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precursor changes
相关语句
  前兆变化
     EFFECTS OF HARD INCLUSION TO SEISMOGENIC PROCESS AND PRECURSOR CHANGES OF TANGSHAN EARTHQUAKES
     硬包体对唐山大地震孕育过程及前兆变化的影响
短句来源
     Effects of hard inclusion to seismogenic process and precursor changes of Tangshan earthquake have been studied.
     研究了硬包体对唐山大地震孕育过程及前兆变化的影响问题。
短句来源
     Based on the anom alous changes in the w ell, such as the precursor changes of pulse, raise and dow n of the w ater level, and square w ave, the strong earthquakes of Datong- Yanggao and Zhangbei-Shangyi, as w ellas som e M > 4.0 earthquakes occurring nearby the w ell w ere w ellpredicted.
     利用该井特征性的异常形态, 如脉冲、升降、方波等前兆变化对大同-阳高、张北-尚义强震及几次邻近地区4.0 级以上地震曾多次作出了较好的预测。
短句来源
  “precursor changes”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Differential thermal analysis shows that the precursor changes into amorphous zirconia at 300C, and then transforms to tetragonel zirconia at 450C. The processes are endoergic and exoergic, respectively.
     所得到的沉淀物为非晶态,其差热分析结果显示,在300℃热处理即可得无定型氧化锆粉末,该粉末在450℃则完全晶化为亚稳四方氧化错相。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     Changes
     《变化》简介
短句来源
     SEA LEVEL CHANGES AND EARTHQUAKE PRECURSOR
     海平面变化和地震前兆
短句来源
     Relation Between the Changes of Thrombus Precursor Protein and Age
     血栓前体蛋白含量变化与年龄的关系
短句来源
     It changes with the age;
     成人元学习能力不是非有即无的关系,随年龄的变化而变化;
短句来源
     Chemistry and Precursor Chemicals
     化学与易制毒化学品
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  precursor changes
It is suggested that the addition of NH3·H2O and NH4HCO3 to NiCl2·6H2O precursor changes the reaction pathway of Ni formation.
      


In this paper, the direct and indirect methods for fuzzy recognition developed in fuzzy mathematics are applied to the study of multi-approach earthquake prediction.The direct method for fuzzy recognition consists of assessment of earthquake risk and making prediction by use of membership functions of different precursors directly. Its effectiveness depends on the technique of constructing these membership functions. Based on the various data of radon content of underground water, apparent earth resistivity,...

In this paper, the direct and indirect methods for fuzzy recognition developed in fuzzy mathematics are applied to the study of multi-approach earthquake prediction.The direct method for fuzzy recognition consists of assessment of earthquake risk and making prediction by use of membership functions of different precursors directly. Its effectiveness depends on the technique of constructing these membership functions. Based on the various data of radon content of underground water, apparent earth resistivity, seismic velocities and other precursors, the concrete methods and formulae for constructing the corresponding membership functions have been suggested by employing mainly the rate of precursor change and coefficient of correlation and by other means. In applying these menbership functions, the abnormal features of a precursor can be recognized more clearly and the times of beginning, finishing or transitions of an anomaly more easily.The indirect method for fuzzy recognition, used in this paper, is the method of fuzzy clustering analysis, which depends on the selection of similarity coefficient or distance. Here we use a method of clustering analysis based on the fuzzy equivalent relation. This method includes the following steps: obtaining first a fuzzy compatible relation according to the degrees of similarities between samples; then transforming this compatible relation into a fuzzy equivalent relation by use of combinational operation; finally selecting a suitable value for parameter A, and classifying the original samples.Taking some statistical indices of seismicity in a given region, or taking the data of a number of precursors observed (crustal deformation, radon content of underground water, apparent resistivity etc.) at one station or of one precursor at a series of stations, then multi-approach earthquake prediction may be made by using the method of fuzzy clustering analysis as mentioned. For illustration of this method some preliminary results obtained for large and moderate earthquakes occurred in the western part of China were shown. It can be seen from these results that the prediction by using fuzzy clustering analysis is generally in better conformity with the actual cases of earthquake occurrence.It is considered therefore that the prospect for using the methods of fuzzy mathematics in multi-approach earthquake prediction is optimistic.

