The result of this study shows that hydrogen atoms passivate copperrelated defects(E_(T1)=E_v+0.222 eV and E_(T2)=E_v+0.411 eV) effectively at 300℃,but the hydrogen mo-lecules and vacuum thermal treatment at the same temperature do not have such aneffect.

The luminescencc properties of Eu3+ in MFX series were studied systematically. Particular attention was paid to the affection of X-, M2+ and impurity defects(maily O2-) to the Eu3+ luminesconce.

Through a series of experiments performed on the delineation of flow pattern defects(FPDs) in heavily Boron-doped Czochralski(CZ) silicon wafer,a modified Secco Etchant was obtained and the appropriate etching time was defined.

Neural tube defects ( NTDs) are among the most common congenital malformations and supervised by World Health Organization , they occur worldwide with an incidence of between 1 and 9 per 1000 births.

Methods The tibial bone defects (2.1 cm) of 22 goats, who weighted from 18.1 kg to 29.5 kg, were established and divided into 4 groups: groupⅠ, Adv-hBMP-2 transduced BMSCs group (n=8);

The most common associated features were astigmatism (5.8%), conus of optic disk (4.98%), strabismus (4.76%), visual field defects (16%), and posterior staphyloma (4.29%).

MethodsModel of radial bone defects (20 mm) of rabbits was established. 50 rabbits were divided into 5 groups, group A (AdrhBMP-2 trusduced RSMSCs/DBM group), group B (adGFP trusduced RSMSCs/DBM group), group C (not trusduced RSMSCs/DBM group), group D (DBM group), and group E (untreated group).

But on the ra- tio of intralobar/extralobar pulmonary sequenstration (adult 17/1,paediatric 6/5 P＜0.05),combined congenital defects (a- dult 0/17,paediatric 4/7 P＜0.05) and primary symptom (adult 9/9,paediatric 10/0,P＜0.05),the difference were sig- nificant.

Objective To study the association between reduced folate carrier gene(RFC1 A80G) polymorphism and the risk for child with neural tube defects ( NTDs), and to provide epidemiological evidence for the existence of NTDs genetic marker.

The 5 leading BD were: central nervous system defects. (2.58‰), cleft lip and/or clefLt palate (2.19‰), synpolydactyly (1.41‰) , deformity of limbs (1.17‰) and ear defects (1.16‰).

Methods One hundred and forty patients with congenital heart defects(CHD) and 20 normal controls were collected to extract DNA and the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the original copies of chromosome 22 ubiquitin fusion degradation-1-like(UFD1L) gene and S100β gene,and then the ratio of UFD1L/S100β was calculated.

Objective To evaluate the accuracy and clinical value of transthoracic three-dimensional echocardiographic (3DE) quantitative analysis in ventricular septal defect (VSD) of conotruncal defects (CTD).

Results:There is remarkable promotion on knowledge and basic right reply rate of birth defects(P<0.01)after intervention(83±3.6)% than before intervention(42±6.5)%.

Results Pregnancy fever appeared to be a risk factor of neural tube defects( OR = 6.525 , P = 0.034) while hair zinc level ( OR = 0. 541 μg/ 100 g, P = 0.02 ) and times of prenatal physical examination( OR = 0.634, P < 0.001) served as two protective factors appeared in the last model.

Electron probe microanalysis of the deposits showed a network structure that results from the surface defects of the cold rolled Ag substrate and the lattice mismatch between substrate and deposit.

Thus, it is evident that although large specific surface area is important for nano-NaH to be used as a catalyst component, high surface energy with surface defects seems to be more important.

Physical defects have always played an important role in integrated circuit (IC) yields, and the design sensitivity to these physical elements has continued to increase in today's nanometer technologies.

Since the outlines of 70% defects approximate to elliptical shapes, a novel yield model associated with elliptical outlines of defects is presented.

This model is more general than the circular defects model as the latter is only an instance of the proposed model.

Hair-line cracks or flakes in steel are known to be associated with the presence of hydrogen. A prevailing theory states that the crack formation is due to disruptive hydrogen pressure being built up in defects in steel. However, little was known regarding to the nature of these defects and the detailed mechanism of the hair-line crack formation. An attempt was made in the present research to investigate this problem by means of internal friction measurements. The preliminary experiments show: (1)...

Hair-line cracks or flakes in steel are known to be associated with the presence of hydrogen. A prevailing theory states that the crack formation is due to disruptive hydrogen pressure being built up in defects in steel. However, little was known regarding to the nature of these defects and the detailed mechanism of the hair-line crack formation. An attempt was made in the present research to investigate this problem by means of internal friction measurements. The preliminary experiments show: (1) The presence of hydrogen in certain steels may give rise to the appearance of an internal friction peak when internal friction is plotted against the temperature of measurement; (2) a slight amount of cold-work or soaking at a given temperature has a considerable effect on the optimum temperature of the observed internal friction peak, which indicates that the internal friction peak may be connected with the defects or stress condition in steel; (3) the internal friction peak shows an anomalous amplitude effect, i.e., at a given temperature of measurement an internal friction peak is obtained when the internal friction is plotted against the stress amplitude. Such an anomalous behavior is similar to that previously observed by. one of the authors (Ke) in the case of aluminimum containing 0.5% Cu. It is therefore considered that the internal friction peaks observed may be related to the interaction of hydrogen with the dislocations in steel.

Many methods of analyzing statically indeterminate structures are now available. The method of redundant forces and that of deformations (i. e. the slope-deflection method), heretofore generally used in the U. S. S. R., both require the solution of a system of simultaneous simple equations. In the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents, the large number of such equations would greatly complicate the calculation work, it being both time-consuming and liable to make mistakes. The method of moment distribution...

