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control in
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  控制
     Combustion and Optimizing Control in a Hydrogen-Fueled Engine
     氢燃料发动机燃烧与优化控制
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     Equilibrium Properties of FrenkelKontorova Model and chaos control in Conservative Systems
     FK模型的平衡性质与保守系统的混沌控制
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     Available Bit Rate (ABR) Flow Control in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networks
     ATM网络中ABR流量控制的研究
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     Theories and Methods of Data Quality Control in Construction and Management GIS
     建设管理地理信息系统数据的质量控制
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     Algorithm of Transient Stability Emergency Control in Power System
     电力系统暂态稳定控制决策算法
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     Study on Bionic Thermostable Structure and Its Control in Precision Machine
     精密机械仿生热稳定构件研究
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     The Study of Coupling at Grain Market Operation and Governmental Macro-policy of Regulatory Control in China
     中国粮食市场运行与政府宏观调控政策耦合研究
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     Studies on Character of Community Structure of the Ecological Forest and Its Quality Control in Zhejiang Province
     浙江省生态公益林群落结构特征及其调控研究
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     Several Applied Basic Studies on Main Trichogramma Species for Application in Biological Control in China
     我国主要应用赤眼蜂种的若干应用基础研究
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     The Mechanisms of Proliferation, Morphology and Adhesion Control in Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines HO-8910 by Glucocorticoids
     糖皮质激素调节人卵巢癌细胞系HO-8910增殖、形态改变和粘附作用的分子机制
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     U. in control.
     U.
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     F, as control.
     F,对照组。
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     C:Control;
     C组(假手术组);
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     In the control group.
     对照组以抗菌、消炎、止血对症处理。
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  control in
The development of the theory on quantum systems control in the last 20 years is reviewed in detail.
      
A barcode-based position controlling method for high-speed conditions was introduced to deal with the position control in some conditions where it cannot be done quickly and precisely using traditional methods.
      
As sodium formate was used as reductant, precise control in the initial pH was needed.
      
When ultrasound was applied, an ultrasonic power range of 60-150 W was suitable for the membrane fouling control in the experimental system.
      
Non-thermal plasma technologies have shown their promising potential specially for the low concentration of volatile organic compound control in indoor air in recent years.
      
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An electrophotometric method has been worked out for the determination of magnesium in cast iron using titan yellow as indicator.Briefly,the method consists of dissolving the sample in dilute sulphuric acid,separating iron and other metals such as copper and nickel by electrolysis with mercury cathode and precipitating manganese from ammoniacal solution with ammonium persulfate.Ammonimn salt,silica and traces of aluminaare thenremoved. Finally,the prepared titan yellow reagent is added to the solutionand the...

An electrophotometric method has been worked out for the determination of magnesium in cast iron using titan yellow as indicator.Briefly,the method consists of dissolving the sample in dilute sulphuric acid,separating iron and other metals such as copper and nickel by electrolysis with mercury cathode and precipitating manganese from ammoniacal solution with ammonium persulfate.Ammonimn salt,silica and traces of aluminaare thenremoved. Finally,the prepared titan yellow reagent is added to the solutionand the magnesium content determined from the electrophotometric reading.The time required for each determination is approximately 5 hours. The effect of interfering elements which are likely present in cast iron such as manganese, silicon,phosphorus, aluminum, copper, nickel and vanadium as well as ammonium ion and alkali and alkaline earth metals has been studied and discussed.It has been shown that manganese, silicon, aluminum,copper,nickel,iron and ammonium ions can be removed down to such low values as to cause no significant interference.Phosphorus under 0.4% has no appreciable effect.Vanadium is not separated in the present method,but fortunately it is usually present in insignificant amounts in ordinary cast iron.The effect of calcium is compensated by the introduction of saturated calcium sulphate solution before the titan yellow addition. Potassium and sodium have no appreciable effect when present in small amounts. The results obtained by the present method for the determination of magnesium in 11 known samples are good,the average difference being 0.002% in a range of 0.000% to 0.140% Mg.The data obtained by the present method are also in good agreement with those obtained by gravimetric methods On seven nodular iron samples made by the Metallurgical Division of our Institute.A detailed procedure for the determination of magnesium in cast iron has been suggested and included in this paper.In view of its rapidity and fair accuracy,the new photometric method might prove useful for the purpose of control in a nodular iron foundry.

