠的。

 
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