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equivalent alternatives
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  等效替代
     The methods based on optimal and equivalent alternatives,assurance premium and stable production growth cannot be regarded as rational and feasible methods for calculating flood control benefits.
     最优等效替代措施法、保险费法及稳定生产增长法不能作为计算防洪效益的合理可行方法。
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  equivalent alternatives
We set forth equivalent alternatives which make the analysts' task easier, more precise, and more confident.
      
Mixed results were obtained in comparing the effects of the efficient versus the less efficient functionally equivalent alternatives.
      
User experiences illustrate the difficulties encountered online and the role of equivalent alternatives for visual and auditory content.
      
Our approach is to select among such equivalent alternatives, one that lends itself well to a systolic implementation.
      
Many modern optimizers consider a number of functionally equivalent alternatives and choose the final plan based on an estimated cost function.
      
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This article outlines the CNOOC's policy on the cooperative development of natural gas resources on China's offshore continental shelf. The following are some highlights of the policy outlined: natural gas developed cooperatively should have both international and domestic markets. Gas purchased should be paid for in foreign exchange at the equivalent alternative energy price based on the principal of "take or pay", In the signing of sales contracts both the buyers and sellers shall promise to jointly...

This article outlines the CNOOC's policy on the cooperative development of natural gas resources on China's offshore continental shelf. The following are some highlights of the policy outlined: natural gas developed cooperatively should have both international and domestic markets. Gas purchased should be paid for in foreign exchange at the equivalent alternative energy price based on the principal of "take or pay", In the signing of sales contracts both the buyers and sellers shall promise to jointly finance related construction projects. The CNOOC shall invest in pipelines if gas production reaches a certain volume and such projects are commercially feasible. Recoverable gas reserves must reach the proven reserve level and receive approval from the National Committee on Mineral Resources. The four documents-the Sino-Foreign cooperative development and production agreement for gasf ields, the overall development plan for a gasfield, gas selling contracts,and investment and financial promises for gasfield construction - are interconnected and must go into effect simultaneously.

本文阐述了中国海洋石油总公司(CNOOC)在对外合作开发我国近海天然气资源方面实行的一系列政策。政策规定:合作开发的天然气可在国内外销售,全部收取外汇,按等效替代能源价格定价,实行“照付不议”原则;买卖双方在签订天然气销售合同时须同时承诺提供气田和用气设施建设所需资金,在产气量达到经济规模时CNOOC可投资建设输气管道;气田达到证实的储量等级,经中国国家储量委员会批准后方可投入开发;气田合作开发生产协议,气田总体开发方案,天然气销售合同及建设筹资承诺4个文件必须同时生效。文章还介绍了CNOOC合作开发天然气的利益分配规定,按年产量的5%向中国政府缴纳工商统一税;以年产量的62.5%为限额,用于缴纳矿区使用费、支付生产作业费和回收投资;年产量的32.5%为中方留成和中外双方分成部分。

This paper outlines the characteristics of flood control benefits and describes,in more detail.the prevailing calculation methods.As studies sugest,the method based on chronical series is an effective approach provided typical series of tears with considerable duration are available.The major shortcoming of the frequency method is that it is hard to work out the long-term average benefit with dynamic calculations,though it does provide static indices of flood control works.The methods based on optimal and equivalent...

This paper outlines the characteristics of flood control benefits and describes,in more detail.the prevailing calculation methods.As studies sugest,the method based on chronical series is an effective approach provided typical series of tears with considerable duration are available.The major shortcoming of the frequency method is that it is hard to work out the long-term average benefit with dynamic calculations,though it does provide static indices of flood control works.The methods based on optimal and equivalent alternatives,assurance premium and stable production growth cannot be regarded as rational and feasible methods for calculating flood control benefits.while addressing some of the key issues involved in proper calculation of flood control benefits. such as identification of price,selection of dynamic verse static methods. and growth rate of flood control benefits,this paper also includes some improvements and provides a formula for converting the annual benefits against different economic verse price levels.

简述了防洪效益的特点,对现有防洪效益计算方法进行了较深入的探讨。研究表明,如能选出代表性较好且有一定长度的典型系列年,年系列法是正确计算防洪效益的有效方法;频率法的很大不足是难以采用动态方法计算多年平均防洪效益,它只能给出防洪工程的静态效益指标;最优等效替代措施法、保险费法及稳定生产增长法不能作为计算防洪效益的合理可行方法。文中还对正确计算防洪效益的几个关键问题(包括采用什么价格、动态与静态方法的选取、如何考虑防洪效益增长率等)进行了专门探讨和说明,提出了一些改进建议,给出了年防洪效益在不同经济水平及物价水平之间的换算公式。

Marking use of the optimum equivalent alternative,after analyzing of the calculating process of hydropower benefit value, the main indices of hydropower benfit value,the calculating principles,methods and parameters,comprehensive analyses and evaluations on the benefit of power generation by 4.5 billion m 3 water transfer from Yalong Jiang have been carried out.

通过对水力发电经济效益的探讨 ,分析了利用最优等效替代工程年折算费用法计算水力发电效益价值量的过程 ,并给出了水力发电效益价值量主要指标及其中的某些影子价格的计算原理及计算方法 .利用以上原理、方法及参数对雅砻江调水 4 .5× 1 0 9m3发电经济效益进行了综合分析与评价

 
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