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light-adaptation
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  明适应
     No retinomotor response was observed in Boleophthelmus Pectinirostris. The states of retina of fishes exposed to different ambient light intensities (10-2,10-1,10,101,102,103,lx) are the same as that of a dark-adapted fish. Perhaps,a retina of the fish transmits from dark-to light-adaptation by the pupillary respomse
     大弹涂鱼(Boleophthalmus peetinirostris)视网膜在完全暗适应及不同照度(10~(-2)、10~(-1)、10~0、10~1、10~2、10~3lx)下明适应后,并不产生网膜运动反应,推测系通过瞳孔运动反应调节明暗视。
短句来源
  “light-adaptation”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Methods Measure the light-adaptation electroretinogram of 6-,12-,18-,24-hour in two days.
     方法 氯胺酮麻醉白兔后 ,常规测定两天内 6时 ,12时 ,18时 ,2 4时的明视视网膜电图。
短句来源
     Observation the variation of Amplitudes of light-adaptation eletroretinogram followed by times
     明视视网膜电图波幅随时间变化的观察
短句来源
     The reaction from Light-Adaptation form to Dark-Adaptation form of neutral red-regenerated purple membrane(PM)and the light absorption change of bound neutral red in regenerated PM were studied.
     研究了中性红再生紫膜从先适应状态到暗适应状态的反应及再生紫膜中中性红的光吸收变化。
短句来源
     Objective To study the variation regulation on the light-adaptation electroretinogram amplitudes.
     目的 了解明视视网膜电图波幅随时间变化的规律。
短句来源
     Results Amplituds of the light-adaptation electroretinogram at all times are no significant difference by F-analysis.
     结果 经方差分析 ,各时点视网膜电图a ,b波波幅值无统计学显著性差异。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     Light Night
     明亮夜
短句来源
     Light the Future
     点亮未来
短句来源
     Light Z-matrix
     轻Z—矩阵
短句来源
     Laser light-liver
     激光光杠杆的研制
短句来源
     2.Adaptation.
     2适应性。
短句来源
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  light-adaptation
We then develop an appropriate photoreceptor response function, based on light-adaptation models for vertebrate receptors.
      
Phospholipid turnover is tightly regulated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions and light, and provides, in turn, with molecules capable of activating protein kinases and cellular processes such as membrane fusion or light-adaptation.
      
The influence of light-adaptation, temperature, nutrient limitation and species composition is discussed.
      
Hence the state of light-adaptation has to be taken into account when comparing different experiments.
      
We present new experimental results which show that the relaxation time of the falling phase of bumps is markedly shortened by light-adaptation.
      
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(1) By means of an integrating sphere, the whole retina can be stimulated simultaneously by a diffusely scattered light. Under dark-adapted condition, the a-wave of the electroretinogram thus elicited consists of a conspicuous photopic component with 3 distinct wavelets (a_1, a_2, a_3) and a large scotopic component (a_s) which forms the peak of the whole a-wave. Similar photopic a-wavelets can also be elicited by stimulation with Maxwellian view of 52°, but with this mode of stimulation a_s is inconspicuous...

(1) By means of an integrating sphere, the whole retina can be stimulated simultaneously by a diffusely scattered light. Under dark-adapted condition, the a-wave of the electroretinogram thus elicited consists of a conspicuous photopic component with 3 distinct wavelets (a_1, a_2, a_3) and a large scotopic component (a_s) which forms the peak of the whole a-wave. Similar photopic a-wavelets can also be elicited by stimulation with Maxwellian view of 52°, but with this mode of stimulation a_s is inconspicuous and appears only after the peak of the a-wave. (2) The scotopic component was differentiated from the photopic one on the basis of three types of experiments: (ⅰ) By comparing the time course of recovery during dark adaptation, it can be seen that the recovery of the photopic component starts almost immediately with dark adaptation while that of the scotopic component shows a considerable delay. (ⅱ) At a suitable intensity of the stimulating light the successive responses of the scotopic component to successive stimulation at 5-second intervals decrease progressively, while those of the photopic component show practically no changes. (ⅲ) At suitable light intensity the effective duration of a stimulus could be shown to be longer for the scotopic component than for the photopic. (3) The peak latencies of a_1, a_2, a_3 and a_s were separated by fairly regular intervale of about 7 msec, for a wide range of stimulus intensity either with the diffuse light or with light in Maxwellian view. However, with decreasing stimulus intensity, all the peak latencies increased more rapidly with the diffuse light than with the Maxwellian view. The peak latencies were little affected by light adaptation up to a moderate intensity. (4) A major portion of a_s could be suppressed by a weak light adaptation, the required intensity being only 10~3 times the absolute threshold. This sensitivity of the greater portion of a_s toward light adaptation paralleled exactly that of the scotopic b-wave. The remaining portion of a_s behaved more or less like a photopic wavelet. (5) Analysis shows that the composite a-wave is the result of superposition of an oscillatory potential, presumably generated by the bipolar layer, upon a more sustained negative potential due to the receptor cells. The differences in the form of the a-wave recorded under different conditions and the disagreements among the previous workers in the identification of its components are discussed.

