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reorganization of
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  重组
     Knowledge discovered by spatial data mining in GIS can be used for comprehension of spatial data, construction of spatial repository, reorganization of spatial database, optimization of spatial query and so on.
     从GIS中进行空间数据挖掘所发现的知识、可用于对空间数据(Spatial Data)的理解、空间知识库(Spatial Repository)的构造、空间数据库(Spatial Database)的重组和空间查询(Spatial Query)的优化等。
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     Knowledge discovered by spatial data mining in GIS can be used for comprehension of Spatial Data, discovery of knowledge about Spatial Relations, discovery of knowledge about relations between Spatial Data and Property Data, Construction of Spatial Repository, reorganization of Spatial Database, optimization of Spatial Query and so on.
     从GIS中进行空间数据挖掘所发现的知识,可用于对空间数据(Spatial Data)的理解、空间关系(Spatial Relations)知识的发现、空间数据与属性数据(Property Data)之间关系知识的发现、空间知识库(Spatial Repository)的构造、空间数据库(Spatial Database)的重组和空间查询(Spatial Query)的优化等。
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     The reorganization of the core capability brings the diversification of the economy of the enterprise.
     核心能力的强化为企业带来了规模经济,核心能力的整合重组为企业带来了多样化经济。
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     Reorganization of BA and C_(60) Composite LB Films by Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquid
     液下原子力显微镜对BA膜和C_(60)复合LB膜的重组
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     I think bankruptcy purchase has the following functions: protect the creditor and other relative subject's benefits, provide re-employment chances for workers, stabilize economic order, quicker the reasonable flowing of bankruptcy assets, reduce the cost of economic operation and promote the reform and reorganization of enterprises.
     论文基于破产法对债权人利益保护的基本功能以及其他功能,认为破产收购具有维护债权人和其他相关主体的利益、为职工提供再次就业的机会、稳定经济秩序、加快破产财产合理流动、减少社会经济运作成本以及促进企业改革发展,促进企业资产重组等作用。
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  “reorganization of”译为未确定词的双语例句
     CONCLUSION: LPS(300 μg/L) could induce reorganization of VE-cadherin and F-actin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
     结论 :高浓度的LPS(大于 30 0μg/L)作用于内皮细胞 ,可影响F -actin和VE -cadherin的结构重组和细胞内分布
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     2. Explore the new reorganization of the teachers' learning behavior from the theories on situated learning, basing on the examination of study and teaching behavior of teachers in different communities in a kindergarten by certain methods of ethnography, such as observation, in-depth-interview, teachers' autobiography and so on.
     2、通过教育人类学中的人种志(ethnography)研究方法,具体通过现场参与观察、深度访谈(in-depth-interview)、教师自传(teachers’autobiography)等方法,对一所幼儿园中不同共同体成员身份的教师的学习及其教育行为进行研究,寻求从人类学的情境学习理论(theories on situated learning)视角出发对学校教育实践领域中教师的学习行为的新认识。
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     CONCLUSION: The dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton is required for AngII-induced VSMC migration, and this effect is mediated by AT 1R .
     结论 :AngII通过AT1R介导来调节VSMC内肌动蛋白微丝的动态组装 ,进而改变VSMC的迁移能力 ,从而发挥其介导VSMC迁移的生物学效应
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     Study on Refinement and Reorganization of Company A Human Resource
     A公司人力资源的优化整合研究
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     Second chapter was mainly for the reorganization of the archaeology material, mural of traditional courtyard which we had.
     第二章主要是将现有的考古资料、壁画等传统庭院资料分年代整理,作为传统庭院的简史。
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     the reorganization of assets;
     二为资产的重组;
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     Regeneration and Reorganization
     再生与重组
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     On Reorganization of Enterprise
     论企业重组
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     reorganization plan.
     重整计划。
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  reorganization of
The Role of the Vascular Factor in the Reorganization of Water Metabolism in Denervated Liver after Bacterial Endotoxin Poisonin
      
Immunocytochemical Reorganization of the Nucleolus in Human Embryo Fibroblasts Infected with Cytomegalovirus in vitro
      
The reorganization of the jet flow associated with the resulting three-dimensional flow structure is investigated.
      
It was revealed that the reactant concentration and ionic strength of solution have a considerable effect on the kinetic characteristics of trans-cis-reorganization of DCTC complexes, thus indicating a complex character of the process.
      
Compensatory rehabilitative reorganization of brain functions upon medical modulating electric treatment directed at afferent inputs of the impaired visual or acoustic systems is considered.
      
