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     Līlāvātī, written in 12 century, is one of the most famous arithmetic works in ancient India.
  “12 century”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Back to 11 or 12 century, the law broke the political and geographic board and became the unique law of the Europe.
     Lots of ancient higher educational institutions similar to universities have been existed in many classic civilization area including China. While we can only turn to the medieval universities during 12 century when we intend to trace the origin of universities of today.
     In different social conditions, while the Knights' concept will change, their perceptions of women's positions will also change immediately. Knight' love concept, which first appeared from the end of 11 century to the beginning of 12 century in Southern France, is boundary of this kind of varieties.
     This essay takes the polyphony literature style emerged in 12 century in Europe- religious texts song as a clue, concentrates on the main points to comb“Modal rhythm”from the article“Mensural rhythm”and“Isorhythmic”three important rhythms phenomena, does the crosswise contrast -like to three structures characteristics research, abstracts its general character, cites thess as as proof of the discussion of the western music rhythm evolution rule.
     Back to 12 century B.C. or 13 century B.C.
     公元前13~12世纪 ,人们已能熟练用酒曲酿酒 ,创造出黄酒生产工艺。
     From 22 century B.C. to 12 century B.C.
     h, 12 ?
     h、12 ?
     Enamelware was introduced to China in the 12th century.
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The half buried ruins of the 12 century Forvie church remain visible but by the 15th century the entire area was buried by moving sand.
Excellent history of this great church, begun in the 12 century.

Ericerus pela Chavannes, the insect producing white wax,belongs to Coccidae,Homoptera. The female adult lays eggs while the male larva produces wax, whichis a well-known product from Southwest China. The wax secreted by the malelarvae may be boiled and extracted to result in something known as white wax.Its boiling point reaches above 82-83℃. It has manifold uses. Before WorldWar Ⅱ, besides the consumption at home, th greater part of this product wasexported abroad. The supply of the female adults of this wax...

Ericerus pela Chavannes, the insect producing white wax,belongs to Coccidae,Homoptera. The female adult lays eggs while the male larva produces wax, whichis a well-known product from Southwest China. The wax secreted by the malelarvae may be boiled and extracted to result in something known as white wax.Its boiling point reaches above 82-83℃. It has manifold uses. Before WorldWar Ⅱ, besides the consumption at home, th greater part of this product wasexported abroad. The supply of the female adults of this wax insect in the wax-producing districtusually appears short annually, due to a peculiarity in the growth of this creature;and therefore naturally exist two correlative districts, that is a district of adultproduction and one of wax production. As these two.districts are located morethan 500 kilometres apart,every year the female adults ready to be transplantedon he feeding trees in the district of wax production have to be supplied bythe district of adult production, and they must be carried over a long distance.The carriage of the female adults of the wax insect from one place to theother has been practiced for about five hundred years by the people engaged inwax production. This article reports on a test of transportation of the female adults of the wax insect from Paikuowan (白菓湾) in Hweili County (会理县), formerly of SikangProvince to Huhtaokou (核桃沟) in Omei County (峨眉县), Szechwan Province.Investigations in this connection were made from the April 30 to May 13, 1941. It has long been the aim of the growers to produce the female adults of theinsect and the wax in the same locality. With this realized, the area of wax pro-duction would be enlarged, and the quantity of wax increased. However, as the female adults of the insect in the distr .ct of wax produc-tion are subject to such natural adversities as geographical features, temperatureand humidity, parasitic enemies etc., up to the present they cannot be raised andsapplied insufficient quantity in this district. For this reason, to in prove themethod of transporting the adults female insects to the wax-producing district, toShorten the time on the way,and to increase the vitality of the male larvae-all these have become the crucial questions in the promotion of wax production. The principal explanation, knowh for centuries, with regard to the impossi-bility to raise the female adults of the insects in the district of wax productionhas been the peculiar fact that the female larvae could not be carried in quickorder to a place over 500 kilometres apart. The present test has proved that al-though the female larvae were, in the greater part, hatched out on the way, therewere still a part of them reaching the destination in safety. Valuable informat-ion was also obtained on the hatching rate of the male and female larvae on theway, the influence of environmental factors on the sex ratio, the different speciesof parasitic enemies, etc.. It is hoped thet the facts thus ascertained will be ofservice to improving the methods of wax production.

