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temperature equivalent
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  温度当量
     Objective To ascertain a clinically meaningful thermal dose unit temperature equivalent minute(TEM) 42.5℃ and the relationship between TEM 42.5℃ and tumor response rate.
     目的 采用温度当量分 (TEM 4 2 .5℃ )作为热剂量单位 ,评价其与肿瘤缓解率之间的关系 ,找出适合临床应用的热剂量单位。
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  “temperature equivalent”译为未确定词的双语例句
     4. Investigate relation of composite's resistivity and time at constanttemperature, firstly introducing principle of time temperature equivalent andrelaxation theory. On the basis of experimenta1 results put forward a new viewnointabout arising process and mechanism of H- PTC/ NTC, which can gives morecomplete and reasonable explains for the experimental phenomenon.
     四.笔者首次引入时温等效原理和松弛理论,在恒温条件下研究了材料电阻率与时间的关系,在此实验结果的基础上对H-PTC/NTC的形成过程及机理提出了新的观点,使之更能全面合理地解释实验中的各种现象。
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     Distribution of temperature, equivalent plastic strain and radial and axial rolling force have been quantitatively analyzed in the whole process.
     定量分析了整个轧制过程环件内的温度、等效应变、双向轧制力的分布和演化情况。
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     Meaningand determining method of metai temperature,design temperature,equivalent diam-eter of perforated area, and tube strengthing factor are specified for design and calculation of tubesheet of tubelar heat exchangers.
     本文论述了管壳式换热器管板设计计算的重要参数:金属温度、设计温度的确定原则以及布管区当量直径、管子加强系数的力学意义及其计算方法。
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     Based on Swanson's integral nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive relationship,improved nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is presented and modified incremental constitutive relationship is derived which is applicable no matter Poisson ratio depends on time and time temperature equivalent effects as well as compressibility of propellant are incorporated.
     本文采用基于 Swanson积分型非线性粘弹性本构关系 ,提出了改进的非线性粘弹性本构模型并推导了一种新的增量型关系式 ,对 Poisson比是否与时间 t有关均适用 ,同时考虑时温等效与推进剂材料的可压缩性 ;
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     Principle of time temperature equivalent and relaxation theory are introduced firstly, relation of resistivity of the composite and time at constant temperature is investigated. On the basis of experimental results a new viewpoint about forming process and mechanism of PTC/ NTC, which can give more complete and reasonable explanation for the experimental phenomena, is put forward.
     首次引入时温等效原理和松弛理论 ,在恒温条件下研究了材料电阻率与时间的关系 ,在此实验结果的基础上对PTC/NTC的形成过程及机理提出了新的观点 ,使之更能全面合理地解释实验中的各种现象
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  相似匹配句对
     T is temperature, ℃.
     T为温度,℃。
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     The temperature for R.
     越冬卵孵化起点温度低于4℃。
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     TEMPERATURE DEFINED BY EQUIVALENT CLASS
     温度的等价类定义
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     the equivalent of E.
     E.
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     APPLICATION OF “EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE”IN CRACKING CONTROL
     “当量温差”在裂缝控制研究中的应用
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  temperature equivalent
As a temperature equivalent drop-in replacement for the Pb-Sn eutectic alloy (m.p.~183°C), Sn-Zn-In based alloys (m.p.~185°C) have been developed.
      
The differences in the W(T) constituted the temperature equivalent of 0.16, - 0.14, and 0.04 at the reference points correspondingly for Ag, Au, and Cu.
      
Growth rates were not different between cyclic temperatures and the constant temperature equivalent to the mean of the cycle.
      
It has been shown that realistic rates of production can be obtained around room temperature equivalent to thermal decomposition rates >amp;gt; 100°C, making sonication a viable method for initiating polymerisation.
      
This pitting temperature is superior, and the crevice temperature equivalent to those of the 6 steels.
      


An investigation on the fishing methods of lake Hung Hu was made by the auther in 1959.The fishing method of“san”is of special interest.In this paper some discussions on it’s history, (?)echnique and the cause of migration will be made;and the appreciation of this method will also be given. Ⅰ.History The said fishing method was mentioned in a Chinese book as early as 221 B.C.It is,of no doubt that our country was the first to us this method in fishhag,which has remained in application for thou- sands of years...