本文报告将地丹黄比色法应用於测定铸铁中之镁的试验结果.如将铁、锰、铝、矽等干扰物质预先除去,则镁的测定并无困难.依照本文所擬的方法分析,所需时间约为五小时,较重量法迅速得多.

The effect of aqueous ethanol (50% v/v) on the activity of purified mushroom polyphenol oxidase has been found to be as follows: (1)The oxidation of catechol or pyrogallol is greatly stimulated,an increase in the rate of oxygen uptake of over 100% having been invariably observed with catechol as the substrate,whereas the oxidation of other substituted o-dihydric phenols is inhibited in 50% ethanol. (2)When excess ascorbic acid is added to the reaction mixture to reduce o-quinone back to catechol as soon as the...

The effect of aqueous ethanol (50% v/v) on the activity of purified mushroom polyphenol oxidase has been found to be as follows: (1)The oxidation of catechol or pyrogallol is greatly stimulated,an increase in the rate of oxygen uptake of over 100% having been invariably observed with catechol as the substrate,whereas the oxidation of other substituted o-dihydric phenols is inhibited in 50% ethanol. (2)When excess ascorbic acid is added to the reaction mixture to reduce o-quinone back to catechol as soon as the former is formed,the same stimulatory effect of ethanol on the rate of oxygen uptake has also been observed,indicating that ethanol stimulates only in the early stages of catechol oxidation.Treatment of the experimental results obtained in the presence of excess ascorbic acid and of different catechol concentrations according to Lineweaver and Burk shows that ethanol doubles the maximal velocity and raises the Michaelis constant 7-fold from 0.072 mM to 0.49 mM. Similar results have been obtained with pyrogallol as the substrate.This seems to suggest that the enzyme has a lower affinity for its substrates in 50% ethanol than in aqueous solution. (3)From simultaneous determinations of the amount of oxygen con- sumed and the amount of ascorbic acid oxidized the value of 1 is obtained for the ratio of oxygen consumed:ascorbic acid oxidized,both in the absence and in the presence of ethanol.This seems to indicate that the presence of ethanol does not affect the complete reduction of oxygen to water by the action of polyphenol oxidase. The effect of a number of other organic solvents on catechol oxidation has also been examined.Methanol,iso-propanol,tert-butanol and acetone are all stimulatory whereas dioxane,ethylene glycol and glycerol are in- hibitory.In 50% acetone,the rate of oxygen uptake is 3 times that of the control in aqueous solution.

(一)乙醇能够使多酚氧化酶接触儿茶酚及焦性没食子酸氧化的活力提高,在50%乙醇溶液中,以儿茶酚为底料时,多酚氧化酶的活力比没有乙醇存在时的活力高出一倍以上。(二)50%的乙醇不能使多酚氧化酶接触其他双酚衍生物氧化的活力提高,相反地却有抑制作用。(三)无论有无抗坏血酸的存在,50%乙醇对多酚氧化酶活力的提高程度是一样的,在有一定量的抗坏血酸的存在下,多酚氧化酶对儿茶酚的 Michaelis 常数(25℃)在水溶液及50%乙醇溶液中各为0.072×10~(-3)M 及0.49×10~(-3)M。(四)乙醇的存在,并不影响多酚氧化酶氧化儿茶酚作用时氧气被完全还原为水的作用。无论乙醇存在与否,每一分子底料的氧化,都消耗一个氧原子。(五)其他水溶性有机溶剂对多酚氧化酶氧化儿茶酚活力的影响不同,如甲醇、异丙醇、叔丁醇、丙酮等能使酶活力提高;但1,4-二氧己圜、乙二醇、甘油等则有抑制作用。50%丙酮能使酶活力提高约3倍。