白蜡虫是我国的特产,古代农民远在元朝已有饲养。在过去全国的白蜡年产量约在五万至十万担间,据1918年重庆海关报告有一万一千余担,值银七十七万余海 关两。解放前一、二十年来,由于国民党反动派的不重视和摧残,已逐渐衰落。白蜡是化学工业上的重要原料,用途很广,饲养蜡虫又是西南各省农民的主要副业,而且农民群众已积累了非常丰富的传统经验。因此,为了总结群众经验,发扬科学遗产,改进饲养技术,振兴蜡业,我们希望能引起有关方面的注意和进一步研究,除研究改进白蜡虫的经管技术外,又须注意白蜡在工业上的用途。 白蜡虫的种蜡异地繁荣,在目前已成为自然的形势,而蜡区种虫不能自给,是白蜡业发展上的基本障碍。我们通过本次测验之后,认为我国适于蜡虫(雄虫)繁育的地方很多,如四川、湖南、浙江、安徽、福建、江西、江苏等丘陵地带都可扑虫产蜡,关键问题在于改善运种方法。在目前我国交通运输业已有普遍发展的基础上,只要用航空运种即可在短时间内将种虫运送至全国蜡区。扩大蜡区,增加农民副业收入,发扬我国科学遗产,为国家创造财富,利用益虫为生产服务,在目前已完全有实现的可能。

Since the beginning of the last half century, the science of hydrology through successive steps of development has advanced to the realm of quantitative analysis. Engineers employed empirical methods to compute river discharges from precipitation data in answer to the ever-increasing demands made upon hydrologic analyses for engineering works. Yet for the phenomena of conflux of flows from precipitations, there exist only meager and fragmental quantitative analyses, without, so far, a systematic study...

Since the beginning of the last half century, the science of hydrology through successive steps of development has advanced to the realm of quantitative analysis. Engineers employed empirical methods to compute river discharges from precipitation data in answer to the ever-increasing demands made upon hydrologic analyses for engineering works. Yet for the phenomena of conflux of flows from precipitations, there exist only meager and fragmental quantitative analyses, without, so far, a systematic study of their underlying theories recorded in literature. On account of this, the progress of hydrology in respect to theory as well as to prac- tice has been retarded. By means of hydrodynamic analysis, the author has tentatively made an approach to the establishment of such a scheme of theories, in which he divided the rainfall-runoff phenomena into three parts for separate analyses, i. e., the occurrence of runoff due to rainfall at a surface point, the surface flow, and. the conflux of channel flows. This paper is devoted to the first part, which is, in essence, an analysis of the basic hydrologic phenomena. The theories thus established may be used as a guide for various hydrologic analyses in practice, may be based upon to examine the validity of various methods of hydrologic calculations, and may be further used to develop an approximate yet rational method for computing discharges from precipitation data. In this paper, the author proposes a scheme of underlying theories for analyzing the hydrograph of surface flow due to rainfall at a point, in which the essence of basic hydrologic phenomena is revealed, and this is accompanied with calculations of an example. In the earlier years, R. E. Horton established a theory of correlations of rainfall and runoff from small drainage basins by analyzing the data of Homer's sprinkler experiments. Thereafter, researchers basing upon his theories and methods analyzed the relations between rainfall and runoff by sprinkler experiments or data from natural areas. On account of the fact that Horton's analysis does not begin with an accurate hydrodynamical viewpoint, problems are bound to arise in practice due to defects in the underlying theories. Shortcomings of Homer's analysis on the basis of the author's theories are pointed out and the practical value of sprinkler experiments estimated. A method proposed by E. V. Bodakoff for computing discharges due to storms on small basins has raised wide discussions among the Soviet scholars, many of whom hold different views. The author hereby points out the main shortcomings of Bodakoff's method, and gives a numerical example with results compared with those computed by the author's method, thus showing the limitations of Bodakoff's method in practical applications.