(一)利用积分球的方法可使全部視网膜同时受到弥散光的照射。在完全暗适应的情况下,这种刺激所引起的ERG的α波包含一个明显的明視α波和一个更大的暗視α波,后者成为整个α波的波峰;在明視α波之上,又可以辨別出三个小波(α_1,α_2,α_3)。用52° Maxwell投射光刺激也能引起类似的小明視α波,但整个明视α波相对地比暗視α波大得多,后者只出現在α波的波峰之后。 (二)暗視α波与明視α波是通过下列三类实驗来加以区別的:(1)在暗适应过程中,明視α波的振幅几乎是在暗适应一开始就立即明显增长,而暗視α波的恢复則要經过一段潜伏期。(2)在适当的光刺激强度下,当暗視α波的振幅对間隔5秒的重复刺激逐漸减小以至消失时,明視α波的振幅对相继的刺激很少变化。(3)在适当的光强度下,引起暗視α波的有效刺激时間比明視α波的长。 (三)不論是用弥散光照射或Maxwell投射光刺激,在相当大的刺激强度范圍,明視α波的α_(1-3)三个小波和暗視α波四个波之間的峰潜伏期間隔約为7毫秒。不过当光刺激强度减弱,由弥散光引起的各α波的峰潜伏期的增长比用Maxwell投射光刺激时的增长为快。中等强度以下的明适应对各α波的波峰潜伏期的影响很少...

(一)利用积分球的方法可使全部視网膜同时受到弥散光的照射。在完全暗适应的情况下,这种刺激所引起的ERG的α波包含一个明显的明視α波和一个更大的暗視α波,后者成为整个α波的波峰;在明視α波之上,又可以辨別出三个小波(α_1,α_2,α_3)。用52° Maxwell投射光刺激也能引起类似的小明視α波,但整个明视α波相对地比暗視α波大得多,后者只出現在α波的波峰之后。 (二)暗視α波与明視α波是通过下列三类实驗来加以区別的:(1)在暗适应过程中,明視α波的振幅几乎是在暗适应一开始就立即明显增长,而暗視α波的恢复則要經过一段潜伏期。(2)在适当的光刺激强度下,当暗視α波的振幅对間隔5秒的重复刺激逐漸减小以至消失时,明視α波的振幅对相继的刺激很少变化。(3)在适当的光强度下,引起暗視α波的有效刺激时間比明視α波的长。 (三)不論是用弥散光照射或Maxwell投射光刺激,在相当大的刺激强度范圍,明視α波的α_(1-3)三个小波和暗視α波四个波之間的峰潜伏期間隔約为7毫秒。不过当光刺激强度减弱,由弥散光引起的各α波的峰潜伏期的增长比用Maxwell投射光刺激时的增长为快。中等强度以下的明适应对各α波的波峰潜伏期的影响很少。 (四)暗視α波的大部分能为很弱的明适应光所抑制,这个明适应光的强度大約只相当于絕对阈值的1000倍。这个敏感度和暗視b波对明适应的敏感度完全相当。在明适应下所剩下的α_s波和α_p波的性质差不多。 (五)对α波成分的分析表明,一个复合的α波是由一种可能从双极細胞层产生的振蕩电位迭加于一个較持久的由感受細胞所产生的負电位之上而形成的。对于以前有关工作所記录到的不同形状的α波以及对各个α波部分的鉴別沒有取得一致意見的原因,曾加以討論。

(1) In the fully dark-adapted eye, stimulating the whole visual field with diffuse light at an intensity about 10~3 times the absolute threshold is capable of eliciting a perceptible b-wave. With a further 2—10 times increase of the stimulus intensity, the b-response remains scotopic, as judged by olectroretinographic standard. Two components of the scotopic b-wave are discernible. The later of the two, which can be elicited by monochromatic light from blue to red, can be identified as the so-called late positivity...