本文的目的,是把模糊数学中发展起来的模糊识别的直接方法与间接方法,试用于地震综合预报.模糊识别的直接方法,就是直接由前兆指标的从属函数来估计地震危险性并进行预报,其效果依赖于建立前兆指标的从属函数的技巧.文中以地下水氡含量、视电阻率、波速等前兆资料为基础,提出了一种主要依据前兆变化速率及相关系数,并使用其它途径来建立从属函数的具体方法与公式.使用这样的从属函数之后,可以更好地识别出前兆异常,并且更容易区分出异常的起始、终结或发生明显转折的时期.模糊识别的间接方法,本文中采用的是模糊聚类分析方法,它与选取表示型类区别的相似系数或距离有关。我们这里采用的是基于模糊等价关系的聚类分析方法.此方法包括以下步骤:将一系列样本按彼此间的相似程度建立一个模糊相容关系;通过合成运算把这个模糊相容关系改造为一个模糊等价关系;选择一个适当的参数λ的数值,并对原始样本进行分类.选取某一给定地区的地震活动性的一些统计指标,或者选取由多手段单台或单手段多台得出的一些前兆数据(地形变、地下水氡含量、视电阻率等等),就可以使用上述模糊聚类分析方法来进行地震综合预报.作为说明此方法的例子,文中给出了对我国西部强震及中强震得出的一些初步结果....

本文的目的,是把模糊数学中发展起来的模糊识别的直接方法与间接方法,试用于地震综合预报.模糊识别的直接方法,就是直接由前兆指标的从属函数来估计地震危险性并进行预报,其效果依赖于建立前兆指标的从属函数的技巧.文中以地下水氡含量、视电阻率、波速等前兆资料为基础,提出了一种主要依据前兆变化速率及相关系数,并使用其它途径来建立从属函数的具体方法与公式.使用这样的从属函数之后,可以更好地识别出前兆异常,并且更容易区分出异常的起始、终结或发生明显转折的时期.模糊识别的间接方法,本文中采用的是模糊聚类分析方法,它与选取表示型类区别的相似系数或距离有关。我们这里采用的是基于模糊等价关系的聚类分析方法.此方法包括以下步骤:将一系列样本按彼此间的相似程度建立一个模糊相容关系;通过合成运算把这个模糊相容关系改造为一个模糊等价关系;选择一个适当的参数λ的数值,并对原始样本进行分类.选取某一给定地区的地震活动性的一些统计指标,或者选取由多手段单台或单手段多台得出的一些前兆数据(地形变、地下水氡含量、视电阻率等等),就可以使用上述模糊聚类分析方法来进行地震综合预报.作为说明此方法的例子,文中给出了对我国西部强震及中强震得出的一些初步结果.由所得结果可以看出,利用模?

Effects of hard inclusion to seismogenic process and precursor changes of Tangshan earthquake have been studied. The numerical simulation on existence and non-existence of hard inclusion shows that the rhombic hard inclusion around Tangshan is an important genesis of Tangshan earthquake. It can not only cause the complicated pattern of seismic evolution, but also cause the significant influence to the characteristics of seismic precursors. For instance the it caused early appearance and the complicated...

Effects of hard inclusion to seismogenic process and precursor changes of Tangshan earthquake have been studied. The numerical simulation on existence and non-existence of hard inclusion shows that the rhombic hard inclusion around Tangshan is an important genesis of Tangshan earthquake. It can not only cause the complicated pattern of seismic evolution, but also cause the significant influence to the characteristics of seismic precursors. For instance the it caused early appearance and the complicated variations of the Tangshan earthquake precursors as follows:1. The existence of hard inclusion may shorten the phases of seismogenic process, cause the concentration of stress to the hard inclusion and the complete failure of the inclusion fault.2. In early period of seismogenic process, the existence of hard inclusion is unfavourable to enhance the shear stress and strain, but in later period, it is favourable to the complete failure of the inclusion fault. From the changes of average stress of fault, we can see that the existence of hard inclusion may cause a variation of strain strengthening shortly after its softening in the middle period.3. The existence of hard inclusion may cause an appearance of non-elastic recovery in large area, and reappearance of non-elastic cubical expansion.4. The existence of hard inclusion may cause a great influence to variations of earthquake precursors. It can not only cause a big recovery of anomalous wave velocity, but also cause the early appearance of seismic precursors and its complicated changes.

