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spiro
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     Synthesis of Spiro-steroids
     含螺环的甾体化合物的合成
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     Synthesis of Spiro thiazole imidazole Compound
     螺噻唑并咪唑类化合物的合成
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     (V)25R-spiro stan-4-ene-3,12-dione;
     (Ⅴ)25R-螺甾-4-烯-3,12-二酮(25R-Spirostan-4-ene-3,12-dione);
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     A THEORETICAL STUDY ON THE MECHANISM OF HYDROGENOLYSIS OF SPIRO [2,3] HEXANE
     螺环[2,3]己烷氢解反应机理的理论研究
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     Study on the synthesis of spiro[4,4] monane-1,6-dione
     外消旋螺环二酮的合成工艺条件研究
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  spiro
The latter are also formed directly from spiro[4H-chromene-4,5'-isoxazolines] under the action of PCl5.
      
The isoxazoline ring in spiro[4H-chromene-4,5'-isoxazolines] undergoes opening under the action of conc.
      
Reactions of chromones with methyl ketoximes in the presence of lithium diisopropylamide follow the nucleophilic 1,2-addition mechanism to give spiro[4H-chromene-4,5'-isoxazolines] in good yields.
      
Spiro[4H-chromene-4,5'-isoxazolines] and related compounds: Synthesis and reactivities
      
Mass spectrometric study of dimethyl-substituted spiro[4.5]decanes and spiro[5.5]undecanes
      
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Hydrolysis of 1,1′-dicyanobicyclohexyl (Ⅲ) afforded for the first time the corresponding dicarboxylic acid (Ⅴ) and its anhydride (Ⅵ). Upon the reduction of the dicarboxylic acid with lithium aluminum hydride, the dihydric alcohol (Ⅶ) was obtained. The latter was dehydrated with sulphuric acid to give the spiro compound (Ⅷ).

从1,1'-二氰基联环己烷(Ⅲ)经水解初次得到相应的二羧酸(Ⅴ)及酸酐(Ⅵ),由二元酸(Ⅴ)经氢化锂铝还原得二元醇(Ⅶ),后者用硫酸脱水得螺烷(Ⅷ).

Bretylium (Ⅰ) and guanethidine (Ⅱ) were reported to have protracted antihypertensive properties with the capacity to block the transmission at peripheral adrenergic nerve terminals. It appears interesting to study the relationship between their chemical constitutions and pharmacological activities. The present work deals with the structural modification of Ⅰ and Ⅱ.1-o-Chlorobenzylhexamethylenimine and 1-o-chlorobenzylheptamethylenimine, on treatment with ethyl iodide, o-chlorobenzyl bromide and methyl p-toluenesulphonate,...

Bretylium (Ⅰ) and guanethidine (Ⅱ) were reported to have protracted antihypertensive properties with the capacity to block the transmission at peripheral adrenergic nerve terminals. It appears interesting to study the relationship between their chemical constitutions and pharmacological activities. The present work deals with the structural modification of Ⅰ and Ⅱ.1-o-Chlorobenzylhexamethylenimine and 1-o-chlorobenzylheptamethylenimine, on treatment with ethyl iodide, o-chlorobenzyl bromide and methyl p-toluenesulphonate, respectively, gave the corresponding quaternary ammonium salts (Ⅲa, b, c, e); N,N-cyclohexa-methylene-N',N'-cycloheptamethylenethylenediamine was treated with o-chlorobenzylbromide,forming bis-quaternary ammonium salts (Ⅲd).β-Substituted-aminoethylhydrazines (Ⅳa,b) and N,N-cyclohexamethylene-N',N'-cycloheptamethylenethylenediamine (Ⅳf) were formed when 1-β-chloroethylhexamethylenimine and 1-β-chloroethylheptamethylenimine were treated with hydrazine hydrate and heptamethylenimine respectively. Condensation of hydrazine hydrate and hexamethyleniminoacetal and subsequent reduction of the resulting azine compound by means of lithium aluminium hydride afforded N,N'-bis-(β-hexa-methyleniminoethyl)hydrazine (Ⅳc). Hexamethylenimine or heptamethylenimine was converted into the corresponding sym-ethylenediamines (Ⅳd, e), on interaction with ethylene bromide. Di-spiro-bis-quaternary ammonium salts (Ⅵ) were obtained through cycloquaternization of 1-β-chloroethylhexamethylenimine and quaternization of substituted ethylenediamines with ethylene bromide or trimethylene bromide.

