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evolutionary scenarios
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  进化途径
     THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT MITOCHONDRIAL GENOMES──TWO EVOLUTIONARY SCENARIOS
     动物与植物线粒体基因组结构的差异──两种进化途径
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  相似匹配句对
     EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
     演化计算
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     EVOLUTIONARY ROBOTS
     进化机器人
短句来源
     THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT MITOCHONDRIAL GENOMES──TWO EVOLUTIONARY SCENARIOS
     动物与植物线粒体基因组结构的差异──两种进化途径
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     SCENARIOS:The Genetic Age
     基因年代(英文)
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     The Scenarios in the Songnen Steppe
     松嫩草地未来气候情景
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  evolutionary scenarios
Understanding female sexuality and mate choice is central to evolutionary scenarios of human social systems.
      
Because mugwort and hop are putative ancestral host plants, these results are discussed from the point of view of evolutionary scenarios for the emergence of Z and E strains.
      
The evolution of grouping patterns in many two-adult grouped primates may be best modeled via evolutionary scenarios relying on direct dietary/energetic constraints, predation, and possibly mate-guarding.
      
Evolutionary scenarios must account for Algol binaries surviving their first phase of mass transfer.
      
The ideological and practical implications of imperialism and WWI have also been identified as formative of the new evolutionary scenarios in which racial conflict played a crucial role.
      
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The function of mitochondria is very conserved in almost all eukaryotes, while the sizes and structures of mitochondrial genomes are very diverse among animals, plants, protozoa, algae and fungi. The causes for these differences and the corresponding evolutionary paths are yet to be found.Animal mitochondrial genomes are very small and compact, with a size of about 16 kb. As "an extreme example of genetic economy", introns and non-coding repeated sequences are absent, and the arrangement of genes is relatively...

The function of mitochondria is very conserved in almost all eukaryotes, while the sizes and structures of mitochondrial genomes are very diverse among animals, plants, protozoa, algae and fungi. The causes for these differences and the corresponding evolutionary paths are yet to be found.Animal mitochondrial genomes are very small and compact, with a size of about 16 kb. As "an extreme example of genetic economy", introns and non-coding repeated sequences are absent, and the arrangement of genes is relatively stable. On the other hand,higher plant mitochondrial genomes are very large, ranging from 186 kb to 2400 kb. Their genomes are complex and heterogeneous, with many repeated sequences and introns present. On the whole, animal and plant mitochondrial genomes represent the two extremes of this organelle genome in eukaryotes. As for the mitochondrial genomes of protozoa, algae and fungi, their sizes and structures are somewhere in between these two extremes. Although heterogeneous within group, repeated sequences may be found in mitochondrial genomes of protozoa and fungi, The existence of introns are common in fungal mitochondrial genomes, even in the smallest ones, several introns are present. Among these three kinds of lower eukaryotes, when the mitochondrial genome is relatively small, its structure is rather like that of animals than plants. Conversely, if the genome is relatively large, it resembles plant's rather than animal's. With the analysis of the structural character of mitochondrial genomes in different eukaryotes, it seems that there are also two evolutionary scenarios for mitochondrial genomes similar to those for nuclear (nucleoid) genomes proposed by the author. As a proposed pattern for the origin and evolution of repeated sequences, gene and genome structure (Zhang, 1990), repeated sequences may have an ancient origin, dating back to the early stages of biological evolution. The most primitive "genes" and "genomes" would be composed of repeated sequences. With this basis, evolution would lead to a kind of genome consisting of early split genes and repeated sequences. Two possibilities for the further evolution of this kind of genome would lead to either small genome organisms or large genome organisms with different genomic character. If an organism evolved to have a small genome, it must first contain the genes with higher functions for its efficient survival, leaying little or no room for repeated sequences and introns (they were lost in the course of evolution). On the contrary, if an organism evolved to have a large genome, it may contain both the necessary genes and repeated sequences and introns. The repeated sequences and introns would be then"relics" of the primitive genomes, they would continue to play structural and evolutionary roles in modern genomes containing them. Modern prokaryotes would be the representatives of "small genome" evolutionary scenario, while the "large genome" scenario would be represented by modern eukaryotes.With the proposed pattern and the theory of endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria, it can be assumed that the ancestor of mitochondria possessed already a genome of considerable size, with repeated sequences and introns present. This kind of primitive mitochondrial genome evolved either to "small genome" mitochondria, introns and repeated sequences being lost, as in the case of animals as well as other eukaryotes with small mitochondrial genomes; or to "large genome" mitochondria as those of plants and other eukaryotes with large mitochondrial genomes. These two evolutionary scenarios can explain well the structural character of mitochondrial genomes in different kinds of eukaryotes. The repeated sequences in plant, protozoan and fungal mitochondrial genomes, and the introns in plant and fungal mitochondrial genomes, can be considered as "relics" of the ancestor of mitochondria. Their existence would not be a conflict with, but rather a support to the endosymbiont theory. In this context, a general pattern for the origin and evolution of nuclear (nucleoid) genomes

