Present the definition of the non-equilateral X-mode rod-link chain mechanism,and then the mechanism design and statics analysis are carried out,the simulation model made up of the non-equilateral X-mode rod-link chanin mechanism are set up. At last,the structural features and applied ranges are pointed out.

The reflected electrons of a loss-cone distribution can drive the electron cyclotron maser instability when a nonlinear density wave travells through the bottom part of the magnetic loop. The maser instability will excite the second harmonic O-mode and X-mode to dominate the solar radio millisecond spike radiation.

Thle fluctuations bring aboutthe nudulation of the ratio of near 2~(1/2) 2 . And it leads to the growth of the electron-cyclotron maser to control the radiation of X-mode or O-mode wave, and to reverse the sense of the polarization of the spikes and FFS.

Results showed that both O-mode and X-mode waves can be effectively absorbed by the plasma,the absorbability of the plasma is highly localized,the single absorbance is high,and the power deposition strongly relies on the plasma parameters.

The diagnostics of the ionosphere was performed using X-mode probe waves in the frequency range fpr=4.3-7.8 MHz.

We discuss variations of these components in the case where additional X-mode heating is used.

A swappable twist reflector plate rotates beam polarization for 2nd-harmonic X-mode or fundamental O-mode ECRH.

Two X-mode reflectometers (V and W band) are dedicated to electron density profile measurements.

With further magnetic field increase, the intensity of the RTR x-mode decreases in comparison with the intensity of the o-mode and this decrease is higher for higher velocities of energetic electrons.

We consider the nonlinear saturation of a fast x mode instability near the electron cyclotron frequency due to electron population inversion. A quasilinear theory is discussed. The corresponding saturation time, amplitudes as well as the temporal evolution of the electron distribution functions are also studied.

This method, suitable for digital computation, is used for calculating all the natural frequencies, mode shapes and their resonant-vibration stress for a banded group of turbine twisted buckets vibrated in tangential, axial and torsional directions.In this approach, the buckets are connected elastically with a continuous beam and, as the following factors are considered, the calculation is done more accurately.a. Twist of blade.b. Modification due to the effect of shear deformation and rotary inertia in buckets...

This method, suitable for digital computation, is used for calculating all the natural frequencies, mode shapes and their resonant-vibration stress for a banded group of turbine twisted buckets vibrated in tangential, axial and torsional directions.In this approach, the buckets are connected elastically with a continuous beam and, as the following factors are considered, the calculation is done more accurately.a. Twist of blade.b. Modification due to the effect of shear deformation and rotary inertia in buckets and band.c. The effect of centrifugal force in revolution of a banded group.d. Part of the root of bucket participated in vibration.It does not only calculate tangential bending vibration in Ao, Po and Al modes, but also axial bending-torsional vibration in X, U and S.,nodes and different torsional modes.Through the comparison of more than ten stages with short and medium-height steam turbine buckets in large power units, we found the values of calculation basically agree with the measurement in the power plant.Having calculated the frequencies and modes of a banded group, we use the principle of energy conservation--during the steady resonant state of a banded group, within a vibration cycle, the energy supplied to the blades of the banded group by the existing force acting on tangential, axial and torsional directions is equal to the energy dissipated in damping on the above directions for all buckets in group--to calculate the real displacement and resonant-vibration stress of blade, root of buckets, band and rivets in group for different known vibration modes. At the same time, according to the fatigue strength of the material, steady stress, structure, technology and the operating condition, we get the permissible fatigue stress of material for judging the safety of the vibration stress. The author found that the result of the calculation of "169" accident of stages and the safe operating stages, an improved design of the original "169", agreed with the real circumstances.This method is mainly used to calculate short and wedium-height blade group. The author analyses the accident of the first-stage in French KT1501 steam turbine unit used in the whole set equipments with a capacity of 300,000 tons/year synthesized ammonia. The coefficient in calculation--the fractional stimulus S and logarithmic decrement δ derive from the French data. The calculating frequencies basically agree with the measmement and, according to the vibration stress value, we get the conclusion of the calculation for the accident stage as follows.1. The abruption accidents of the first stage in the original rotor (the 1st, 2nd and 3rd accidents) were due to axial-toisional resonance-U mode for four bucket's group and x mode for three bucket's. Although the blades and band were safe, the resonant-vibration stress of bucket root were unsafe and that of the rivet was large. Also, when extra fluctuating bending moment was applied from forced band vibration by steam inlet in partial circumference, the rivet was in danger. After two rivets had been used on the blade, the rivets were safe, but fatigue still occured in bucket root (as in the 5th accident)2. The abruption accident of the first-stage in the new rotor (the design was improved by the French but the abruption still took place as in the 4th accident) was due to a tangential resonance with Bo mode; its resonant stress of the bucket root was more than the permissive vibration stress of the material, thus causing it to fatigue abruption.The results of the calculation agree with the abrupting position and the surface of the crack in these accidents. Therefore, the author is of the opinion that all the five abru ption accidents that happened in the past were mainly due to the design of the banded group, not to the operation or defect of the material used.

A mechanism of solar microwave millisecond spike emission is presented in this paper. Once after a beam of nonthermal electrons is injected downwards into a magnetic arch, it will form a hollow beam distribution, which drives electron-cyclotron maser (ECM) to emit electromagnetic radiation.Assuming the hollow beam to be a Gaussian distribution, we calculated the growth rate of X-mode at the second harmonic. By solving the diffusion equation we obtained the evolution of the distribution of nonthermal electrons,...

A mechanism of solar microwave millisecond spike emission is presented in this paper. Once after a beam of nonthermal electrons is injected downwards into a magnetic arch, it will form a hollow beam distribution, which drives electron-cyclotron maser (ECM) to emit electromagnetic radiation.Assuming the hollow beam to be a Gaussian distribution, we calculated the growth rate of X-mode at the second harmonic. By solving the diffusion equation we obtained the evolution of the distribution of nonthermal electrons, the variation of the growth rate vs. time, the saturation time of ECM, tsat, and the saturation energy density of the waves.Takingwhere ns is the number density of nonthermal electrons, we find out that millisecond spike emission (tsat=0.42ms) with very high brightness temperature (Tb=5×1015K) would be produced at frequency ω=2π×2.84 GHz, in accordance with the observation of the spike event on May 16, 1981.It is also found that the maser emission propagates within a thin surface layer of a cone stretching an angle of about 65° around the magnetic field.As the distribution of nonthermal electrons evolves, the transverse velocity component decreases while the parallel one does not. As a result, when the pitch angle diminishes, the electrons can penetrate through the magnetic mirror points and rush into the transition region to produce hard X-ray bursts.