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forests
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  森林
     Study and Evaluation on Water and Flood Regulation by Forests on Slope Land in the Three-Gorge Reservoir Area
     三峡库区坡地森林理水调洪功能研究与评价
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     Study on the Construction Theory and Comprehensive Assessment of Urban Forests
     城市森林建设理论及城市森林综合评价的研究
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     Study on Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests in Hainan Island, China
     中国海南岛热带森林可持续经营研究
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     A Study on the Technology of Helth Monitoring and Regulation of the Forests under Acid Deposition in Tieshanping, Chongqing
     酸沉降条件下的重庆铁山坪森林健康监测及调控技术研究
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     Study on Forests Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Value Simulation in Wuling Mountain
     雾灵山森林生物多样性及生态服务功能价值仿真研究
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  “forests”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The Quality Control Technology of Chinese Pine and Oriental Arborvitae Forests in Mountain Areas of Beijing
     北京山区油松、侧柏林质量调控理论与技术的研究
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     Studies on Balance Fertilization and Nutrition Management in Moso bamboo Forests
     毛竹林平衡施肥及营养管理研究
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     Dynamics of Landscape Patterns and Ecological Benefits of the Forests at Huoditang Forest Region
     火地塘林区景观格局动态及其生态效益研究
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     STUDIES ON THE INFLUENCE OF FELLING ON PROPERTIES OF SOILS UNDER PRIMITIVE FORESTS ON NORTH SLOPE OF THE CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS
     长白山北坡原始林采伐对土壤性质影响的研究
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     Decomposition of Simplie r-Regular Graph. Into [(r+1)/2] Spanning Forests
     分解简单r-正则无向图为((r+1)/2)个支撑林
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  相似匹配句对
     GRIEF OF FORESTS
     悲情森林
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     Erosion and Forests
     侵蚀和森林
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  forests
The ecological water requirement of forests is defined as the water resources used to maintain and improve the natural balance of forest ecosystems, which can be expressed by evapotranspiration of trees during the growing season.
      
With geographic information system (GIS), the ecological water requirement for forests in the Jinghe watershed, western China was estimated.
      
The results revealed that the minimum and suitable ecological water requirements of the forests in the Jinghe watershed were approximately 204×107 and 340×107 m3, respectively.
      
Although the RENIs of plantations in rehabilitated fields are a little lower than those of natural forests, they are higher than those of cultivated crops.
      
Comparative Analysis of Plant Diversity of Pinus tabulaeformis Forests in Ten Regions of Beijing Mountainous Areas
      
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A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and...

