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Association of metabolic syndrome with arterial compliance in children and adolescents
      
The association of metabolic syndrome (MS) with arterial compliance in children and adolescents was explored.
      
The arterial compliance of MS group was significantly lowered in children and adolescents, and with the increase of the clustering of MS components, arterial compliance was gradually decreased.
      
It was suggested that arterial compliance assessment in children and adolescents was important for early prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
      
Histopathological study of congenital aortic valve malformations in 32 children
      
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The purpose of this study was to find the response of the teleost's brain toward chemical stimuli.In carrying out the series of experiments, four species of teleost fishes were selected as working materials. They were Carassius auratus, Ophiocephalus argus, Monopterus javanensis and Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.The chemical agents for the experiments were selected as follows: Janus green, methylene blue, neutral red and crystal violet for staining purpose, i. e. for primary oxidation (Child' 47), in which...

The purpose of this study was to find the response of the teleost's brain toward chemical stimuli.In carrying out the series of experiments, four species of teleost fishes were selected as working materials. They were Carassius auratus, Ophiocephalus argus, Monopterus javanensis and Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.The chemical agents for the experiments were selected as follows: Janus green, methylene blue, neutral red and crystal violet for staining purpose, i. e. for primary oxidation (Child' 47), in which the specimens were examined with the results recorded before reduction process set in; and in addition potassuim permanganate was used for complete oxidation-reduction purpose. The concentrations of the former agents in Ringer's solution and the latter in distilled water were experimentally determined, and are given in Table 1-4.In all cases of the stain experiments, the metabolic rates of the nosebrain (including only the olfactory bulbs and primitive endbrain in the present case) are higher than any other division, and that of the cerebellum, the balancing brain, comes out to be the next, being higher than all the other parts of the organ (with the exception of Carassius). The midbrain (part of the eyebrain) is less responsive than the cerebellum; and the medulla oblongata, without the facial and vagal lobes (brain centers for taste buds) and with its anterior regions (the earbrain) overshadowed largely by the cerebellum or only with little parts visible from above; i. e., the skinbrain, is, on the average, least responsive of allIn Carassius, the vagal lobes showed somewhat greater sensitivity than the cerebellum, and in Hypophthalmichthys they were less so than the facial lobes, which in turn almost matched up with the cerebellum. As a whole, it may be said that the olfactory lobes and primitive endbrain are most responsive and the midbrain and medulla oblongata least so, the cerebellum somewhat between them, while the facial and vagal lobes vary in their responses to these stains, but they fall between the endbrain and the medulla. If the records of both these lobes were removed from the curves on Carassius and Hypophthalmichthys, (Chart V (A)-(D)), these four curves would have a much closer resemblance in the general tendency of responses among themselves; i. e., the centers of greatest activities are located in the nosebrain, there is a considerable dropping in the eyebrain, while the cerebellum, the balancing brain, shows a great deal of rise in responsiveness, though it does not go so high as either the olfactory lobes or the primitive endbrain, and finally the medulla oblongata, the skinbrain, shows least responsiveness to the stains.The results of the oxidation-reduction process (Chart VI (A)-(D)) show more or less a general resemblance to those o?the stain experiments, but there are some differences, which should be noted. In the case of Carassius the primitive endbrain falls in its functional features a great deal below the olfactory lobes and is now even lower than the cerebellum, and the vagal lobes are about on the same level with the midbrain, while in the case of Monoptenis the cerebellum is the most active division of the brain and the medulla oblongata is similar to the midbrain. In general, it is reasonable to assume that the physiological gradients in the brains of Carassius and Hypophthalmichlhys are similar to each other, as they are of the same family, and those of Ophiocephalus and Monopterus are likewise, though they are of different families. In spite of some deviations these brains in both stain and oxidation-reduction experimentes show a general trend of similarity in their responses.It is concluded that the sensitivities of the brain surface to these chemicals are in direct proportion to its functional activities and in reverse proportion to their histogenetic age. Besides these factors, the polarity of the organ and the size of its division also have a significant bearings on the physiological gradient, but the latter should be considered together with the organization and developmental st