An investigation on the fishing methods of lake Hung Hu was made by the auther in 1959.The fishing method of“san”is of special interest.In this paper some discussions on it’s history, (?)echnique and the cause of migration will be made;and the appreciation of this method will also be given. Ⅰ.History The said fishing method was mentioned in a Chinese book as early as 221 B.C.It is,of no doubt that our country was the first to us this method in fishhag,which has remained in application for thou- sands of years and still kept it’s features up to the present time. The method of“San”may often be classified into two types:natural and artificial.Changing with the different seasons,there are three forms of the natural“San”:Spring“San”,autumn“San”,and winter“San”. Ⅱ.Technique Here the artificial“San”,which is more complicated and important is to be introduced. The fishing—ground is chosen in late autumn or early winter at the inlet of the lake or at a sport with small current where many loppings of trees or bushes are put into the bottom of lake,which is usually named the“CENTER OF SAN”.Around the center bundles of herbaceous plants should be sank into the bottom of lake at certain distance,nearer the center than the outside.But in doing so,the bundles should not be set too thick,in order that the sunlight may shine upon the water. One month or more when the work mentioned above has been accomplished,bamboo palings, immerged two-thirds of half in water,are placed around the fishing-ground on a fine and sunny day. The placing of bamboo palings is an important part of the whole scheme;it requires both speed and close-setting.For this purpose,20-30 bamboo palings are placed on between deck of each boat,slant on the front but vertical behind.At least,three men are needed to control each boat:the first to drag pa- lings into water from the deck,the second to hammer them in the bottom of lake,and the third to roll the boat backwards,so as to much strength the first man and also to escape the blockade of the palings. Some wood-slices may used to joint the palings together.Choose a sintable sport between two palings,and 1-4 or more fish-pits are well-arranged.Later on,a sort of special hand-nets is used to fish out from the fish-pits.And then,the bundles of herbaceous plants may gradually be removed; the loppings of trees or bushes also gradually removed toward the center.Finally,the lopping at the center are removed by using 4 palings to separate the center into 5 parts.And then a casting-net or other nets are used to capture the fish. Ⅲ.Analysis of the cause for congregation of fish Alnumber of scientific workers have discussed the cause of the congregation of fish by the fishing method of“San”.There remain argument about the subject.Most of them believe that the con- gregation is dosely related to the temperature,the desolved oxygen and food besides in the water,as well as to the defence against the attachs from the enemy.The author agrees with this cpinion. According to the author’s opinion,however,the response of fish to lower temperature has shown in two different forms.Some fishes the winter-migrators for exalpale,at lower temperature,seek a habit at with higher temperature.Based upon the author’s observation,be found that the younger fish especially like to live at higher temperature equivalent to slightly above body temperature.Therefore,unless the take in too shallow(1-3 M),they do not enter the fishing-ground of“San”,but prefer to go to deeper water.Some other fishes adapt themselves to lower temperature by decreasing the metabolism of the body.Their activities,therefore,are limited with in a small area,where is plenty of food and desolved oxygen,and the temperature is always above the lowest limit of living,and it is also a safe environment for them to live in.The“San”fishing-ground is sufficient for this environment.As for the other fishes, they may come into the fishing-ground by man’s interference. Ⅳ.Appreciation of the Fishing Method of“SAN” So far as the author’s observation is concerned,the fishing method of“San”is a relatively better fishing method.It differs from other methods not only in tools but in fishing-ground.And it also gets a better catch,especially in those lakes with shallow water and thick vogetation.Beside,by making use of this method,we can protect the young fish.Judging from what has been mentioned above,the author regards“San”as a good method for fishing.For improvement the author offer some suggestions as follows: 1.The vegetation of nature“San”fishing-ground may be destroyed by 1own-mower or the plant cut down at certain intervals. 2.The simplification of“San”is the better than others,which are simplicites at tools and process of fishing,if so that use cormerant instead of men to drive fish,such a result is better of possibility. 3.Limit or decrease the application of spring and autumn“San”.For during those seasons,the fish will spawn on vegetation and become fat gradually,it is not proper to catch them,thus protecting the fish as well as having annual catches. 4.For the purpose of making“San”earlier in unfavourable seasons,control the water-loyal by. means of sluice-gate.

