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  ethnic rural
Smokeless tobacco use accelerates age-related loss of bone mineral density among older women in a multi-ethnic rural community
      


Ping'an village is inhabited by the "red-headed" Yao ethnic people generation after generation. It is administered by Shili Village, Jinping Autonomous County of the Miao Ethnic People, Honghe Autonomous Prefecture of Hani and Yi Ethnic People, Yunnan Province. In history, Ping'an village depended mainly on a system stressing the absolute authority of the old to keep order and social security. In the course of social development, traditional culture of Ping'an village is broken down and social control system...

Ping'an village is inhabited by the "red-headed" Yao ethnic people generation after generation. It is administered by Shili Village, Jinping Autonomous County of the Miao Ethnic People, Honghe Autonomous Prefecture of Hani and Yi Ethnic People, Yunnan Province. In history, Ping'an village depended mainly on a system stressing the absolute authority of the old to keep order and social security. In the course of social development, traditional culture of Ping'an village is broken down and social control system is weakened. Besides, because of the local customs, the National law fails to be successfully implemented. Consequently, social order and security has become a problem. It is suggested to solve the problems from three aspects: the establishment of proper public force organs, reorganization of local authority, and the maintenance of national law enforcement. This is a model to keep ethnic rural legal system on the part of both the state and the local people.

云南省红河哈尼族彝族自治州金平苗族瑶族自治县十里村乡所辖的平安寨 ,是一个“红头瑶”世居的村落。历史上的平安寨主要依靠其以寨老制度为核心的村落社会控制系统维持社会秩序。在社会变迁的过程中 ,平安寨的传统法文化出现了断裂 ,社会控制系统功能衰弱 ,而国家法的实施又不尽如人意。国家法与习惯法不能良性互动 ,致使该地区社会秩序和治安成为一个较大的社会问题。因此 ,需从公权力机关合理性基础的建立、民间权威的整合、国家法建设的完善三个方面来解决平安寨的问题。这是一种从民间、国家两方面努力建构少数民族农村法治秩序的路径。

Propaganda and ideological work in ethnic rural areas is confronted with mang problems in terms of understanding, investment, position construction, propaganda means and the quality of ranks of cadres. To radically solve these problems, furthur measures should be taken to strengthen leadership, deepen understarding , increase investment, establish and perfect effective working mechanism, so as to overall improve the level of propaganda and idological work in ethnic rural areas.

民族地区农村宣传思想工作面临认识不高,投入不足,阵地建设差,宣传手段落后,干部队伍素质亟待提高的问题。其根本对策在于要进一步加强领导,提高认识,加大投入,注重实效。要进一步建立和完善有效的工作机制,使之提高民族地区农村宣传思想工作的整体水平。

Based on his field work in ethnic rural areas in western Hubei province, this paper analyzes the mentality and behavior of the village administrator elites and the none-administrator elites. It is pointed out that the town governments of the ethnic rural area have been controlling the villager self-governance well. The village administrator elites and the village none-administrator elites have not too much space in the village politics, but their influences are increasing.

本文以鄂西少数民族地区农村田野调查资料为基础,对村民自治制度下少数民族农村治理精英与非治理精英的心态、行为及与乡镇政府间的互动关系进行了分析,认为以乡镇政府为代表的国家力量对少数民族农村村民自治的影响和控制力还非常强,治理精英与非治理精英在村庄政治中自主活动的空间不大,村民普遍缺乏参与热情,但乡村精英的影响正与日俱增。

 
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