A disease which caused heavy losses in the stored Ralls apples in the South Laoning area in the Spring of 1955 has Leen named"Hoo-pee" By the apple growers. A Study was made from 1955 to 1957 to determine the affected factors and to find out the controlling methods.The results are summarized as follows: 1.The accumulated data of the two years experiments indicate that the date of harvest has much to do with the development of the disease, the early-picked fruits de eloping more abundantly and more severely than...

A disease which caused heavy losses in the stored Ralls apples in the South Laoning area in the Spring of 1955 has Leen named"Hoo-pee" By the apple growers. A Study was made from 1955 to 1957 to determine the affected factors and to find out the controlling methods.The results are summarized as follows: 1.The accumulated data of the two years experiments indicate that the date of harvest has much to do with the development of the disease, the early-picked fruits de eloping more abundantly and more severely than the latepicked fruits.The effect of delaying the har est on the reduction of the diseaseproducing rate is that: (1)the packing treatment with paraffin oil paper is found to be more pronounced than other treatments including the consrol; (2) low temperature ranging from 0—3℃ is more pronounced than high temperature raving from 3—6℃ in the latter period of storage. 2.Taking alsolute value for consideration, Truits are more susceptible to the dicease at higher temperature than at lower temperature in the latter period of Storage, the stimulating effect of high temperature on the disease beingmore pronounced for the lare-picked fruits than for the early-picked ones, and the control being likely to be more pronounced than the other treatments. 3.Among the packing treatments, paraffin oil paper packing treatment is found to cause the least infection.Its effect on reducing the disease for the late-picked fruits is more pronounced than for the early-picked ones, and high temperature is more pronounced than on low temperature The castor oil paper packing turns out to Le almost of no effect, moreover, it has the tendency of stimulating the decelopment of the disease.The rice hull packing treatment causes in part slighter infection and in part heavier than the Control in the first year, whereas in the second year, it is generally slighter than the control; in the latter season hewever, the reducing rate tends to be more pronounced at low temperature than at high temperature,and the same is true for the latepicked fruits than for the early-picked ones.The effect of the ordinary paper wrapping treatment is found to lesimilar to tlat of rice hull packing treatment. 4.In the former period of storage the alove mentloned treatments cause very shight and almost no sign of disease, whereas, in the latter period, the di(?)ease is found to develop rapidly, the transition time leing approximately on the first decade of Marcl for the eary-pcled fruit, and at the end of the same month for the late-picked ones. 5.Storing in fluctuating room temperatures at relatively low relative humidity, the results turn out to be different from those mentioned above.In the first year at comparatively high temperature,fluctuating between 10—23℃ every day, the disease is almost absent for the early-picked fruits up to the end of February, while in the seconl year,when the temperature is comparatively low, fluctuating letween 2—10℃ every day, quite an amount of fruits infected with the disease on the middle of March particularly for the early-piced fruits. Hovever, the final and total disease-producing rate is low as compared with the ordinary storage temperatures. 6.Transfering suddenly from cold storagee to the orbinary room temperature,the rate of disease occurence swiftly increases.After several days for the earlypicked fruits and a little more than ten days for the late-picked fruits, the results far outgo those of the cold storage as well as of those of the room temperatures. 7.Exposing the fruits to such volatile materials as ethyl acetate, amyl acetate an acetaldehyde and continuing in the storage before and after treatment, the results are rather irregular, altho the disease-developing rate of some treated fruits is lower than the control, This may be due to lack of materials for.experiments and uneven ripening of the fruits 8.Observations show that the striking effect of the coloration of the fruits on the disease is established but the size of the fruits does not show any appreciable difference in infection. 9.The tentative results lead to a conclution that the"Hoo-pee" of Ralls apples is truely the Scald, but the results of treatments with rice hull and paper wrappings do not correlate with the explanations given by some workers concerning the causes of scald since there is a condition of poor aeration in these treatments.

