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depression
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     Perimenopause and depression
     围绝经期和抑郁症
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  depression
However, the midday depression of photosynthesis at noon (12:00-14:00) and the decrease in photosynthesis in the afternoon (16:00-18:00) were the results of nonstomatal limitation, such as low carboxylation capacity of the leaf mesophyll.
      
For instance, chemotherapy usually leads to depression of bone marrow and hair loss.
      
This effect of oxytocin may be mediated through the vagus and sympathetic nerve, and then lead to the reduction of gastric juice output and the depression of gastric acidity.
      
The weld pool surface profile was predicted while considering the effect of droplet impingement on the depression of the weld pool.
      
Because the Cangxi reef flat is in the very vicinity of the hydrocarbon kitchen and the depression is much bigger than that of the Puguang gas fields, we predict that there may be a gigascopic gas field in Cangxi County.
      
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In a previous paper, the results on selenium dehydrogenation reveal that the molecule of peimine or peiminine has not been broken sufficiently. The present communication reports the result of zinc dust distillation and selenium dehydrogenation. Zinc dust distillation of peimine gave two main portions, namely, alkaline and neutral portions. From the alkaline portion, 2, 5-lutidine, isolated as its picrate, m.p. 168-169°, chloroplatinate, m.p. 195°and chloroaurate, m.p. 105-106°, were obtained. Synthetic 2, 5-lutidine...

In a previous paper, the results on selenium dehydrogenation reveal that the molecule of peimine or peiminine has not been broken sufficiently. The present communication reports the result of zinc dust distillation and selenium dehydrogenation. Zinc dust distillation of peimine gave two main portions, namely, alkaline and neutral portions. From the alkaline portion, 2, 5-lutidine, isolated as its picrate, m.p. 168-169°, chloroplatinate, m.p. 195°and chloroaurate, m.p. 105-106°, were obtained. Synthetic 2, 5-lutidine and its corresponding salts were prepared according to known methods. The mixed melting point of each pair of the three salts did not show any depression. From the neutral portion no crystalline substance was obtained and subsequently it was reserved for selenium dehydrogenation, from the product of which were isolated two hydrocarbons: C_(22)H_(20) or C_(20)H_(18), colorless crystals, m.p. 171-173°, its 2, 4,7-trinitro- fluorenene derivative, red crystalline powder, m.p. 177-178°; C_(18)H_(14), colorless crystals, m.p. 115-116°, its 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene derivative, orange crystals, m.p. 148-149°, its 2,4,7- rinitrofluorenone derivative, red crystalline powder, m.p. 201-202°. These two hydro- trinitrofluorenone carbons were proved to be 1,2-benzofluorene homologues by ultraviolet spectra. The one, C_(22)H_(20) or C_(20)H_(18), is similar to the hydrocarbon obtained by Jacobs and Reichstein, and the other, C_(18)H_(14), is probably identical with 8-methyl-1,2-benzofluorene prepared by Gross. Three skeleton formulae (Ⅰ, Ⅵ, Ⅶ) are provisionally assigned with explanations for peimine and peiminine. Peimine and peiminine belong to the group of modified steroidal alkaloids.

(1)貝母素甲,經鋅粉蒸餾,在鹼性部分,得2,5-二甲基吡啶。中性部分,再行用硒脫氫,得兩種碳氫化合物:一為C_(22)H_(20)或C_(20)H_(18),一為C_(18)H_(14),均係1,2-苯弗(1,2-bcnzofluorene)同族物。前者與Jacobs等由藜蘆植物鹼(veratrine alkaloids)及Reichstein等由drevogenin A的衍生物,用硒脫氫所得的碳氫化合物相類似。後者則與Gross等所合成的8-甲基-1,2-苯茀可能相同。 (2)根據貝母素甲脫氫降解的結果,及貝母素甲、乙的關係,暫定貝母素甲、乙的碳架和氮環(式I,VI,VII)。二者均屬於變形的(石享)類植物鹼。

α-, β-, and γ-Dichroine—3 isomeric alkaloids from the Chinese antimalarial herb "Chang Shan" (Dichroa febrifuga, Lour.), were investigated on anesthetized dogs for their effects on blood pressure, respiration, splenic and kidney volumes, and the activities of the heart, uterus and small intestines. Parallel observations were also made on isolated hearts, uteri and small intestines from several other species of animals. In the doses used the pharmacological actions of these alkaloids appeared to be identical...