渔具渔法种类繁多,罧业渔法是我国淡水湖泊常见渔法之一。这种渔法在渔需物资、渔坊等条件与其它渔具不同,特别是在浅水多水草湖泊中捕鱼能起其它渔具所不能起的作用;不仅渔获量高,收益大,同时还具备诱大鱼的特点,有利于繁殖保护。然而关于罧业渔法尚未得到系统的整理。作者综合了白洋淀、梁子湖以及在洪湖实地调查的赘料,写成本报告。目的在总结我国罧业渔法经验,探讨罧雾(?)诱集鱼群的原因,并提供一些改进意见,希望在我国淡水渔捞业上起一点促进作用。我国是世界上最早用罧捕鱼的国家,记载首见于春秋战国时代,现在作法与古时记载基本相同。现这种渔法已沿用了一千多年了。罧业渔法依其作业的性质可分为生霖和熟霖两类:前者是用帘包围天然鱼群集聚区,除草缩小包围圈捕捉,而后者则是人造的。生罧依作业季节不同可分春罧、秋罧和冬罧。熟罧以适应水位和其它条件又有倒把式罧和简化罧的区别。生罧渔法适应于多水草的浅湖,熟罧则适应水草较少的湖泊。作业时除船外,主要用具为帘子(竹质最好),附属用具有长柄弯镰、通篙及抄纲。生罧、熟罧罧(?)条件虽有不同,但均要求底质低凹、富于淤泥,水深2—2.5米,位近港口或注水河道的迥水区,水色不过于混浊,有一定的水草(生罧则以多...