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The experiments and observations were carried out in the laboratory in 1980—1981 on more than 30 insect species of different orders and families (11 orders & 17 families) , to test the rate of tracheal respiration during different dcvelopmental stages and metabolic activities, by using the automatic CO_2-recording equipment—Infrared Gas Analyzer(manufactured by Beijing Analytical Equipment Faetory). The aim of this research is to determine the general patterns of insect respiratory rhythms under different physiological...

The experiments and observations were carried out in the laboratory in 1980—1981 on more than 30 insect species of different orders and families (11 orders & 17 families) , to test the rate of tracheal respiration during different dcvelopmental stages and metabolic activities, by using the automatic CO_2-recording equipment—Infrared Gas Analyzer(manufactured by Beijing Analytical Equipment Faetory). The aim of this research is to determine the general patterns of insect respiratory rhythms under different physiological conditions in order to evaluate the practical usages of these important physiological indexes. The preliminary results obtained are as follows:(1) The patterns of respiratory rhythm-waves for continuous recording of CO_2 outpttt through the tracheal system under the regulation of spiracles can be distinguished into 4 types, namely: (a) variable-amplitude oscillated type; (b)constant-amplitude oscillated type; (c) periodical burst type; and (d) periodical short-time spiracle-closed type. (2) The adults of the black cutworm(Agrotis ypsilon), large black cutworm (Agrotis tokionis), and cotton bollworm (Heliothis armigera), and also the summer-diapausing larvae of large black cutworm, all exhibit genetically daily respiratory rhythms during night(circadian rhythm or biological clock), which are not influenced by environmental factors even by clipping off the wings of moths.This may be a general phenomenon in insects, at least of the Family Noctuidae (Order Lepidoptera).(3) When the female large bagworm moth (Clania variegata) (Family Psychidae) releases sex pheromone at night,there is also a conspicuous burst of CO_2 output, which can be used to determine the duration of pheromone-releasing period.( 4 )The various activities of insects including the histolysis and reorganization of tissues and organs during metamorphosis, the initiation and termination of diapause, the reorganization and maturation of muscle fibers during the pharate adult stage and the teneral period for adult flight,and muscle activities during wing-beat preparing for fly and also during the regular flight,etc., all cause conspicuous corresponding changes of the respiratory rhythms. These rhythm changes can be used as physiological indexes for practical use. (5) The results of mimic water-submerged tests for the cotton bollworm during its pupal stage indicate that the changes of the respiratory chythm waves can be used to determine the best period and duration for submerging the pupae so as to obtain the highest mortality in the fields.

本试验用红外线CO_2分析仪对多种昆虫的呼吸进行了测试。目的在于研究不同种类的昆虫在不同虫态或各种活动期的呼吸代谢规律性,并探讨其实用价值。初步试验结果表明,昆虫经气管系统和气门开闭机构释放CO_2的方式,分为四种类型:(1)不规则波动型,(2)等幅波动型,(3)周期爆发型,(4)周期间歇型。用小地老虎,大地老虎及棉铃虫等昆虫测试的结果,都表明夜蛾科成虫及大地老虎滞育幼虫,在晚间有明显的、不受环境因素影响的呼吸日节律;大袋蛾雌蛾在释放性信息激素时,也有明显的CO_2释放波峰。昆虫的一切活动,包括发育变态期中器官的解离和组合,滞育期的开始和终止,飞行预备期中翅肌的生长和成熟,以及启动和持续飞行等活动,都发生明显的呼吸节律变化。这些变化,均可作为生理变化的指标而加以应用。

The process of asexual division in E.eurystomus begins at the reorganization of its macronucleus.The two "reorganization band" that appear at both ends of "3" shaped macronucleus are highly synchronized.Soon after the beginning of macronuclear reorganization, its micronucleus also begins to develop, and two filial micronuclei are formed at last through mitosis.

E.eurystomus的无性分裂过程是以大核发生改组为起点的.“3”字形大核的两个末端几乎同时发生“改组带”(reorganization band),并向中间移动,直至相互融合、凝缩,最后经无丝分裂分开成两个仔大核.在大核进行改组不久,小核也开始变化.它首先离开原位朝大核中心位置移动,在移动过程中,原来小核里的结构由致密逐渐变得松散,并不易着色,而且体积膨大并由圆形变成椭圆形,随后出现着色深的线条状结构(染色体),逐渐分开趋向两极,最后分裂成两个仔小核.细胞质在无性分裂周期中明显的变化是不断地增加体积,在大核融合凝缩期间,细胞质的体积逐渐达到最大,以后出现分裂沟收缢,直至分裂成两个仔虫.此外,E.eurystomus在无性分裂过程中,其大核会出现生理意义不明,但可能是培养条件变化而引起的第二次改组现象.