(1) In the fully dark-adapted eye, stimulating the whole visual field with diffuse light at an intensity about 10~3 times the absolute threshold is capable of eliciting a perceptible b-wave. With a further 2—10 times increase of the stimulus intensity, the b-response remains scotopic, as judged by olectroretinographic standard. Two components of the scotopic b-wave are discernible. The later of the two, which can be elicited by monochromatic light from blue to red, can be identified as the so-called late positivity described by some previous workers. Another component, occurring 30—40 msec earlier and appearing most prominently with stimulation by blue light, is absent when red light is used as the stimulus. Stimulation by light in Maxwellian view of 52°field can also elicit the blue sensitive component, but this tends to be obscured by a still earlier and larger partly photopic b-wave having a peak latency of about 70—80 msec. The apparent prominence of the late positivity with stimulation by rod light in Maxwellian view is due to the absence of the small blue sensitive wave. (2) The fact that the electroretinographic threshold of the blue component is slightly (about 0.3 log_(10) units) above that of the late positivity, allows the latter to be selectively suppressed by light adaptation at a properly chosen intensity. When the b-waves elicited by blue and by red light were adjusted to be of equal size and then subjected to a similar degree of light adaptation, the late positivity elicited by red light succumbed completely at an intensity of the adapting light at which a portion of the blue sensitive component still survived. (3) The spectral sensitivity curve of the late positivity elicited by diffuse illumination fits reasonably well with the ICI scotopic standard. In the case of stimulation by light in Maxwellian view, an extra sensitivity not exceeding 0.1 log unit exists in the blue region, apparently due to intraocular scattering of light. (4) The implications of the various components of the b-wave are discussed in relation to psychophysical findings in man and neurological findings in animals.

(一)对于完全暗适应的眼,强度約为絕对阈10~3倍的弥散光照射全部視域,卽足以引起可被察觉的b波。刺激强度再增加2—10倍所引起的b波,按照ERG标准来判断仍然是属于暗視b波的。然而,在这样一个暗視b波中可以辨认出两个成分。較迟出現的一个成分能够为从藍到紅的各种单色光所引起。这个成分可被鉴別为有些工作者描述过的所謂迟正相。另一个較小的成分比迟正相早出現30—40msec,在藍光刺激时最显著,紅光刺激时則不出現。用52°的Maxwell投射光刺激也能引起对藍光敏感的成分,但是这种刺激还引起一个比“藍”b波出現更早(峰潜伏朔70—80msec)的b波部分(不純粹是一个暗視α波),这两者有相当程度的混合。用Maxwell投射紅光刺激时,由于对藍光敏感的波不出現,因此迟正相看起来变得比較突出。 (二)对藍光敏感的成分的阈值比迟正相的阈值約高0.3 log_(10)单位。虽然这个差別很小,但是迟正相已可为适应光有选擇地先被压抑。对紅光和藍光所引起的相同大小的b波,增加明适应到一定的强度,当由紅光引起的迟正相完全消失时,对藍光敏感的成分的一部分仍然保留下来。 (三)用弥散光刺激引起的迟正相的光譜敏感曲綫与ICI暗視标准曲...