渔具渔法种类繁多,罧业渔法是我国淡水湖泊常见渔法之一。这种渔法在渔需物资、渔坊等条件与其它渔具不同,特别是在浅水多水草湖泊中捕鱼能起其它渔具所不能起的作用;不仅渔获量高,收益大,同时还具备诱大鱼的特点,有利于繁殖保护。然而关于罧业渔法尚未得到系统的整理。作者综合了白洋淀、梁子湖以及在洪湖实地调查的赘料,写成本报告。目的在总结我国罧业渔法经验,探讨罧雾(?)诱集鱼群的原因,并提供一些改进意见,希望在我国淡水渔捞业上起一点促进作用。我国是世界上最早用罧捕鱼的国家,记载首见于春秋战国时代,现在作法与古时记载基本相同。现这种渔法已沿用了一千多年了。罧业渔法依其作业的性质可分为生霖和熟霖两类:前者是用帘包围天然鱼群集聚区,除草缩小包围圈捕捉,而后者则是人造的。生罧依作业季节不同可分春罧、秋罧和冬罧。熟罧以适应水位和其它条件又有倒把式罧和简化罧的区别。生罧渔法适应于多水草的浅湖,熟罧则适应水草较少的湖泊。作业时除船外,主要用具为帘子(竹质最好),附属用具有长柄弯镰、通篙及抄纲。生罧、熟罧罧(?)条件虽有不同,但均要求底质低凹、富于淤泥,水深2—2.5米,位近港口或注水河道的迥水区,水色不过于混浊,有一定的水草(生罧则以多水草为主要条件),背风向阳,环境安静。罧(?)确定后,如生罧渔法,即用长柄弯镶除草,挖帘路下帘包围鱼群,以后则以分片除草下间帘的方式缩小范围,作法与下述熟罧基本一致.熟霖罧(?)确定后,先在罧(?)的中央投放一定数量的树枝和篙草做成罧心,围绕罧心等距离地插上些草把(岗柴或芦苇每4—10根一束),由里向外逐渐稀疏,罧(?)随告建成,经一段时间禁畜后,即可围帘起罧捕鱼。下帘的目的在包围隐蔽在罧(?)内的鱼群,为了防止鱼群受惊逃避,要求动作迅速。为达到此目的,帘子在船上安放的方式很为重要;通常每只船载20—30个帘子,当第一个帘子上船时就以折迭方式横置中仓,起初一折约1/2米宽,每折至船头方向时均向外逐渐放宽,务使帘子的边绿终止在船头方向。以后上船的帘子沿着先一个帘子的终点起以同一方式折迭,亦逐渐向船一头方向放宽.如是,全部帘子堆起来近船头一方呈斜坡形,近船尾方向的一边为垂直的。下帘时三人共船。其中两人站在船关,一人拉帘入水井扶直,另一人用木锤打稳,第三人则倒划着船走,这样既便于拉帘入水,又可避免竖起来的帘子所阻挡,加速下帘工作。两帘交界处要有复迭的边绿,以便利用木片联结。罧(?)被帘子包围后,通常要检查一遍,不妥处要予以修整。然后再选择适当的地方以旋箔的方式安装取鱼部(鱼溜)。并定期在其中用抄纲捕捞。缩小罧(?)有两种方式:一为沿着即将拆除帘子的一边割除水草(生罧)或移去草把(熟罧)至一定范围时,在近罧心的地方另下间帘,然后再拆除同边的帘子。另一为拆除同边的帘子并把它移向内方.除草或移草把时就起赶鱼的作用。有时为慎重起见还须结合船队用通篙击水赶鱼。特别是采用后一种方式时,赶鱼尤属重要。起罧下间帘、赶鱼必须遵循两个原则:1.早不移东,晚不移西。这是因为斜光映帘入水警戒着鱼群不敢外逃,早晨拆除东边帘子便会除去这个警戒线界,稍微不慎即可造成逃鱼缺口。晚不移西也是同样道理。2.赶鱼下间帘只能沿着一方前进,每天只能下1—2边,顶多也不超过3边,不能4边一齐进行。因为4边一齐进行鱼群没有停息的机会,往往会造成炸罧(注1)遇有炸罧情况发生时要采取相应措施(暂时的停止工作或修补帘子),防止逃鱼。当罧(?)缩得很小时,最后起鱼有两种方法:一种是从罧心赶鱼,使其进入取鱼部用抄网捕捉;另一种是除去罧心并下间帘把罧心分格,配合罩纲、挟纲从事捕捞。进行罧心分格的方式很多,通常是下四道帘子把罧心分成五格,称五花式。起鱼完毕后,倘在渔期,尚须重建罧(?)。如渔期已过,需要把帘子、草把等移至岸边并加保管。以备来年再用。罧(?)渔获物随设罧地区鱼类区系特点而异,同一地区常随设罧的季节而不同,鱼类之所以进入罧坊在于罧(?)内的某些条件或全部条件(水温、溶氧、饵科及其它)能满足鱼类的需要。春罧在一定程度上诱捕到沿岸水草丛中觅食和产卵的鱼类(白洋淀、大同湖),因之,鲤、(?)占很大比重,秋罧大都捕捉在浅水区觅食的鱼类。人的有意识的在罧区外开展其它渔具作业,也是鱼类进入罧(?)原因之一。依作者观察:鱼类对低温条件的反应有两种方式,并且是逐渐进行的。一种是随着低温条件的来临,鱼类游向温度较高的水域——通常是比较深的水域——并在那里渡过低温期。这是因为较深的水域水文学条件比较稳定的关系,既是有变化也不象浅水区那样骤烈;另一种方式是随着环境条件的变更以调节其代谢作用的过程,减少活动并增强其摄食量是这一适应的具体表现。鱼类以那一种方式渡过低温期,常受其栖居环境条件的影响。看来洪湖的鱼类是以后一种方式渡过为时很短的冬季。虽然罧区与其它水面具有几乎是相同的水温、溶解氧、pH 等条件,但铒料基础却显得丰富些。在其它诸条件相同时,饵料基础的增加,绣集某些鱼类的集中,已经为实践所证明。罧(?)中主要经济鱼类的幼鱼(体长20厘米以下的个体)较少,可能与幼鱼需要较高的温度条件有关.依据渔民的经验和一些不完整的调查资料(表2)来看,有迹象表明:在低温条件下较深水域中幼鱼较多。由于罧(?)水深在2—2.5米之间,因此在有深水条件存在时,可能罧(?)中幼鱼比较少。至于表中深浅水中大小鱼交叉的现象,可能与鱼类代谢作用有极大的伸缩性有关。罧业渔法经济效益较大(见表3)。已往因一次投资大、劳力多、应用不广。人民公社化为这一渔法的普遍应用提供了可能性。作为改进的意见有:1.生罧可以用间隔除草法,省劳力又可争取时间多捕鱼。如能用除草机更好。2.春罧主要捕捉那些即将到沿岸区水草丛中产卵的鱼类影响鱼群数量补充和年产量,可以少发展。3.简化罧(?)蓄禁期短,投资少,省劳力,作业期长,收益较大,可以多加提倡。4.在反常季节可以充分利用泄水闸控制水位,以便利设罧。非不得已不采用倒把式罧,据称其渔获量不如熟罧为高。