(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which...

(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which has made the ethnic position of the Malayans as well as the ethnicrelationship between the Malayans and the other related peoples unclear scientifically. Therecent anthropological studies revealed the close ethnic relation between the brown raceand the yellow race, hence the Malayan stock is regarded as one branch of the Mongo-loids and given a new term "Oceanic Mongoloid". The Malayan stock now stands closelywith its two brothers the Northern Mongoloid and the Southern Mongoloid. The term "Malayans" is used here in its broader meaning which includes all thepeoples in Malaysia with a physical characteristics mostly of yellowish-brown colour.brachycephalie (broad) head form, black and straight hair, scanty beard, Malayan eye.medium stature and speaking branches of Malayo-Polynesian language which is agglutina-tive in its nature. Scientifically, both the "proto-Malays" and the "deutero-Malays", orboth the "true Malays" (Orang Malayu) and the other Malayans outside of it are to beconsidered here as the Malayan stock. Generally speaking, largest part of the peoplesliving in Malaya, Indonesia, Philippines and other islands bear this common name inscientific sense. Within the country of Indonesia the term Indonesians is most usuallyused, but in this article, the Indonesians is also included in the term Malayan stockbecause the latter is larger in its scope and more generally used in science. The Malayan stock is not a pure, single race but one of many elements intermixedtogether. The first element is the Oceanic Mongoloid which came from the north, pro-bable Chinese continent, its physical characteristics survived are the black, straight hair,broad head, yellowish-brown colour, medium stature and certain degree of Mongolian eye(narrow eye with Mongolian fold which covers the upper eye-lid). The second elementis the Indonesian stock, (This is used in scientific, narrower meaning instead of thatused in common sense) and early branch of the Caucasian race, originated in westernAsia and migrated eastward to Malaysia through Indo-China; it gives the present people the physical characteristics of Malayan eye, (broad eye without Mongolian fold hence theeye-lashes and a concave line on the eye-lid can be seen clearly) a certain degree of doli-chocephalie (long) head together with the agglutinative Malayo-Polynesian language. Thethird element is the Oceanic Negroid whose part contributed to the Malayans is not solarge that it still has pure descendants in present day viz. the Negritoes and the Papuans;while the fourth element is the Veddas came from India. The third and fourth one arri-ved earliest in probably Palaeolithic age, but played no important role in ethnic composi-tion of the Malayan stock because of their small number in population. The second onereached Malaysia after the above two probably in early period of Neolithic age, while thefirst one arrived latest in later period of Neolithic age. Though later in time, the OceanicMongoloids and Indonesians came in large numbers hence they formed the two principalelements of the Malayan stock. As the outcome of the intermixing of blood there appea-red a great mixed racial stock which looks different from its original elements, conseq-uently the original names are no longer suitable to be used. The term Indonesian is usedhere in its original meaning which is different from that of the so-called "Indonesians"in present day use. The mixed stock is no more called Indonesian but Malayan stock inthis article. Ⅱ. Is there Any Connection Between the Malayan Stock and the Ancient Peoples in Southern China? The cradle of the mix-blooded Malayan stock may be in the meeting point of the twoprincipal elements. Indo-China, a necessary meeting point on their ways, was naturally thecradle of the Malayan stock. From Indo-China floods of racial migration appeared fromtime to time and peopled the islands of Malaysia from west to east. As the Oceanic Mongoloid might be originated in the east Asia continent and mig-rated southward to Indo-China, naturally there must be a time in which they lived insouthern China as well as in Indo-China. Furthermore, the ancient peoples in SouthernChina consisted of various aboriginal tribes different from the Chinese Proper, it seemsnot very unreasonable to suggest that besides the Mongoloids there might existed too acertain primitive branch of Caucasian race or even Negroid race in southern China eventhough in small number before the Chinese Proper migrated southward. Possessing theability of