A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a surface covering of leaf litter and a surface soil with high content of organic matter.In places at an elevatin from 3,900 to 7,000 feet the yellow podzolic soil is dominant.At an elevation below 3,000 foot the red podzolic soil and the sketetal soil are fonnd. The analytical data of the soils of this area may be summarized as follows: 1.pH values of the soils:In the whole area,since the parent rock (gneiss) is poor in basic constituents,soils are all acid in reaction.The pH of the different horizons of the soils ranges from 4.0 to 5.5.The A_0 and A_1 horizons are usually less acid than B horizon,the A and B horizons are much more acid than the parent rock.This shows the leaching process of the soils under such a humid atmosphere. 2.Organic Matter of the soils:The organic matter content of the soils in this area is greatlg influenced by the kind of the vegetation cover.At an elevation of 8,500 feet, the soil developed under forest has 38.92% of organic matter in the A_1,while that under grass has only 11.08% of organic matter in the corresponding horizon.However as the vegetation cover is constant,the dopth of the A_1 and its organic matter content are evidently affected by the elevation.At an elevation of 3,000 feet,the A_1 horizon of the red podzolic soil is only 1 cm.in depth,and it has 3.37% of organic matter.At an elevation of 8,500 feet,howerver,the A_1 horizon of the podzolic soil is 7 cm.in depth, and it has 11.08% of organic matter.In addition,deposition of organic matter in the B horizon is clearly found in the podzolic soil,but it has not been seen in soils found at lower elevation. 3.Active aluminum of the soils:All the soils in this area are high in active aluminum. They contain from 20 to 16 p.p.m.of active aluminum.The content of active aluminum in the different horizons of the same profile has a very close relationship with the pH values of the corresponding horizon.The less acid the reaction the smaller is the amount of acitve aluminum.The active aluminum of the soil is usually higher in amount than that of the parent rock from which the soil is derived. 4.Available calcium magnesium,and potassium of the soils:All the soils are general- ly low in available calcium,magnesium,and potassium.The comparatively high content of these elements in the A horizon is derived from the leaves of the vegetation which are grown on that soil. 5.Available phosphorus of the soils:All the soils of this area are low in available phosphorus. 6.Available nitrate:All soils in this area are very low in nitrate. B.The Vegetation 1.The plants growing on soils of this area are most calcifuge species which are acid- loving (Vaughan and Wishe,1937).As far as the chemical analysis of the soil is concer- ned,those species may be assumed as not only acid-loving,buy also active aluminum- loving (Hutchinson,1943). 2.The distribution of the calcifuge plants In this area is apparently affected by the local climate in terms of elevation.Some of them (temperate plants) are confined to high elevation,others(tropical plants) being limited to low elevation,Two groups of the plants may be given as follows.Many of them are of the same species as those found in southwestern China (Hou,1944). (a) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevations from 7,000 to 8,500 foot (temperate plants): Pteridophyta: Destaedtia Scabra (Wall.) Moore Diranopteris linearis Under. Hicrioptris glauea Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lidsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pyphylla (Kunze) Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym Pteris aspericaulis Wall. Flowering Plants: Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium refersceda HK. Vaccinium serrasum Wight (b) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevation from 1,000 to 3,000 feet (tropical plants): Pteridophyta: Adiantum philippense L. Blechnum orientale L. Aglaoorpha coronaus Copel Lycopodium cernum L. Nephrolepsis cordifolia Presl Tectaria spp. Polypodium ucidum Roxb. Flowering plants: Oxyspora paniculate DC. Themeda arundinacea Ridl.

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物...

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物发育下的灰壤的表土,仅含有机质11.08%,但在相同的植物环境下,拔海高度或局部气候,也是支配土壤有机质含量的重要因素,例如在拔海3000尺地带,长有草类的灰化红壤,仅有极薄之有机质层,该层有机质含量为3.37%,而在拔海8500尺地带,长有草类的灰壤,则有较厚层有机质,其含量为11.08%。 (3)可溶性铝质:全区土壤含有高量可溶性铝,大约自20至160 p.p.m.,其含量与 pH 值高低相关,土壤 pH 值愈酸,可溶性铝含量就愈高。 (4)可溶性钙镁及钾质:全区土壤之可溶性钙,镁及钾等之含量均较低,但就同一土壤剖面而言,富于有机质的 A。或 A_1层的钙镁和钾质,常较 B 层为高,此点显示此等成份是来自植物遗体,亦即指示土壤中有机质与肥力之关系。 (5)全区土壤有效磷含量均甚低。 (6)全区土壤硝酸态氮之含量均极低,并有下淋现象。植物本文所论植物,仅以作者所采集而经各专家鉴定为限,其中以蕨类植物为主。本区的土壤都是酸性反应,所见的植物是以嫌钙性者为主,这些嫌钙性植物与拔海高度的关系很显著,兹将常见的植物种类,叙述如下: (一)主分布于拔海7000—8500尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物 Dennstaedtia scabra(Wall.)Moore Dicranopteris linearis Under. Hicriopteris glauca Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lindsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pycniphylla(Kunze)Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym. Pteris aspericaulis Wall.种子植物 Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium referesceda HK. Vaccinium Serrasm Wight(二)主分布于1000—3000尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物Adiantum philippense L.Blechnum orientale L.Aglaomorpha coron(?)us copelLycopodium cernuum L.Nephrolepsis cordifolia PresslTectaria spp.Polypodium lucidum Roxb.种子植物Oxysoira paniculata DC.Themedra arundinacea Ridl.