This paper gives high temperature equivalent circuit of CMOS inverters.The high temperature DC transfer characteristics and transient performance of CMOS inverters have been analysed.It has discussed the analysis methods of high temperature electrical characteristics of static CMOS digital integrated circuits.The experimental results are in basic agreement with models which the paper has given.

本文给出了CMOS倒相器的高温等效电路,分析了它的高温直流传输特性和瞬态特性。文章还讨论了CMOS静态数字集成电路高温电学特性的分析方法。本文提出的CMOS数字集成电路的高温电学特性模型和实验结果相接近。

The fertility change of the GMR is determined by the phototemperature condition in the period from 5 days to 15-20 days before heading stage. In the bearing period, the fertility can be presented by a single peak curve with its peak value leaning to the higher temperature (longer solar duration). The fertility of the temperature sensitive GMR is mainly controled by the temperature. The fertility of the photo-sensitive GMR is controled by the solar duration when the solar duration is longer than the optimum solar...

The fertility change of the GMR is determined by the phototemperature condition in the period from 5 days to 15-20 days before heading stage. In the bearing period, the fertility can be presented by a single peak curve with its peak value leaning to the higher temperature (longer solar duration). The fertility of the temperature sensitive GMR is mainly controled by the temperature. The fertility of the photo-sensitive GMR is controled by the solar duration when the solar duration is longer than the optimum solar duration and controled by temperature when the solar duration is shorter than the optimum solar duration. The fertility of the photo-temperature sensitive GMR is controled both by the solar duration and the temperature. Photo-temperature equivalent may be used to compare the effects on the fertility caused by the temperature with that caused by the solar duration. Fertility change is a revesible and successive course. The resumation and reduction degree of the fertility are decided by the intensity and continued days of the temperature and solar duration. The fertility change date has obvious climatic characteristics. The fertility change dates of the temperature sensitive GMRs fluctuate greatly and only those whose fertility change critical temperature range are big may have wide adaptations. The fertility change dates of the photo-sensitive and photo-temperature sensitive GMRs fluctuate little and they will have higher utilization values when the fertility change critical solar durations are long and the optimum solar durations are short only.

光敏核不育水稻的育性转换是由抽穗前5至15—20天的光温条件综合作用的结果。可育期内育性表现为一偏向高温(长日)的单峰型曲线,其数量关系可由结实率量化模型表达。温敏型不育系的育性变化由温度主控,光敏型不育系的育性在日长大于最适日长时由日长主控,短于最适日长时由温度主控,光温敏型不育系的育性由温光条件共同作用。温光当量可作为比较温度和日长对育性影响大小的具体量值。育性转换是一个可逆连续过程,其恢复和降低的程度取决于日长和温度变化的强度和持续时间。根据育性转换机理和光温条件的时空变化规律,育性转换期也具有显著的气候学特征。温敏型不育系的育性转换期波动大,只有育性转换临界温度幅度较大的不育系才可能有较广泛的适应性。光(温)敏型不育系的育性转换期波动较小,只要育性转换临界日长较长,最适日长较短,就具有较高的利用价值。

 
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