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enamel
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     Enamel DD3009
     搪瓷DD3009
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     Study of the Bioactivity Enamel
     生物活性搪瓷的研究
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  enamel
Spherical-or cylindrical-shaped nanosized calcium phosphate particles are considered as an integral part of biological hard tissues such as bone and tooth enamel.
      
The effects were increased with decreasing particle sizes, and the 20-nm sized calcium phosphate, the basic building blocks during bone/enamel formations, was the most effective inhibitor.
      
Mathematical Modeling of the Optimum Conditions for Formation of Enamel Coatings on Aluminum
      
The preliminary optimization of the compositions and properties of enamel coatings made it possible to obtain coatings with a high-quality surface in a minimum number of experiments.
      
Ageometrical model of glass-enamel coating (GEC) is proposed.
      
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This study deals with age determination and age distribution of muskrat populations. A total of 597 skulls with notes on their reproduction, were collected from Kunges River at Sinkiang in 1964, and Changwu at Liao-ning from 1963-1964.Six age groups have been devised, based upon four criteria: (1) morphology of the tooth roots and enamel patterns of the molars, especially the height of the 2nd fluting on the left first upper molar; (2) degree of extrusion below the bona line of the anteriormost buccal...

This study deals with age determination and age distribution of muskrat populations. A total of 597 skulls with notes on their reproduction, were collected from Kunges River at Sinkiang in 1964, and Changwu at Liao-ning from 1963-1964.Six age groups have been devised, based upon four criteria: (1) morphology of the tooth roots and enamel patterns of the molars, especially the height of the 2nd fluting on the left first upper molar; (2) degree of extrusion below the bona line of the anteriormost buccal fluting; (3) measurements of skulls and body lengths together with body weights; and (4) reproductive characters.Group 1. Without the tooth roots and the height of corona dentis of the 1st upper molar measuring 8.3-12.0mm, considered as juveniles, being about two months old after birth.Group 2. With the appearance of a band at the base of the molars, the height of fluting of the corona dentis measuring more than 9.0 mm, considered as being about two to six months old after birth.Group 3. With the appearance of the tooth roots, the height of the fluting of the corona dentis maesuring 7.0-8.9 mm, considered as subadults being five to nine months old after birth.Group 4. With well-developed tooth roots of molars, the height of the fluting of the corona dentis measuring 4.0-6.9 mm and the end of the fluting sitting just at the level of the alveolar socket limbus in most specimens, considered as adults of the 1st group being nine months to 1/2 years old.Group 5. Highly developed roots and the height of the fluting of the corona dentis measuring 2.0-3.9 mm and the end of the fluting sitting above the bone line in most specimens, considered as adult of the 2nd group, being 11/2-2 years old.Group 6. With long tooth roots, the height of the fluting measuring 0-1.9 mm, considered as aged group of over two years old.It is clear that the skull of this animal shows a considerable range of age variation in age groups 1-3. It grows intensively before group 4.It seems apparent that variations of the body weights and body length found are largely due to age, although there are overlaps in the measurements of the different age groups.The seasonal difference in the age distribution of the muskrat population is obvious. The sex ratio in the entire collection is 57 males to 43 females. There are generally two to three litters in a year from April to July, sometimes only one or four litters. The average litter size is 8.5 young. The yearling young, i.e., groups 1,2,3 are usually sexually inactive; the three other goups are capable of reproduction.

利用新疆等地区的597号麝鼠头骨标本和其它材料,研究种群年龄组成。主要依据左侧第一上臼齿齿根的形成、生长和齿冠磨损的程度,并分析了头骨的形态变化及测量数据,以及体重、体长、繁殖等和年龄的关系,初步得如下结果: 1.根据各方面的特征,划分为六个年龄组。 2.头骨、体重、体长有明显的年龄变化。 3.种群年龄组成有明显的季节变化,种群中性比随年龄而有差异。新疆地区一年繁殖2—3次。种群年龄组成的研究,为麝鼠资源的合理利用提供了资料。

A well preserved edentate skeleton discovered from the Upper Paleocene ofNanxiong,Guangdong,in South China in 1973,is here described to represent a newprimitive form of xenarthran.The systematic position and zoogeographical bearings ofthe new form are briefly noted.Family Ernanodontidae fam.nov.Diagnosis:See Genus.Genus Ernanodon,gen.nov.Type species:Ernanodon antelios,sp.nov.Diagnosis:Size of a small dog,skull robust and relatively broad;brain casesmall,muzzle short and facial deep;sagittal crest strongly developed;premaxillae...