(一)此研究限于鱼脑的背面(因由腹面观察,不能看到全脑各部)。所用四种硬骨鱼是鲫鱼、乌鱼、黄鳝与黑鲢。 (二)鱼脑背面,分为五部分:嗅球、原始端脑、中脑、小脑与延脑。鲫鱼延脑背面前部有迷叶长出,鲢鱼延脑背面前部有面叶与迷叶长出。为研究便利计,将迷叶与面叶划为另外部分,分别观察其代谢现象。 (三)染剂用以刺激鱼脑者,为简氏绿、次甲基蓝、中性红与晶紫。此外,又用过锰酸钾作完全氧化—还原实验。 (四)对于以上各剂,鱼脑反应程度最高处是嗅球,大约与嗅球相等者,是原始端脑,稍次是小脑,再次是中脑,最次是延脑。黑鲢面叶与迷叶低于小脑,高于中脑,而面叶高于迷叶(曲线图Ⅴ(D)与Ⅵ(D))。鲫鱼的迷叶,对染剂的反应,高于小脑,对氧化—还原剂的反应,低于小脑(图Ⅴ(A)与Ⅵ(A))。 整个结论是鱼脑表面,对于化学药剂的感性与其生理功用成正比例,与其组织之年龄成反比例。除此二因素外,脑的极性(polarity)、脑各部分之体积,都与生理量度有密切的关系。唯体积关系,须与以后数点共同考虑:(1)组织的构成;(2)组织发达的程度;(3)在演化过程中该组织对于脑部继续发达,及其功用所有关系的重要性(不能单看体积的大小)。鼻脑在脑前端,...

(一)此研究限于鱼脑的背面(因由腹面观察,不能看到全脑各部)。所用四种硬骨鱼是鲫鱼、乌鱼、黄鳝与黑鲢。 (二)鱼脑背面,分为五部分:嗅球、原始端脑、中脑、小脑与延脑。鲫鱼延脑背面前部有迷叶长出,鲢鱼延脑背面前部有面叶与迷叶长出。为研究便利计,将迷叶与面叶划为另外部分,分别观察其代谢现象。 (三)染剂用以刺激鱼脑者,为简氏绿、次甲基蓝、中性红与晶紫。此外,又用过锰酸钾作完全氧化—还原实验。 (四)对于以上各剂,鱼脑反应程度最高处是嗅球,大约与嗅球相等者,是原始端脑,稍次是小脑,再次是中脑,最次是延脑。黑鲢面叶与迷叶低于小脑,高于中脑,而面叶高于迷叶(曲线图Ⅴ(D)与Ⅵ(D))。鲫鱼的迷叶,对染剂的反应,高于小脑,对氧化—还原剂的反应,低于小脑(图Ⅴ(A)与Ⅵ(A))。 整个结论是鱼脑表面,对于化学药剂的感性与其生理功用成正比例,与其组织之年龄成反比例。除此二因素外,脑的极性(polarity)、脑各部分之体积,都与生理量度有密切的关系。唯体积关系,须与以后数点共同考虑:(1)组织的构成;(2)组织发达的程度;(3)在演化过程中该组织对于脑部继续发达,及其功用所有关系的重要性(不能单看体积的大小)。鼻脑在脑前端,屡次实验,表现为最高生理量度之所在;此处之势力,支配全脑各部分。高等脊椎动物的大脑,

Using the micromethod of Farmer and Abt, plasma vitamin C content of 9S boys and girls in a middle school was determined throughout the year 1954 to 1955. A dietary survey was also carried out every month of the year, for calculating the vitamin intake. The results of the present study are as follow:1. When the diet contains ample amount of fresh leafy vegetables in season, a satisfactory plasma vitamin C level can be maintained. When the diet is limited in fresh vegetables, plasma vitamin C readily decreases...

Using the micromethod of Farmer and Abt, plasma vitamin C content of 9S boys and girls in a middle school was determined throughout the year 1954 to 1955. A dietary survey was also carried out every month of the year, for calculating the vitamin intake. The results of the present study are as follow:1. When the diet contains ample amount of fresh leafy vegetables in season, a satisfactory plasma vitamin C level can be maintained. When the diet is limited in fresh vegetables, plasma vitamin C readily decreases in those seasons.2. There is a significant seasonal variation of plasma vitamin C content Highest values are obtained in winter, the maximal content occurring in December. The minimal value is observed in June. This corresponds to the variation in the. level of vitamin C intake in different seasons. There is no significant difference between Autumn and Winter.3. No definite correlation between plasma vitamin C content and the condition of the gums was observed in the present study.4. The plasma vitamin C content of Chinese and English school children observed by some other authors was lower than that obtained in the present investigation. It is believed that the increase plasma vitamin C of the subjects in this study is mainly due to improvement of the living condition of the population and widespread education of the people in the fundamentals of nutritional science in recent years.