migrating southward by the difficult way of water, why the Indonesians couldor would not proceed further eastward from Indo-China by an easier way of land tosouthern China During or preceding Chow dynasty (before 250 B. C.) in the coastal regions of sout-hern China (Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, Kwangsi provinces) there existedan ancient aboriginal stock with the name of "Yueh" which was looked by the Chineseproper as a different race because they lived in different way, followed their own queerhabits and customs and spoke in a different tongue. This stock was indeed more strangethan the other aboriginal stocks in southem China. The formation of such a stock mightbe the outcome of blending of the Mongoloids arrived from the north with some other peoples came from the southwest. As there really existed a different people-the In-donesians-migrated from the west and the blending of the two races-the Indonesiansand the Mongoloids-was actually taking place in Indo-China, it is far from impossiblethat such a phenomenon might extend and appear also in southem China. Being theproduct of mixing blood of the two principal races-the Mongoloids and the Indonesians-the Yueh stock might be in the same condition as the Malayan. If the intermixing of the Mongoloids with the Indonesians really took place in sout-hern China, the ancient people Yueh then was the brother of the Malayan stock. At thebeginning they might resemble to each other, but in later days both of them lived indifferent places and mixed with more other peoples, hence appeared also different fromeach other. Since the Chin dynasty (220 B. C.) the Yueh stock began to be assimilatedby the Chinese Proper from the north; the process of assimilation of culture and theblending of blood reached its conclusion in about 6th century. Later on no survivor ofYueh stock with pure blood or tribal name ever appeared in China. Their mix-bloodedoffspring, however, have existed up to present time as the population of the southeastcoastal region viz. Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung Provinces. Ⅲ. Three Evidences From the historical and geographical point of view, we get the above hypothesis ofthe ethnical Connection between the Malayan and the Yueh stock in southern China. Ifthis is true there must be, between them, physical and cultural resemblances which aresound enough as the evidence. Three sorts of facts, as I seek, may do this service: (1) Resemblances in Physical Characteristics--Though there is still no enoughamount of prehistoric skeletons of both the Indonesians and the Oceanic Mongoloidsunearthed in Malaysia and southern China for scientific research, the Iiving offsprings ofboth the two ancient races may give us some hints about this question,. It is often observedthat the physical characteristics of the southern Chinese of present day are different insome respects from the northern ones although basically they are of the same type viz.the Chinese type. Among them, the peoples of Kwangtung and Fukien have espicially adifferent appearence: Firstly, the eyes of them are broader and less in degree of Mongolian fold on theupper eye-lid. The eye of this type is the medium form between the Mongolian and theMalayan eye, and may be called Half-Malayan eye. Generally most of the Mongol Properand the northern Chinese have the Mongoian eye, while the Malayans have the Malayaneye. The intermediate eye suggests that the human group possessing it must be the mixedblood of the two kinds of peoples with these two sorts of eyes. Wherefrom did the sout-hern Chinese get the half-Malayan eye? Unless they had as one part of their compositeelement a sort of people with Malayan eyes, it is quite impossible to explain the derivationof this eye form. this eye form, therefore, tells us that the southern Chinese, especiallythat of Kwangtung, Fukien and perhaps Chekiang provinces had as one part of theirancestors a people with Malayan eyes. The Malayans may get their malayan eye from the Indoncsians, because the Indonesians belong to the Caucasian race whose eye is calledEuropean eye which is the same as the Malayan one. In fact, the European eye formappeared on the Malayan face is called Malayan eye. The eyes of the southern Chinesetherefore might he derived from the same way as the Malayans. Secondly, the stature of the southern Chinese especially those of Kwangtung andFukien is generally lower than that of the northern Chinese; while compared with theMalayans, they are nearly the same with each other. Thirdly, some of the faces of the southern Chinese looks different from the northernones but appears resembling