A well preserved edentate skeleton discovered from the Upper Paleocene ofNanxiong,Guangdong,in South China in 1973,is here described to represent a newprimitive form of xenarthran.The systematic position and zoogeographical bearings ofthe new form are briefly noted.Family Ernanodontidae fam.nov.Diagnosis:See Genus.Genus Ernanodon,gen.nov.Type species:Ernanodon antelios,sp.nov.Diagnosis:Size of a small dog,skull robust and relatively broad;brain casesmall,muzzle short and facial deep;sagittal crest strongly developed;premaxillae notin contact with nasals and separated from the latter by a small septomaxilla;orbitalprocess prominent;postglenoid process large and transversally elongate;no anteriorpalatine foramina;pterygoid large;with postzygomatic foramen;ossicle bulla notobservable;the part of the skull behind post-glenoid very short and transversally broad.Mandibular body robust and horizontal ramus deep;condyle of mandibule large andtransversally elongate.Dental formula (0.1.3.3.)/(1.1.4.3.);lower incisors very small,caninelong and tusk-like;cheek teeth peg-like,and single roots except M_2,enamel bearing.Vertebral formula:C7,D>19,L(?)3,S(?)4,Ca>11;posterior dorsals withlongitudinal ribbed and fluted structures under metapophysis and complex apophysisfrom anapophysis;caudals with the weak chiveron;position sternale of ribs ossified;sternals seven;scapula with second spine;clavecal stout;humerus with rather promi-nent deltoid tuberosity midway of the shaft and epicondyler foramen;ulna not fused withradius;iscium quite short;femur with straight shaft and third trochanter midway ofthe shaft;fibula not fused to tibia;manus and pes pantadactylar and laterally com-pressed claws,central carpal bone fused with radial carpal bone and very small;astragulus with a transversal elongate and flat head,not articulated with cuboid;clawsnot fissured.Ernanodon antelios,sp.nov.Type:An essentially complete skeleton(V 5596).Horizon and Locality:Upper,or Datangxu,member of Nonshan Formation,Late Paleocene;Hwashushia,Youshan Commune,Nanxiong county,Guangdong.(FieldNo.73139).Comparison and DiscussionThe new edentate from Nanxiong Paleocene is decidedly xenarthran-like,and ismorphologically more primitive than all the known members of this group.While it shows nearly all the structural features diagnostic of an edentate,its dental structureis of very primitive type and the posterior dorsal vertebrae distinctly show anxenarthran type of articulation in an incipient degree of development.The new Chinese form shows general resemblance to those in Utaetes and themodern armadillos in pocessing a number of characters as in the structure of scapula,humerus,radius and ulna,ischium,manus and pes,and in proportion of ilium andischium,but it differs in all these characters from those in the ground sloths.Thisindicates that the skeleton of the new form retains many characters of primitivexenarthran in the structure of the appendicular bones;but it is evidently lacking ofan external bony armor as in the armadillos,this apparently excludes it from thesuborder Loricata.Ernanodon,g.n.,is morphologically rather similar to the sloths in the bones of themuzzles region,mandible,the shape of posterior thoracic vertebrae and body propor-tion.Based on these similarities one might well be considered it to be an ancestralform of the ground sloths,but from the known phylogenetic and zoogeographical his-tory of the group,this seems to be improbable.As to whether it is an early offshootof rather xenarthran or not,the available evidence does not seem to permit of such aninference.Ernanodon has some important“plesiomorphic”,as well as “specialized”(or“autapomorphic”)characters.These include the presence of the septomaxillari,ossification of the sternal portion of the costals,the incipient development of axenarthran type of articulation on the posterior thoracic vertebrae,with a second spineon the scapula.All these characters are lacking in palaeanodonts.Besides,Ernanodondiffers from the palaeanodonts in having greater number of teeth,short and transver-sely broader part of the skull behind the post-glenoid process,stronger mandibularcondyles,higher deltoid tuberrosity and relatively shorter and transversely broaderastragulus head,and past in these the new form are similar to the xenarthrans.Thedifferences between Ernanodon and the palaeanodonts show that the former is affiliatedto xenarthran,and the latter,as was pointed out by Emry(1970),should be rea-sonably grouped with the pholidots.As to another specimen,i.e.Chungchienia sichuanica,which has been described asan edentate from the Upper Eocene of Honan(Chow,1963),it is most probabIy closerto a taeniodont,except in the presence of a long mandibular diastema,which is absentin this order.The edentate of Nanxiong is the most primitive xenarthran known outside of So.America.Its occurrence in the Paleocene of China clearly indicates that the geographi-cal distribution of this group is not confined to the western hemisphere in N.and So.America as was previously thought.For long zoologists have been debateing about the origin of the edentate.Thediscovery of their fossils in the Paleocene of Nanxiong throws new lights on thisproblem.At the beginning of this century when the palaeanudonts fossils were firstfound in N.America,some paleontologist had the view that the edentate were probablyderived from certain N.America insectivore,in Cretaceous or Paleocene.In recentyears in spite of that some paleontologists tend to believe that Gondwana land wasthe provenance of the edentate,there are still some who believe in a possible origina- tion of the group in the northern continents.It seems that this is supported by thepresent finding of their fossils in So.China.But,on the other hand,it still does notseem to exclude a possible Gondwana land origin of the order.It may not be entirelyimprobable that Ernanodon,is a relic of earlier immigrants from(or to)the South viaa route other than the one from the north,or by other means or route.