In the early embryogenesis of amphibia following gastrulation the mor-phogenetic movements of neurulationbecome actively in progress.Underthe action of the invaginating meso-derm the dorsal ectoderm is inducedto differentiate into neural plate whichwill be delimited by the neural foldsanteriorly and laterally.Later theneural plate becomes thickened withthe neural folds gradually grow medially till they fuse in the mid-lineto form the neural tube. It has already been shown bythe vital staining experiments thatthe...

In the early embryogenesis of amphibia following gastrulation the mor-phogenetic movements of neurulationbecome actively in progress.Underthe action of the invaginating meso-derm the dorsal ectoderm is inducedto differentiate into neural plate whichwill be delimited by the neural foldsanteriorly and laterally.Later theneural plate becomes thickened withthe neural folds gradually grow medially till they fuse in the mid-lineto form the neural tube. It has already been shown bythe vital staining experiments thatthe morphogenetic movements arehighly coordinated between differentgerm layers and within the same germlayer and epiboly takes place in theectoderm as a whole,not separately by individual cells.Concerning thecoordination of cells during epibolywe have suggested that the tight junctions may play an important role.But how are the cells coordinatedafter their transformation into neuraltissues? How does the neural platemove as a whole in the formation ofthe neural tube? Disassembly of tight junctions andassembly of gap junctions were repor-ted during the neurulation of Ranapipiens and there is evidence ofdisruption of tight junctions in thesame process in the chick embryos.According to these authors,it seemsthat tight junctions are dispensableduring neural tube morphogenesis.Contradictory to these works,we havefound the continuous presence of bothtight and gap junctions during the developmental period from late gastrulato the closure of the neural tube. MATERIALS AND METHODS Embryos of Cynops orientalis serve as theexperimental material.Six stages as shownin table 1 were chosen.In order to insureonly the presumptive neuroepithelium andneuroepithelium cells were fractured and observed,the specimens were taken microsurgi-cally so that the neural folds,the presumptive caudal mesoderm and the mesodermunderlying the neural plate were not included.The extirpated specimens were folded laterallyalong the mid-line of the plate so that afterfixation and treatment with glycerol they wereinserted into the hole of the specimen holderin such a way that the fracture occurred atthe level about mid-trunk region. RESULTSLate gastrula (stages 14 and 15) (Figs.1—2) The apical borders of the cellsare provided with beltlike tight junctions whose degree of tightness varies.At some portion the junction is con-sisted of only 4—5 loosely connectedsealing strands (Fig.1),while at otherportion the sealing strands are morethan 10 and are tightly interwoven(Fig.2).Gap junctions are situated ??beneath the tight junctions andaround the junctions scatteredparticles are frequently found.Early neurula (stage 16) (Figs.3—4) Figures 3 and 4 are taken fromadjacent portions of a single cell.Thevariation in the degree of tightnessof the sealing strands of the tightjunction is apparent,from more than10 closely interwoven sealing strands(Fig.3) to 5-6 loosely connected ones(Fig.4).Gap junctions appear nearthe tight junction,sometimes connec-ted to the free ending of a sealingstrand with scattered particles nearthe site of connection (Fig.3),othersare in intimate contact with thestrand (Fig.9) and there may be someat a distance from the tight junction.Mid-neurula (stage 18) (Fig.5) Just as in late gastrula and earlyneurula,belt-like tight junctions arepresent at the apical border of theneuroepithelium cells.The junctionsvary at different portions of a singlecell,not only in the number but alsoin the degree of tightness of the sealingstrands.There may be only 2—3strands parallel to the cell surfaceor there may appear more than 10closely interwoven ones as shown infigure 5.Five gap junctions have beenobserved in this portion of the cell,situated beneath the tight junction,connected to the free ending of a strandor surrounded at all sides by the strands.The last mentioned condition hasfrequently been observed in cells ofall the other stages.(Figs.10—12).Late neurula (stages 20—22) (Fig.6) Shortly before the closure of theneural tube as the neural folds meetat the mid-dorsal line,the neuroepithelium cells are likewise provided withwell differentiated tight junctions,with sealing strands of free endings andin form of a loop isolated from allothers.Gap junctions are frequentlyobserved,often with 3—4 close toeach other (Fig.6).The sizes ofgap junctions vary.The largest at-tains 1.76μm~2 consisted of thousandsof particles with scattered ones nearby(Fig.13). DISCUSSIONSThe persistent occurence of cell junctions in all stages of neurulation Cell junctions,both tight junctions and gap junctions,are presentin the presumptive neuroepitheliumand neuroepithelium cells of all thestages,from late gastrula to the stageshortly before the closure of theneural tube (Figs.1—6).Althoughcell junctions occur persistently duringthe entire process of neurulation,yetwhat observed do not represent astable state.As