(一)对于完全暗适应的眼,强度約为絕对阈10~3倍的弥散光照射全部視域,卽足以引起可被察觉的b波。刺激强度再增加2—10倍所引起的b波,按照ERG标准来判断仍然是属于暗視b波的。然而,在这样一个暗視b波中可以辨认出两个成分。較迟出現的一个成分能够为从藍到紅的各种单色光所引起。这个成分可被鉴別为有些工作者描述过的所謂迟正相。另一个較小的成分比迟正相早出現30—40msec,在藍光刺激时最显著,紅光刺激时則不出現。用52°的Maxwell投射光刺激也能引起对藍光敏感的成分,但是这种刺激还引起一个比“藍”b波出現更早(峰潜伏朔70—80msec)的b波部分(不純粹是一个暗視α波),这两者有相当程度的混合。用Maxwell投射紅光刺激时,由于对藍光敏感的波不出現,因此迟正相看起来变得比較突出。 (二)对藍光敏感的成分的阈值比迟正相的阈值約高0.3 log_(10)单位。虽然这个差別很小,但是迟正相已可为适应光有选擇地先被压抑。对紅光和藍光所引起的相同大小的b波,增加明适应到一定的强度,当由紅光引起的迟正相完全消失时,对藍光敏感的成分的一部分仍然保留下来。 (三)用弥散光刺激引起的迟正相的光譜敏感曲綫与ICI暗視标准曲綫符合,用Maxwell投射光刺激所测定的曲綫,在藍波段則显示出一个不超过0.1 log_(10)单位高于ICI标准的敏感性,这是由于在眼內产生的散射光所引起的。 (四)对于b波不同成分的意义,曾結合心理物理和神經生理学方面的資料加以討論。

(1) The spectral sensitivity of the α-wave of human electroretinogram elicited by stimulation with a 52° field in Maxwellian view was studied in 4 subjects with normal colour vision. According to our previous analysis, the main part of the α-wave thus elicited (α_p), in distinction from a small and more light-adaptable scotopic part (α_s), is regarded as being "photopic". Furthermore, α_s inevitably appears only after the peak of α_p and therefore does not interfere with the measurement of the latter's maximum....

(1) The spectral sensitivity of the α-wave of human electroretinogram elicited by stimulation with a 52° field in Maxwellian view was studied in 4 subjects with normal colour vision. According to our previous analysis, the main part of the α-wave thus elicited (α_p), in distinction from a small and more light-adaptable scotopic part (α_s), is regarded as being "photopic". Furthermore, α_s inevitably appears only after the peak of α_p and therefore does not interfere with the measurement of the latter's maximum. Experiments were done both under a constant light adaptation(1mL) and in complete darkness. In the former case a peripheral field of 132° with a luminance also of 1mL was used. In the latter condition, the presence or absence of the peripheral field made little difference to the result of determination. (2) The S_λ of the α_p-wave under 1mL adaptation has been compared with Weale's S_λ curve of 10° retinal periphery under a light adaptation of 0.95 e. f. c. and Wald's curve of 8° peripheral cone. All determinations at 632 mμ are made to coincide in order to facilitate the comparison. Regarding the general trend, the present determination resembles Weale's much more closely than Wald's. Both our and Weale's determinations show a gradual increase in S_λ up to nearly 1 log_(10) unit from 632 mμ to 458 mμ with reference to Wald's curve. In spite of the resemblance of our determination with Weale's, it is considered that the α_p-wave still contains some responses of the rods under 1 mL light adaptation. (3) Under dark adaptation, the S_λ of α_p shows an incomplete reverse Purkinjs shift corresponding to a relative increase of sensitivity of nearly 1 log_(10) unit at the blue end of the spectrum. (4) In α_p not exceeding 30μV, an earlier (15—20 msec peak latency) and a later (20—28 msec peak latency)portion can be shown to be more sensitive to the long and to the short wavelength spectral lights respectively.

(一)本工作测定了利用52°域的Maxwell投射光引起的視网膜电图α波的光譜敏感性(S_λ)。受試者四人,色觉均正常。这样引起的α波的波峰,决定于一般所鉴別的“明視”α波(α_p)。实驗是在1mL的明适应下和在完全暗适应下进行的。 (二)在1mL明适应下所测定的α_p波的S_λ曲綫,曾与Weale在0.95 e.f.c.明适应下所测得的視网膜周边10°的明視S_λ曲綫以及Wald的8°位置的圓錐細胞S_λ曲綫相比較,使各曲綫在632mμ处相重合。α_p的S_λ度比Wald的測定高,从632mμ到458mμ,逐漸增高到約1对数单位。在1mL的明适应下,α_p波实际上还有圓柱細胞的反应成分。 (三)暗适应下,α_p波对藍光的相对敏感性增高約1对数单位,Purkinje位移不完全。 (四)在不超过30μV振幅的α_p波中,可以分辨出一个峰潜伏期約15—20毫秒和一个峰潜伏期約20—28毫秒的部分,它們分別对长波段和对短波段的光較为敏感。

 
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