本文是广东南雄古新世贫齿类化石(新科)的初步研究结果。文中,对标本的形态特征、系统位置作了摘要叙述,着重讨论了新科与古贫齿类的关系;简单介绍了南雄标本发现的动物地理意义。

A small collection of Early Eocene mammalian fossils was discovered by theauthors in 1976 from three localities(76003,76004 and 76005)in Hengtung County,Hunan.The main fossil quarry(76003)is the very one where C.C.Young collectedremains of Propalaeotherium hengyangensis in 1938.A preliminary observation of boththe old and new materials indicates that:1.Propalaeotherium hengyangensis may be aPropachynolophus rather than a Propalaeotherium;2.the fauna of the upper level(76003and 76004)is certainly Early Eocene...

A small collection of Early Eocene mammalian fossils was discovered by theauthors in 1976 from three localities(76003,76004 and 76005)in Hengtung County,Hunan.The main fossil quarry(76003)is the very one where C.C.Young collectedremains of Propalaeotherium hengyangensis in 1938.A preliminary observation of boththe old and new materials indicates that:1.Propalaeotherium hengyangensis may be aPropachynolophus rather than a Propalaeotherium;2.the fauna of the upper level(76003and 76004)is certainly Early Eocene in age(Cuisian or even Sparnacian),whereasthe lower one(76005)yielding only two fragments of Archaeolambda mandibles isprobably of the Earliest Eocene;3.the discovery of the two European forms,Pro-pachynolophus and Microparamys in Hunan raises an interesting paleogeographicalproblem:was Eastern Asia isolated perfectly from Europe during the beginning ofEocene,as presumed up to now?1.Propachynolophus hengyangensis(Young);(Equidae,Perissodactyla)Type:a left lower jaw fragment with,M_3(Young's specimen of 1944,V214).Hypodigm:an anterior part of left mandible with P_3—M_2(V 5349).Comparison:The Hunan specimen is similar to Propachynolophus maldani in size,basic cheek teeth structure,degree of premolar molarization and more reduced P_1(cf.Teilhard,1922,p.69),but differs from it by slightly larger size,weaker cingulum,P_3 less molarized and the alveolar margin of the lower jaw anterior to P_8 declinedmore downwards.2.Microparamys lingchaensis sp.nov.(Paramyidae,Rodentia)Type:a lower jaw with a complete tooth row(V5347)Hypodigm:a left lower jaw with M_1—M_3(V 5348)Diagnosis:Size slightly larger than that of M.nanus(P_4—M_3:5.75 mm),masseterfossa end beneath the trigonid of M_3,P_4 small,cheek teeth very primitive,bunodont,with initial ectolophid,anterior cingulum complete,hypoconule small and mesoconiddeveloped.3.Matutinia nitidulus gen.et sp.nov.(Eurymylidae,hnagalida)Type:An anterior part of a brocken skull with complete tooth row(V5354). Hypodigm:five lower jaw fragments(V5359—58,5360),a brocken skull(V5359).Diagnosis:A form intermediate between Heomys and Rhombomylus,premolarsnon-molarized,metaconule rudimentary,posterior margin of the palate ends at the lineof the middle of M~2,paraconid reduced.The enamel of cheek teeth massive.4.Hunanictis inexpectatus gen.et sp.nov.(Didymuconidae,Order indet.)Type:an anterior part of skull with cheek teeth badly crushed(V 5350).Diagnosis:A new genus characterized by its smaller size and more primitivestructure of cheek teeth;protocone of P~2 very small,the inner side of P~4 short,stylesof upper molars appear to be small.5.?Asiocoryphodon sp.(Coryphodontidae,Pantodonta)Only four fragments of lower cheek teeth are preserved(V5351).6.Inseetivora:Represented by two well preserved skulls(V5352-53),detaileddescription of which will be published later.All the measurements of fossils are given in table 1 in the Chinese text.

本文初步记述了在衡阳盆地中发现的六种早始新世哺乳动物化石。其中包括两个新属、三个新种:Hunanictis inexpectatus gen.et sp.nov.,Matutinia nitidulus gen.et sp.nov.,Micro-paramys lingchaensis sp.nov.。化石采自衡东县岭茶附近相当于原茶山坳段的四个小地点。地点之一,甑毕岭(76003),即杨钟健1938年发现衡阳原古马(Propalaeotherium hengyangensis)的地点。本文根据新旧材料的研究结果,将原古马订正为原厚脊齿马(Propachynolophus hengyan-gensis),并将其时代也由中始新世前推至早始新世,相当欧洲的 Cuisian 期或 Sparnacian 期。

 
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