从进化的角度分析和综合多细胞动物、高等植物、原生动物、藻类和真菌的线粒体基因组的大小和各自的结构特点,并根据作者提出的重复序列与基因结构的起源和进化的模式与途径,得出线粒体通过内共生起源,也是从原始的线粒体基因组向小基因组和大基因组两种方向发展,并有着两种与核(类核)基因组的可比较的进化途径的结论。这两种进化途径能很好地说明不同类型的真核生物(特别是分别以动物和植物为代表)的线粒体基因组的结构差异和特点。本文还提出了一个关于重复序列、断裂基因(内含子)、核(类核)基因组、细胞器基因组的起源和进化的一般模式。

The she and structures of the mitochondrtal and choroplast genomes in all kinds of eukaryotes were analyzed,revealing that both organelle genomes would have forms Of small genome and large genome, and also the corresponding structural Charaders. It was concluded from these analyses that both modernmitothondrial and Chloroplast genomes evolved asnarion,eaCh relating tO enther"smail genome"or'large genome". In addition,by Comparing the existing forms and properties of orgnnnlle genomes and nuclear (nucleoid) genomes,...

The she and structures of the mitochondrtal and choroplast genomes in all kinds of eukaryotes were analyzed,revealing that both organelle genomes would have forms Of small genome and large genome, and also the corresponding structural Charaders. It was concluded from these analyses that both modernmitothondrial and Chloroplast genomes evolved asnarion,eaCh relating tO enther"smail genome"or'large genome". In addition,by Comparing the existing forms and properties of orgnnnlle genomes and nuclear (nucleoid) genomes, it was discovered that two similer evolutionary scenarios would also explain the evolution of nuclear (mucleoid ) genomes. Combining the above conclusion with the issue of the origins Of the three kinds Of genomes, a general pattern for the origin and evOlution of organic genomes was proposed.

通过分析各类真核生物线粒体和叶绿体基因组的大小与结构,得出这两种细胞器基因组都有小基因组与大基因组两种形式以及与之对应的结构特点,从而都是通过两种进化途径从它们各自祖先的基因组发展成为现代的线粒体和叶绿体基因组的结论。比较细胞器基因组与核(类核)基因组的存在和性质,发现类似的两种途径同样可以说明核(类核)基因组的进化。结合这三种基因组的起源问题,提出了一个生物基因组起源和进化的统一模式。

The sizes and structural features of nuclear(nucleoid) genomes, mitochondrial genomes and chloroplast genomes were analyzed, revealing that these three kinds of genomes all have the “small genome” type and the “large genome” type with corresponding structural features. It is concluded that the three kinds of genomes would have evolved according to the “small genome” and the “large genome” evolutionary scenarios. A general pattern for the origin and evolution of organic genomes has been developed.

通过分析核(类核)基因组、线粒体基因组和叶绿体基因组的大小与结构,发现这三种基因组都有“小基因组”和“大基因组”的形式及与之对应的结构特点.认为它们各自的祖先都是通过分别与“小基因组”和“大基因组”相应的两种途径进化成为现代核(类核)基因组、线粒体基因组和叶绿体基因组.发展了生物基因组起源和进化的统一模式.

 
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