1.两年的试验一致显示采收期对国光蘋果虎皮病有非常显著的影响,早采收的远比晚采收的发病既多且重。延迟采收对降低发病率的效果在不同包装处理及不同后期贮藏温度之间有些不同,在石腊油纸处理比其他包装处理及对照更显著,贮藏后期温度低的(0—3℃)比温度高的(3—6℃)显著。 2.贮藏后期温度升高,发病率也就增加。温度升高对促进发病率的影响程度,在晚采果比早采果显著,在封照组似乎比其他包装处理为显著。 3.在各种包装处理中,以石腊油纸处理的发病最低。石腊油纸降低发病率的功效在晚期果比早期果显著,在后期贮藏高温比低温显著。蓖麻油纸处理似乎无效甚至还有促进发病的趋势。稻壳填箱处理的发病率在第一年有的比对照高,有的比对照低;第二年一致低于对照组,并且其发病率降低的程度在晚采果比早采果显著,在贮藏后期低温比高温显著。果实包纸处理的结果基本上与稻壳处理相仿。 4.上列各种处理的蘋果在贮藏前期很少发病或不发病,贮藏后期则急速增加。这种转变期在早采果大约为3月上旬,晚采果要更延迟些。 5.贮藏在不断变动的室温中(相对湿度较低)的蘋果与上述情况不同,第一年(温度较高,每天在10—23℃之间变动)早采果到2月底尚无病;第二年(温度较低每...

1.两年的试验一致显示采收期对国光蘋果虎皮病有非常显著的影响,早采收的远比晚采收的发病既多且重。延迟采收对降低发病率的效果在不同包装处理及不同后期贮藏温度之间有些不同,在石腊油纸处理比其他包装处理及对照更显著,贮藏后期温度低的(0—3℃)比温度高的(3—6℃)显著。 2.贮藏后期温度升高,发病率也就增加。温度升高对促进发病率的影响程度,在晚采果比早采果显著,在封照组似乎比其他包装处理为显著。 3.在各种包装处理中,以石腊油纸处理的发病最低。石腊油纸降低发病率的功效在晚期果比早期果显著,在后期贮藏高温比低温显著。蓖麻油纸处理似乎无效甚至还有促进发病的趋势。稻壳填箱处理的发病率在第一年有的比对照高,有的比对照低;第二年一致低于对照组,并且其发病率降低的程度在晚采果比早采果显著,在贮藏后期低温比高温显著。果实包纸处理的结果基本上与稻壳处理相仿。 4.上列各种处理的蘋果在贮藏前期很少发病或不发病,贮藏后期则急速增加。这种转变期在早采果大约为3月上旬,晚采果要更延迟些。 5.贮藏在不断变动的室温中(相对湿度较低)的蘋果与上述情况不同,第一年(温度较高,每天在10—23℃之间变动)早采果到2月底尚无病;第二年(温度较低每天在2—10℃之间变动)到3月中已有相当数量的病果,特别是早采收的;但最后的总发病率却比贮藏后期高温的甚至比低温的还要低。 6.蘋果从贮藏室骤然移入室温中,发病率急速上升,数日内(早采果)至10余日内(晚采果)便远远超过冷藏或室温贮藏的同类果实。 7.应用某些挥发性物质处理蘋果,找不到什么有规则的结果,很多处理组的发病率甚至比对照组还要低,这可能是试验的果实太少及果实成熟度不很一致所致。 8.观察和计算肯定了着色程度同病变的关系。果实大小同病变的关系不显著。 9.从试验结果可以确定国光蘋果的虎皮病就是果皮褐变,但稻壳和包纸处理的结果与某些学者对果皮褐变原因的见介不相符合,因为这些处理的通气情况是不好的。

 
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