1-邻氯苄基氮七环和1-邻氯苄基氮八环与碘乙烷、邻氯苄基溴或对甲苯磺酸甲酯分别反应,生成相应的季铵盐(Ⅲa,b,c,e);N,N-环六亚甲基-N',N'-环七亚甲基-1,2-乙二胺与邻氯苄基溴反应,得到双季铵盐(Ⅲd).1-β-氯乙基氮七环和1-β-氯乙基氮八环与过量的水合肼或氮八环作用,各自得β-取代氨基乙肼(Ⅳa,b)和1,2-乙二胺化合物(Ⅳf). 水合肼与1-氮七环基乙醛缩合,生成的连氮化合物用氢化铝锂还原得N,N'-双-(β-1-氮七环基乙基)肼(Ⅳc).由1,2-二溴乙烷与氮七环或氮八环反应,得对称乙二胺衍生物(Ⅳd,e).借1-β-氯乙基氮七环双分子环合季铵化和1,2-乙二胺衍生物与二溴代烷的反应,得螺环双季铵盐(Ⅳ).

Detailed procedures of the total synthesis of the less toxic, more effective antitumor camptothecinoid alkaloids, dl-10-hydroxycamptothecin and dl-10-methoxycamptothecin, are described.Based on the previous works on the total synthesis of dl-camptothecin (dl-1), the following procedures were devised. The acetal 4 which was prepared from 2-nitro-5-methoxybenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol followed by hydrogenation, was condensed with 1', 2', 3', 5'-tetrahydro-5'-oxo-6'-cyano-7'-(1-carbethoxy) propyl-spiro...

Detailed procedures of the total synthesis of the less toxic, more effective antitumor camptothecinoid alkaloids, dl-10-hydroxycamptothecin and dl-10-methoxycamptothecin, are described.Based on the previous works on the total synthesis of dl-camptothecin (dl-1), the following procedures were devised. The acetal 4 which was prepared from 2-nitro-5-methoxybenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol followed by hydrogenation, was condensed with 1', 2', 3', 5'-tetrahydro-5'-oxo-6'-cyano-7'-(1-carbethoxy) propyl-spiro (1, 3-dioxolene-2, 1-indolizine) (5) to give 2-methoxy-7- (1-carbethoxy) propyl-8-cyano-9, 11-dihydro-9-oxo-indolizino (1, 2-b) quinoline (6)in 66 % yield. It was hydrogenated under atmospheric pressure in a mixture of glacial acetic acid and acetic anhydride with Raney Nickel as catalyst to give 2-methoxy-7-(1'-carbethoxy) propyl-8-acetamidomethyl-9, 11-dihydro-9-oxo-indolizino(1, 2-b)quinoline(7). Without purification, the crude 7 was treated directly with sodium nitrite to afford 2-methoxy-7-(1'-carbethoxy) propyl-8-acetoxy-9, 11-dihydro-9-oxo-indolizino (1, 2-b)quinoline (8). On hydrolysis of compound 8 with dilute sulphuric acid, 10-metboxy-20-deoxycamptothecin (9) was obtained in 62% overall yield based on compound 6. Compound 9 was then oxidized by air in dimethylformamide solution in the presence of cupric chloride and dimethylamine to give dl-10-methoxycamptothecin(dl-3)with a yield of 62%. dl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (dl-2)was obtained by hydrolysis of dl-3 with 48% hydrobromic acid, with a yield of 65%.In order to avoid using silicagel chromatography for the purification of dl-2 and dl-3, an alternative method of working up was developed. The crude dl-2 produced during the hydrolysis of crude dl-3 with hydrobromic acid may be directly acetylated with acetic anhydride-pyridine to give a diacetyl derivative(10) which was then purified by recrystallization. Sufficiently pure dl-2 was obtained upon hydrolysis of 10 with hydrochloric acid-acetic acid. However, this alternative method gave a lower yield.The synthetic dl-2 and dl-3 thus prepared were identical in the TLC R_f-value, UV, NMR and MS spectra with those of the natural alkaloids. Pharmacological tests revealed that the synthetic dl-2 and dl-3 showed similar activity as the natural alkaloids on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, ascitic reticule-cell sarcoma or lymphosarcoma in mice at an equi-toxicity dosage level. One of the synthetic alkaloids dl-2, is subjected to clinical trials.

本文详细报道以1′,2′,3′,5′-四氢-5′-氧代-6′-氰基-7′(1-乙氧羰基)丙基-螺(1,3-二噁茂烷-2,1′- 吲嗪)为原料,经6步及5步反应合成dl-10-羟基喜树碱及dl-10-甲氧基喜树碱的方法。合成产品与天然生物碱的薄板层析、紫外光谱、核磁共振谱和质谱均一致。dl-10-羟基喜树碱正在临床试用中。

 
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