for the tight junctions,the degrees of tightness of thesealing strands vary,not only in thenumber,from only 2—3 (Fig.5,lowerleft corner) to as many as more than10 (Figs.5,middle part;Fig.3),but ??also in the arrangement,in the form.of loosely connected loops (Figs.1and 6) or tightly interwoven networks(Fig.5,middle part;Fig.3).Suchvariations usually occur at differentportions of a single cell (Figs.3,4 and5). The observations of the ultrathinsections of lathanum treated speci-mens showed that for all these stagesthe tight junctions may exist in twodifferent conditions:La may be impeded at the surface of the cell (Fig.7) or it may flow across the junctions(Fig.8).These observations cor-respond very well with what have beenfound with the freeze-etching replicas.The former represents the portion withnumerous tightly interwoven strands,while the latter is the site wherestrands are few and loosely arranged.It is very probable that all what wehave observed represent the dynamicprocess of the continous morphological changes of the tight junctions. The persistent changes of gapjunctions are the assembly and disassembly of the particles with whichthe junctions are consisted.If theobserved and recorded gap junctionsare divided into groups according totheir sizes (Table 2),it can be seenthat in all the different stages thearea varies from below 0.02μm~2(Fig.14) to above 0.50μm~2 (Fig.13) with most between 0.02—0.50μm~2.The differences in sizes are veryevident among different cells of acertain stage and even within asingle cell.Scattered particles are fre-quently observed around the junctions,they may appear at one side (Fig.1and 13) or near the site of connectionwith the sealing strand of the tightjunctions (Figs.3 and 6).Whetherthe scattered particles are motivatingto or away from the junctions cannot yet be determined,but the varia-tions in junction sizes and the pre-sence of scattered particles around thejunctions are strong evidences that thedynamic changes of the junctions are ??persistently in progress. The observations mentioned aboveare in contradiction with what re-ported in Rana pipiens.Accord-ing to their observations,the tightjunctions present in the yolk plugstage became gradually loosened andfragmented and entirely disassembled at the neural tube stage,and si-multaDeously gap junctions displayeda process of assembly with a few par-ticles gathered together at first andthe number of particles increased andthey subsequently blended togetherinto larger aggregates.In chick em-bryos disruption of tight junctionshave been reported and large gapjunctions also seemed to disappearduring the process of neurulation.The contradictions in the results,es-pecially those with Rana pipiens,aredifficult to be explained,since it canhardly be attributed to the differencein experimental materials.The modeof fixation was suspected that theextirpation of the embryonic mater-ials before fixation might cause someeffect on the cell junctions.In orderto clarify this suspicion we carried outanother set of experiments with theintact embryos fixed overnight andthe neuroepithelium then extirpated.The replicas from such specimens didnot show any difference.They veri-fied the presence of tight and gapjunctions during all the stages exa-mined.Tight junctions and morphogeneticmovements The persistent occurrence andthe continuous dynamic changes ofcell junctions during the process ofneurulation should be considered withtheir pertaining functions.The func-tion of the tight junctions is general-ly accepted to be a permeabilitybarrier.They are present at the api-cal borders of the cells of tubular orvesicular structures,acting as thebarrier between the intercellular spacesand the external environment toimpede the outflow of the fluid con-tent.The correlations of the tightjunctions and the morphogenesis havealready been noted by some authors.In the formations of bile canaliculi,follicles of thyroid gland and kid-ney tubules,during or just beforethe appearance of the lumen the tightjunctions were always present in thecells destined to join in the formationof the luminal wall.Madara et al.,on the freeze-etching observations ofthe junctional complexes in fetal ratsmall intestine,pointed out the formation and the reorganization of thejunctional complexes during the trans-formation from the primitive strati-fied to simple columnar epitheliumand the development of the intestinallumen.This function of the tightjunctions is no doubt performed inthe early embryogenesis of amphibia.The tight junctions of the ectoderm ??cells of early gastrula impede the out-flow of the blastocoel fluid to main-tain the hydrostatic pressure of theblastocoel;those of the neural tubecells will likewise keep the hydrostaticpressure of the central canal. Besides the function to be a per-meability barrier,however,the tightjunctions may play very importantrole in the morphogenetic movementof early embryonic development.This has not been received enoughattention in the previous literature.During gastrulation as mesoderm andendoderm move to the interior theectoderm cells have to spread in orderto overgrowth the entire emb

在神经管形成的过程中,从原肠晚期到神经管即将关闭,我们观察了预定神经上皮和神经上皮细胞的细胞连接。我们的结果和过去的报道不同,我们看到紧密连接和间隙连接在所观察的各个时期一直存在,而且它们是处于持续的形态变化之中,就此论证了紧密连接在神经管形态建成中的作用,并讨论了紧密连接和间隙连接的相互关系。

 
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