α-, β-, and γ-Dichroine—3 isomeric alkaloids from the Chinese antimalarial herb "Chang Shan" (Dichroa febrifuga, Lour.), were investigated on anesthetized dogs for their effects on blood pressure, respiration, splenic and kidney volumes, and the activities of the heart, uterus and small intestines. Parallel observations were also made on isolated hearts, uteri and small intestines from several other species of animals. In the doses used the pharmacological actions of these alkaloids appeared to be identical qualitatively, and neither was there any marked quantitative difference. The lack of marked quantitative difference in their general pharmacological behavior is thus in strong contrast to their antimalarial activities, which vary tremendously from one another. These alkaloids, 2.5—10mg/kg given intravenously, produced a fall of blood pressure in all anesthetized dogs, usually associated with depressed cardiac contractions, and frequently an increase of the splenic and kidney volumes, while the respiration was not significantly affected. On the perfused rabbit heart, 0.2—2mg of them injected into the side tube of the cannula, always depressed the contractions, but in some cases slight augmentation preceeded the depression. The isolated frog heart was usually stimulated by the low concentrations of the alkaloidsand always depressed by their higher concentrations. In anesthetized dogs, the effects of these alkaloids on small intestines were inconsistent, stimulating in some cases and depressing in other cases; while the uterus was more commonly stimulated by them. In the concentrations used, these alkaloids always depressed the rabbit and dog intestines in vitro, but their effects on the isolated ileum of the guinea pig were dependant on the concentration, depressant in low concentrations, but usually stimulating or stimulating after transient depression in high concentrations. Their effects on the isolated uteri were still more complicated. On the rabbit nongravid uterus, their effects were in general not marked, in some cases there was slight stimulation and in other cases stimulation was preceeded by slight depression; but the gravid uterus was always stimulated by them. The nongravid uterus of the guinea pig was not significantly affected. As for the rat uterus, these alkaloids usually depressed the non-gravid and stimulated the gravid ones. α-, and β-Dichroine were also tested on the isolated non-gravid uterus of a monkey; only stimulation was observed.

(一)本文報告常山鹼甲、乙、丙對於麻醉犬血壓、呼吸、聛腎容積、心收縮、在位小 腸與在位子宮的作用,並佐以它們對於離體心臟、小腸和子宮的作用觀察。三種常山鹼的藥理作用,在所用劑量時並無質的不同,亦無明顯的量的不同。和它們抗瘧作用的強弱懸殊,形成強烈的對此。 (二)對於麻醉犬,靜脈內注入2.5—10毫克/千克後,三種常山鹼都能降低血壓,呼吸無顯著變化。脾容積與腎容積多增加,心收縮則呈現振幅減小。 (三)離體兔心灌注時,從導管的側枝內注入0.2—2毫克常山鹼,能引起顯著的抑制,有時在抑制前可見輕微的興奮作用。對於離體蛙心,低濃度多產生興奮,高濃度則抑制之。 (四)對於麻醉犬的在位小腸,三種常山鹼在上述劑量時作用並不一致,有時興奮之,有時抑制之,對於子宮則多興奮之。 (五)對於離體兔腸與犬腸,常山鹼在所試劑量時,恆引起抑制。對於豚鼠空腸,則低濃度時抑制,高濃度時往往興奮之,或在短暫的抑制後繼以興奮。 (六)對於離體子宮的作用更為複雜,對家兔未孕子宮,一般作用不著,有時輕微興奮之,有時在興奮前略呈抑制。對於有孕子宮則均興奮之。豚鼠未孕子宮對常山鹼的效應一般不顯著。對大白鼠未孕子宮多抑制之,對其有孕子宮則多呈興奮作用。曾...