the Malayans. The Southerns have a shorter face while thenortherners have a longer one. As the physical characteristics of both the southem Chinese and the Malayans resem-bling each other, it is hardly possible to distinguish some Chinese in Malayan costumesand vice versa. The Chinese new comers in Malaysia are often astonished to find thatthe so-called strangers or foreigners viz. the Malayans, look quite like themselves in theirphysical respect. Sometimes it is not easy too for the Europeans to distinguish betweenthe Chinese and the Malayans, because most of the Chinese immigrated to Malaysiancountries were from the southeastern coastal regions which was the home country of theancient Yueh people. (2) Resemblances in Early Cultural Respects--Of course the cultural life ofthe southern Chinese and the Malayans in present day are different to each other, butthe historical records about the ancient Yueh people reveal that the Yueh stock had intheir material life, social customs and languages some points suggesting the connectionwith the Malayans. These may be enumerated as the following: 1, Hair cutting: The ancient northern Chinese never cut their hair, the Miao stockbound their hair too, only the Yueh people was noted for their hair cutting. The primitivebranches of the present Malayan also cut their hair, the early Malayans probably had thiscustom in ancient times too. 2, Tattooing: The Yueh was also well-known for their tattooing which made themlook quite wonderful to the other Chinese, The Malayans of today still have kept thiscustom in Borneo, Philippines etc. 3, Snake worship: The Yueh worshipped the snakes and those in Fukien even tookthe snake as their totem. The aborigines in Taiwan province, which belong to Malayanstock too, still preserve the remnant of such belief, Snake worship is not unknown tothe Malayans in Malaysia too. 4, Pile-house: At present the pile-houses of the Malayans is quite well-known forits specialty; such form of building, however, was also adopted by the ancient southernChinese because it is recorded that the Yueh lived in nest, and the later southern peopleslived actually in the pile-houses which was called "kan-lan". 5, Naked foot: The Yueh's naked foot custom was also noted in ancient times.while the Malayans in history also kept their feet naked even though they were officersin the kings courts. 6, Agglutinative language: The Yueh spoke in a different and queer tongue fromthe Chinese Proper and even the other peoples in ancient times, the translation of Yuehwords gave the Chinese Proper a hard question; to denote the sound of a Yueh word,one Chinese word is not enough, while two or three words sound too much. Thiscondition suggests that though the Chinese language was isolating in its nature, that ofthe Yueh might belong to agglutinative one, because one agglutinative word usually pro-nounces just like two or more isolating words connected. Heine-Geldern and other scholarealso suggested that the Malayo-Polynesian or Austro-Asiatic language was originated inthe continent. The present south-eastern Chinese still speak in different dialects whichproves that the ancient Yueh language was quite strange to the northern Chinese. Thedifficulty to compare the ancient Yueh language with the Malayan one lies in the factthat both the present tongues used by the modern Malayans and the southern Chinesehave been changed by nearly two thousand years' assimilation with other languages. (3) Resemblances of Prehistoric Remains--Before the prehistoric archaeologicaldiscoveries took place in southern China, the question of the derivation or origin of someprehistoric objects in malaysia and even Polynesia had been very hard to be solved. Poly-nesia is famous for one special type of stone implements viz. the tanged adze or steppedadze, the origin of it was traced to that unearthed in Philippines; the derivation of thestepped adze of Philippines, however, was also very hard to be traced. Since about 1930the prehistoric findings began to take place in southern Chinese continent. the newmaterials enable the old questions easier to be solved. The prehistoric remains are difte-rent to those found in northern China, the latter consists of the painted pottery, blackpottery, thick stone axe, holed stone axe etc., whilc the former consists of the pressedgeometric-designed pettery, the stepped adze, the shouldered axe etc.. Strange to say thatthe southern prehistoric objects of China really resemble those of Malaysia and evenPolynesia. These objects may be pointed as the following: 1, Stepped stone adze: Stepped adze is found in large numbers in the south-easternregions viz. Fukien, Kwangtung, Chekiang, Kiangsi, Kiangsu etc., but appears veryrare in the eastern part of northern China and is entirely unknown in the western partof it. The shape suggests that it was developed in three stages just like that of Phi-lippines and Polynesia. Furthermore, the stepped adze of primary and intermediate stagesappeared more in number in south-eastern China, while that of the higher stage appearedmore in Philippines and Polynesia; such a condition reveals that the stepped adze of Phi-lippines and Polynesia was derived from south-eastern China. The way of transmigrationof the stepped adze is probably through Taiwan, Philippines and other islands. 