Many methods of analyzing statically indeterminate structures are now available. The method of redundant forces and that of deformations (i. e. the slope-deflection method), heretofore generally used in the U. S. S. R., both require the solution of a system of simultaneous simple equations. In the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents, the large number of such equations would greatly complicate the calculation work, it being both time-consuming and liable to make mistakes. The method of moment distribution simplifies calculations to a great extent, as there is no need to solve simultaneous equations, and therefore it has been warmly received bY practical engineers. Many soviet scholars are also devoted to its study. There are, however, defects in this method, namely: (1) Should the moments obtained in the successive cycles of distribution and carrying-over prove to converge very slowly, twenty or more such cycles must be done if fairly accurate results are expected.(2) In the case of analyzing structures under various conditions of loading, while it is possible to find the influence moments by applying a unit moment at each joint as proposed by Prof. Hardy Cross, it would bequite laborious in the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents containing a large number of members, especially when subjected to unsymmetrical loadings.For the remedy of the first defect, such Chinese scholars as Profs. Lin Tung Yen, Chao Tsu Wu, Meng Chao Li and Tsai Fang Yin have made much contribution, and the author of this paper has recently written a discussion on the two papers of the last-mentioned scholar. For the remedy of the second defect, the author is unaware of any except that mentioned below.One of the soviet scholars, Dr. P. P. Shaggin (i.e.) has suggested important improvements with regard to both these defects. For the former, he adopted a method of single-cycle distribution; and for the latter, he invented the method of successive conjugation which greatly reduces the work of calculation in finding the influence moments. The essence of these methods is well-worth studying on the part of our Chinese engineers. After an intensive study, the author of this paper thinks that, while Dr. Shaggin's methods are quite correct in principle, his methods of calculation can still be somewhat improved, as described herein, so as to be made more easily applied in practice.This paper Shaggin based upon the book, (Calculation of Multi-storey Frames by the Method of Successive Conjugation) published in 1954 by Dr. P. P. Shaggin in Leningrad, U. S. S. R., shows that, in applying a unit moment at each joint of a given statically indeterminate structure, one can easily find the influence moments at the ends of all the members, and that, after multiplying the unbalanced fixed-end moments at each joint calculated in accordance with the given external loads, by the respective influence moments, the sum of such products added to the original fixed-end moments will give at once the actual moments at each end of the members in the structure.Three notable improvements are indicated in this paper:(1) Dr. Shaggin's formula (5") on page 11 of his book, has been altered to formulas (3) in this paper. (2) For multi-storey bents, Dr. Shaggin's method of finding the conjugate moments (i. e. the influence moments) by formulas is replaced by the usual method of simple moment-distribution.(3) The author of the paper has extended the method to the analysis of multi-storey and multi-bay bents under any system of unsymmetrical loading.Of course, for structures under a single system of loading, influence moments need not be found and, generally speaking, it would be more convenient to apply the original method of moment-distribution; for a multi-storey bent, it would be better, even in this case, to modify it by applying the method of successive conjugation.The author is of the opinion that the application of the methods described in this paper, being convenient and time-saving, would be useful to the practical engineers.

Since the beginning of the last half century, the science of hydrology through successive steps of development has advanced to the realm of quantitative analysis. Engineers employed empirical methods to compute river discharges from precipitation data in answer to the ever-increasing demands made upon hydrologic analyses for engineering works. Yet for the phenomena of conflux of flows from precipitations, there exist only meager and fragmental quantitative analyses, without, so far, a systematic study of their...

Since the beginning of the last half century, the science of hydrology through successive steps of development has advanced to the realm of quantitative analysis. Engineers employed empirical methods to compute river discharges from precipitation data in answer to the ever-increasing demands made upon hydrologic analyses for engineering works. Yet for the phenomena of conflux of flows from precipitations, there exist only meager and fragmental quantitative analyses, without, so far, a systematic study of their underlying theories recorded in literature. On account of this, the progress of hydrology in respect to theory as well as to prac- tice has been retarded. By means of hydrodynamic analysis, the author has tentatively made an approach to the establishment of such a scheme of theories, in which he divided the rainfall-runoff phenomena into three parts for separate analyses, i. e., the occurrence of runoff due to rainfall at a surface point, the surface flow, and. the conflux of channel flows. This paper is devoted to the first part, which is, in essence, an analysis of the basic hydrologic phenomena. The theories thus established may be used as a guide for various hydrologic analyses in practice, may be based upon to examine the validity of various methods of hydrologic calculations, and may be further used to develop an approximate yet rational method for computing discharges from precipitation data. In this paper, the author proposes a scheme of underlying theories for analyzing the hydrograph of surface flow due to rainfall at a point, in which the essence of basic hydrologic phenomena is revealed, and this is accompanied with calculations of an example. In the earlier years, R. E. Horton established a theory of correlations of rainfall and runoff from small drainage basins by analyzing the data of Homer's sprinkler experiments. Thereafter, researchers basing upon his theories and methods analyzed the relations between rainfall and runoff by sprinkler experiments or data from natural areas. On account of the fact that Horton's analysis does not begin with an accurate hydrodynamical viewpoint, problems are bound to arise in practice due to defects in the underlying theories. Shortcomings of Homer's analysis on the basis of the author's theories are pointed out and the practical value of sprinkler experiments estimated. A method proposed by E. V. Bodakoff for computing discharges due to storms on small basins has raised wide discussions among the Soviet scholars, many of whom hold different views. The author hereby points out the main shortcomings of Bodakoff's method, and gives a numerical example with results compared with those computed by the author's method, thus showing the limitations of Bodakoff's method in practical applications.