研究了硬包体对唐山大地震孕育过程及前兆变化的影响问题。通过不存在硬包体和包含包体两种情况的计算模拟表明,唐山菱形硬包体的存在是唐山大地震孕育和发生的一个重要因素,它不仅会引起唐山地震孕育的复杂的演化图象,而且会对唐山地震前兆特征发生显著影响,使地震前兆较早地显示,并使前兆变化复杂化。具体表现在: (1)硬包体的存在可能会缩短地震的孕震期,使应力易于向硬包体这个局部地区集中,导致包体内断层的全部破坏。 (2)硬包体的存在,在孕震初期将不利于断层上剪应力和剪应变的增强,但在孕震后期却又有利于包体内部断层的全部破坏的发生,从断层平均剪应力变化上看,硬包体的存在在孕震中期引起了一种先应变软化,后急速强化的变化过程。 (3)硬包体的存在会引起孕震区内出现大面积的非弹性恢复的出现和重新发生非弹性体积膨胀。 (4)硬包体的存在对地震前兆变化会产生显著影响。它不仅会导致波速异常的大面积恢复,也会使地震前兆较早地出现,并且使地震前兆变化复杂化。

On the basis of previous research on three earthquake source preparation and occurrence models,the comprehensive model about earthquake forming mechanism,earthquake prediction indexes and prediction methodology have been suggested in the present paper.Comprehensive model consists of 7 major units:the earthquake source,two adjustment elements at ends of source region,two weak medium layers above and below the source body,which are located in upper lithosphere,and two deep shear creep faults in lower lithosphere,in...

On the basis of previous research on three earthquake source preparation and occurrence models,the comprehensive model about earthquake forming mechanism,earthquake prediction indexes and prediction methodology have been suggested in the present paper.Comprehensive model consists of 7 major units:the earthquake source,two adjustment elements at ends of source region,two weak medium layers above and below the source body,which are located in upper lithosphere,and two deep shear creep faults in lower lithosphere,in which one is perpendicularly stereoscopically crossed with the seismogenic fault and another parallel to it in the same plane.The 7 basic units compose a structure having strong earthquakes. According to this model, the differentiation between the source region and the other units and the differentiation among the adjustment elemonts,adjustment layers and deep shear creep faults can lead to temporal and spatial evolution of earthquake source and the boundary of various seismic precursory anomalies regions will pass through the source region.The intersection region of several boundaries of various seismic precursory anomalies regions in various time interval is epicenter of future strong earthquake. During latter preparation period,the interaction between some units of the model intensifies and forms positive feedback,and the fluctuation intensification anomalies of precursor change with time. According to our study,the main shock occurs generally just at the third peak of fluctuation intensification of precursor or after it,and fluctuation intensification displays certain periodicity.Therefore we can estimate roughly the third peak time and get formula M= 4.29+0.11 t t indicates anomalous time interval of fluctuation intensification,in month.According to above mentioned indexes,the moderate and short term prediction of strong earthquake may be made.At the end of this paper,we take the 1976 Tangshan earthquake as an example to show the application of the comprehensive model in the earthquake prediction.

根据以往研究的地震孕育和发生的3个模式提出了地震成因的综合模式、地震前兆指标和预报方法。综合模式由7个单元组成:震源、震源端部的2个调整单元、震源顶部和底部的2个软弱层(这些单元均位于上岩石圈)以及下岩石圈的两个深部剪切蠕滑断层(一个与震源断层面垂直立交,另一个与震源断层面同面立接)。这7个单元组成了导致强震后果的结构。在构造力源作用下每一个单元围绕震源运动。最终使震源区破裂和发生强震。根据这个模式各种地震前兆异常区的演化与模式中震源与其它各个单元之间的差异性有关,与调整单元、调整层、深部剪切蠕滑断层之间的差异性有关。这种差异性使不同时间或同一时段多个异常区、带边界的交汇点或连接区预示未来强震位置。在孕震后期,震源系统某些单元之间的相互作用增强,并形成正反馈,前兆异常随时间的变化出现起伏加剧。根据总结,强震大多发生在第3次起伏加剧的峰值处和峰值后并得到M=4.29+0.11t式中t为起伏加剧的异常时间,以月为单位。由上述指标可以作出强震的中短期预报。在文章最后我们以唐山地震为例展示了综合模式在地震预报中的应用

 
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