(一)本文報告常山鹼甲、乙、丙對於麻醉犬血壓、呼吸、聛腎容積、心收縮、在位小 腸與在位子宮的作用,並佐以它們對於離體心臟、小腸和子宮的作用觀察。三種常山鹼的藥理作用,在所用劑量時並無質的不同,亦無明顯的量的不同。和它們抗瘧作用的強弱懸殊,形成強烈的對此。 (二)對於麻醉犬,靜脈內注入2.5—10毫克/千克後,三種常山鹼都能降低血壓,呼吸無顯著變化。脾容積與腎容積多增加,心收縮則呈現振幅減小。 (三)離體兔心灌注時,從導管的側枝內注入0.2—2毫克常山鹼,能引起顯著的抑制,有時在抑制前可見輕微的興奮作用。對於離體蛙心,低濃度多產生興奮,高濃度則抑制之。 (四)對於麻醉犬的在位小腸,三種常山鹼在上述劑量時作用並不一致,有時興奮之,有時抑制之,對於子宮則多興奮之。 (五)對於離體兔腸與犬腸,常山鹼在所試劑量時,恆引起抑制。對於豚鼠空腸,則低濃度時抑制,高濃度時往往興奮之,或在短暫的抑制後繼以興奮。 (六)對於離體子宮的作用更為複雜,對家兔未孕子宮,一般作用不著,有時輕微興奮之,有時在興奮前略呈抑制。對於有孕子宮則均興奮之。豚鼠未孕子宮對常山鹼的效應一般不顯著。對大白鼠未孕子宮多抑制之,對其有孕子宮則多呈興奮作用。曾試常山鹼甲、乙於一猴的未孕子宫,均有興奮作用。

Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities...

Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities are importantwithin this area, some geologists including G Schoenmann, hold that it is ageosynclinal region. It is Ю. М Шейманн who first noticed the phenomenon of activizationappearing in the Chinese platform. В. М. Синицын in his "Строенив и развитиекитайской платформы" indicates that some of the mountain ranges includingYinshan, which have been formerly referred to the folding belts developingfrom geosynclines, are in fact the internal structures of the Chinese platform. In this paper the writer after the opinion of В. М. Синицын, assigns theYinshan area as one of the "activizing regions" in the Chinese platform, andgives more detailed descriptions and discussions mainly on the point of thehistory of its stratigraphic development. Really it is a fact that the Yinshan region has an old folded foundationwhich is composed of metamorphic complex including chiefly gneisses, schists,and old granitic intrusions apparently Pre-Sinian in age. Since the formationof this folded foundation during the Luliang movement (=Goto-Karelian mo-vement), the old land of the Yinshan region has "activized" or "resurrected"several times. As early as in the Sinian period, a depression prolonging in E-Wdirection happened on its southern border, where Sinian limestone 900 metresin thickness and in some places up to 9,620 metres was so deposited. During a long time of the Palaeozoic era, the Yinshan old land was in the poriod ofdenudation except some Cambrian marine limestones only 144 metres in thick-ness deposited in the western part. At the end of the Palaeozoic era, local acti-vization with the formation of continental basin-deposits of Permian age, up to1,380 metres in thickness, as found in the Tachingshan area again happened.In the middle Mesozoic era, the Yinshan region came to a period of strongactivity. Structural depressions duo to "Процесс аркогенеза" occurred universallywithin the whole area and magmatie activities in large magnitude associatedthis crustal movement, so that a great sequence of freshwater basin-depositswith intercalations of volcanic beds, up to 8,000 metres in total thickness wereformed. During the formation of these strata, especially at the end of Mesozoic,interruptions of depositon happened frequently, folds and thrusts were abund-antly formed, and intrusive bodies of "young granite" were produced hereand there. In the Tertiary period, the Yinshan region was violently faulted, andvolcanic activities still happened, producing the basalt lava flow spreading ina wide area. The activity of the Yinshan old land has not ceased even to-dayas shown by the facte that its whole area is in the process of uplift and by thepresence of an earthquake zone known in the historical time. Ⅱ. To what Geotectonic Unit does the Southeastern Coastal Region of China Belong? On the Southeastern coast of China there is a district where geotectoniccharacteristics have never been recognized clearly. It is A. W. Grabau who firstreferred it to an old land named "Cathaysia". J. S. Lee holds the same opinion.In his geotectonic map of China, B. M. Синицын also assigns this region to aplatform and marks it as a part of his "Южно-китайский платформенный массив".However, there is still another opinion opposed to this. A. C. Хоминтовский, forinstance, renders recently this district to a geosynclinal region and proposes thename "Minche Pacific folding zone" for it. H. T. Yang and T. Y. Yu agreewith him. In the year 1954, the writer in his compilation-work connected with thegeology of Fukien and Kwangtung, found that the geotectonic characteristics ofthe southeastern coastal region of China are not only unagreeable with thosefound in a common platform on the one hand, but also contrasting, with thoseof a geosynclinal region on the other. In fact, it cannot be referred suitably toany geotectonic unit except to the intermediate type as shown by the history ofits geological development. Apparently it is an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. During the Pre-Sinian crustal movement (the Luliang movement), a foldedfoundation composed of old gneisses, schists, and phyllites was completely for-med. Obviously this is a part of the broad old land of Southern China. In the earlier stage of the Palaeozoic era, the whole area of this region wasexposed in the air and under denudation. Hence, no deposit of any kind wasformed. After the Caledonian movement, depressions happened in the western partof this region, where the Devonian-Lower carboniferous continental deposit, theNanching series consisting mainly of quartzite, conglomerate and shale has beenformed, but the other parts were still under denudation. These facts show thatthis region was still a land at that time. Uralian and Lower Permian limestones, known respectively as the Chuan-shan limestone and the Chihsia limestone, separated from each other by adisconformity, spread widely in this region. This indicates that the marine trans-gressions really happened in the southeastern coastal region of China. However,the thicknesses of these limestones (only 30 metres and 150 metres respectively)and their uniformity in the horizontal direction show that the sea at thosetimes was shallow, and the magnitude of subsidence of the earth crust withinthis region was small. The unnoticed lateral changing of lithological charactersof these limestones proves the same fact. Undoubtedly these limestones arenothing but the marine deposits of platform-type. From Upper Permian toTriassic, this region was under a condition of alternation of transgression andregression of the sea. Owing to the fact that the amplitude of oscillation of theearth crust of this region at that time was small, the deposits formed duringthe marine transgression were thin and interrupted again and again by disconfor-mities (or even unconformities). Sometimes continental deposits are intercalated. Since the later period of Triassic, the southeastern coastal region has neverbeen covered by the sea again. And, a new condition began to happen in LowerJurassic. Here, the old land became to "resurrected", so that a series of depres-sing belts were formed as a result of "Процесс аркогенеза". In association withthe subsidence of these depressions, continental beds with a total thicknessup to 3,000 metres were deposited. In the beds interruptions frequently occurred.Folds were abundants, although they or at least some of them were intermediatetype. At the same time, magmatic activities were significant. Itappearedfirstly in the form of volcanic eruptions as recorded by a great sequence of beds consisting of tuff and rhyolite intercalating in the continental bedsmentioned above. And then, at the end of the Mesozoic, numerous graniticbodies were produced. Coming to the Cenozoic era, this region still sufferedfrom rather strong crustal movements accompanied by basalt lava eruptions. Theactivity of the old land has not yet been ceased even to-day as marked by thepresence of a famous earthquake zone between Kwangtung and Fukien, and theabundance of hot springs which widely spread within this region. All theseshow the typical characters of an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. Final-ly, the complexity of the types of mineral deposits found in Fukien and Kwang-tung also proves the geotectonic nature of this region. Summarizing the whole matter, we may say that the southeastern coastalregion of China was originally an old land. Although it has been agian andagain submerged by the sea, the resulting marine deposits are entirely differentfrom those of geosynclinal region. In the middle of Mesozoic, this region beganto be active violently again, producing a series of depressions or "secondarygeosynclines", in which thick continental beds were deposited, and, at the sametime, folds of intermediate type, serious volcanic eruptions and magmatic intru-sions were produced. Hence, to refer the southeastern coastal region of China toan "activizing" platform is quite strongly proved. The northwestern boundary of this "activizing" platform is generally onthe line starting from central Chekiang through central Kiangsi to the Sou-thwestern part of Kwangtung, because the history and characteristics of geolo-gical development of the Southeastern Kiangsi and Central-southern Kwangtungare quite similar to those of Fukien and Eastern Kwangtung. As to the nomination of this geotectonic unit, the writer proposes to callit "Cathaysian activizing region". This name is derived from the "Cathaysia"of A. W. Grabau but adds, according to necessity, the meaning of activizing or"resurrected" characters of this region. The so-called "Minche Pacific foldingzone" of A. C. Хоминтовский is obviously unacceptable because it entirely doesnot coincide with fact. Compared with the "aetivizing" platforms found in other parts of theworld, the Cathaysian coastal "activizing" platform has its own characteristics,especially shown by the presence of numerous, widely spread, small depressionsor "secondary geosynclines", and the acidic magmatic activities appearing on alarge scale. All these indicate that this is a special type differing from all th

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