2, Shouldered stone axe: The shouldered axe appeared in Indo-China. Malay pe-ninsula, Philippines etc., but was not found in the intermediate islands viz Sumatra,Java etc.. It was unearthed in Taiwan and Hainan islands too. In the southern part ofthe Chinese continent it appeared less in number but more will be found in future. Inthe north-eastern China very rare was obtaine(?) too. The shouldered axe might be ori-ginated in Indo-China and then spreaded eastward to the south-eastern coastal region of Chinese continent, therefrom it crossed the sea and arrived in Philippines through Tai-wan island, On the way a northward route led it to the north-eastern region. Anotherroute led it southward to Malay Peninsula. Shouldered axe is also an object of evidenceshowing the relation of the Malayans and the southern Chinese, because the prehistoricpeoples in Indo-China was the Malayans instead of the Annamese etc.. 3, Pressed geometric-designed pottery: In southern, especially south-eastern China,the prehistoric pottery was that with geometric designs pressed with pottery prints, thisis quite different to the painted pottery of north-western China and the black pottery ofnorth-eastern China. In Malaysia and Indo-China the prehistoric potteries found resembleto that of south China, some of the shape of the potteries as well as the pressed designsare quite like each other. Some potteries of this type were actuaily found in Indo-China,Java and Sulawesi, which are comparable with that of south China. This kind of potteryalso suggests the prehistoric connection between Malayans and the southern Chinese. Ⅳ. Conclusions (1) The Malayan stock is a mixed blood of chiefly the Oceanic Mongoloid raceand the Indonesians which is an early branch of the Caucasian race. These two raceshave been blended to such a degree that a new stock appeared which is called the Ma-Jayan stock, and the two elements have no more pure offsprings survived. The presentMalayans show more Mongolian physical features than the Indonesian ones, hencs it istaken as a branch of Mongoloids. (2) The Oceanic Mongoloid came from southern China, hence these should beethnic connection. between the Malayans and the ancient southern Chinese. Moreover,the other two elements of the Malayans, the Indonesians and the Negritoes probablyalso arrived and lived in southern China earlier than the Mongoloids and became partof the ethnical elements of the southern Chinese in later days, therefore the Malayansand the southern Chinese may have the same ethnical element. (3) The present southern Chinese, especially the south-eastern ones have some phy-sical characteristics like the Malayans, their ancestor Yueh stock had some customs andlanguage showing some resemblances to the Malayans, finally, the prehistoric discoveriesalso show the relationship between these two races. (4) The processes of the formation of the Malayan stock might proceeded in Indo-China and southern China. Since Neolithic age the Malayans migrated step by step toMalaysian islands, while those remained in Indo-China and southern China were assimi-lated by the Chinese Proper, Annamese, Siamese and Burmese. The ancient Yueh stockin southern China might have nearly the same ethnic composition as the Malayans, butwas assimilated by the Chinese Proper since two thousand years ago. (5) There might be two routes of southward migration of the Malayans. The firstand principal one was the west route which started from Indo-China, penetrated Suma-tra, Java and Borneo, and finally reached Philippines; the evidences are the pressedgeometric designed pottery and the shouldered axe. The second was the east route whichstarted from the south-eastern coast of Chinese continent, passed Taiwan and other islets,finally reached Philippines, Sulawesi and eastern Borneo. The stepped adze, the shoul-dered axe, and the pressed geometric-designed pottery are the evidences of this


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