此次用Farmer与Abt二氏微量测定血中维生素C的方法,前后测定了99名中学 生在一年四季血中该种维生素的含量,同时又以查账与秤重两种方法计算每人每日食物中维生素C的摄取量,借以观察两者之间的关系。结果发现由于不同食物中所供给维生素C的多寡与血中维生素C的含量有密切的关系。在冬季中,受检者血中维生素C的含量有显著的增加,而夏季则又有显著的降低,但在春秋之间并无显著的差别。再将此次所得的结果与过去国内外其他作者所报告的血中维生素C含量相比,则发现此次所得的结果较高,这可能是由于该校膳食改善的结果。从此次受检者血中维生素C的含量与齿龈健康情况检查的结果,很难看出两者之间有明显的关系。

Observations on the coronary arteries of 100 embalmed and 20 fresh hearts of Chinese children were made. The results were as follows: 1. The point of origin of the coronary arteries was found horizontally at the middle third of the aortic sinus in 90.5%, and vertically below the upper margin of the aortic sinus in 91.5%. The diameter of the opening of the left coronary artery was greater than that of the right side in 77%' lesser than that of the right side in 4%, and equivalent to that of the right side...

Observations on the coronary arteries of 100 embalmed and 20 fresh hearts of Chinese children were made. The results were as follows: 1. The point of origin of the coronary arteries was found horizontally at the middle third of the aortic sinus in 90.5%, and vertically below the upper margin of the aortic sinus in 91.5%. The diameter of the opening of the left coronary artery was greater than that of the right side in 77%' lesser than that of the right side in 4%, and equivalent to that of the right side in 19%. 2. The accessory coronary arteries occurred in 47% of the cases, and all were found on the right side. In one case, an accessory coronary artery distributed to the anterior wail of the right atrium. 3. Type II, i.e. the posterior wall of the left ventricle which was mainly supplied by the right circumflex branch, was the most common type of distribution. It occurred in 59%. 4. The interventricular septum was supplied by both the anterior and posterior descending branches, the proportion of which is determined by the length of the two descending branches. 5. The left coronary artery divided into 3 main branches (anterior descending, diagonal, left circumflex) in 56%. 6. Ramus septi fibrosi which originated from the right circumflex was found in 97% and from the left circumflex in 3%. 7. Ramus ostii cavae superioris was a constant branch, originating from the right side in 64% and from the left side in 36%. 8. The difference in number of the blood vessels to the left and right ventricles was not obvious.

用防腐了的100個中國兒童心臟,20個新鮮心臟,對心臟冠狀動脈的分佈類型作了觀察,其結果如下: 1.冠狀動脈的起點在横的位置以主動脈竇的中央爲最多,佔90.5%,縱的位置是在主動脈竇和主動脈分界綫以下的最多,佔91.5%。左冠狀動脈口的口徑大於右側的是77%,小於右側的4%,左右相等的19%。 2.副冠狀動脈的出現有47%,全部在右側,其中1例副冠狀動脈分佈右心房前壁。 3.在中國兒童冠狀動脈的分枝類型型II佔59%,也就是說左室後壁主要是由右旋枝分佈的較多。 4。前、後降枝分佈室中隔的範圍和兩個降枝的長短成正比例。 5.左冠狀動脈分爲三個主幹(前降枝,斜角枝,左旋枝)的佔56%。 6.縱隔纖維枝有97%來自右旋枝,3%球來自左旋枝。 7.上腔靜脈口枝是心房的一個固定枝,起於右側冠狀動脈的64%,左側的36%。 8.左右冠狀動脈的分枝之間經常存在着吻合。 9.左右心室的血液供給沒有顯明量的差別,只是在動脈口徑上稍有不同。

 
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