The natural vegetation of Shantung Province, in the north temperate zone, is of the aestisilvae type. As the natural conditions vary in different parts of this province, the vegetation may be divided into the following four regions: 1. Alluvial plain of the Yellow River: This region is located at the northern part of this province. The saline soil is unfavorable for the growth of most plants. The following plants are characteristic: Tamarax chinensis, Apocynum venetum, Suaeda salsa, S. glauca, Artemisin capillaris,...

The natural vegetation of Shantung Province, in the north temperate zone, is of the aestisilvae type. As the natural conditions vary in different parts of this province, the vegetation may be divided into the following four regions: 1. Alluvial plain of the Yellow River: This region is located at the northern part of this province. The saline soil is unfavorable for the growth of most plants. The following plants are characteristic: Tamarax chinensis, Apocynum venetum, Suaeda salsa, S. glauca, Artemisin capillaris, Aeluropus littoralis, Miscanthus sinensis, Phragmites karka, Carex sp. etc.. 2.Western Shantung plain: This region is located at the western part of the province. Most of the land is under cultivation and the soil is rich in calcium. There is no forest. The common trees are Populus tomentosa, P. alba P. davidiana, Ulmus spp. etc., and the herbaceous plants are Cynodon dactilon, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa colonum, Imperata cylindrica, Chenopodium album, Convolvulus chinensis,Xanthium japonicum, Crypi saculeata, Scirpus maritimus etc.. Plants which grow in the lake district largely belong to Phragmites communis, Scirpus maritimus, Zizania latifolia, Euryale ferox, Trapa bispinosa etc.. 3.Central South hilly region: This region has mostly been transformed into farms for a long time. On the hilly region there are still some remnant forests. The important trees are Pinus tabulaeformis, Biota orientalis. Quercus acutissima, Q. variabilis, Betula chinensis, Tilia mongolica etc.. On account of calcareous soil in this region, Biota orientalis is found most extensively. Gramineae leads all other herbaceous plants in abundance. The following species such as Arundinella amomala, Bothriochloa ischaemum, Setaria viridis, Pennisitum flaccidum etc. have a wide distribution. 4. Shantung Peninsula: The common native plants in this region are Pinus densiflora, Quercus dentata, Q. acutissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer mono etc.. Pious densiflora is a native plant which grows all over the hilly region. Herbaceous plants are mostly Thymus serpyllum, Setaria viridis, S. lutescens etc.. Due to the oceanic climate with higher precipitation and humidity, plants enjoy a more vigorous growth than those in other regions. There develops a richer flora, some even with warm temperate elements.

山东省之位置属于温带,植物分布为落葉闊葉林區,但在鲁中南及膠東區爲丘陵地带,落葉闊葉樹乃與針葉樹成混交林澑鶕∧谥匀粭l件,可将植物分布情况列為四區: 1.黃河冲積平原區:位於北部,為黄河三角州地帶,土壤含鹽分甚重,不宜於植物之生長。樹木只有檉柳、茶棵子等;草本以黄鬚菜、鹼蓬、茵陳蒿,獐毛、芒、蘆葦、黑三稜草等最為砇姟?2.魯西平原區:為西部之黄河冲積平原,多為農田,土壤含鈣甚多。區內無森林,常見之樹木有毛白楊、白楊、山楊、榆等?荼居泄费栏ⅠR唐、芒稷、白茅、藜、旋花、蒼耳、隱花草、荆三稜等。湖泊區域多蘆葦、荆三稜、蒲姜草、芡、菱等。3.魯中南區:為丘陵地區,平緩部分已闢為農田。山區有殘留森林,主要樹種為油松、侧柏、麻櫟、栓皮櫟、堅樺、椴等;土壤石灰質,側柏之繁盛為共特點。草本以禾本科為最多,常見的如野古草、白羊草、狗尾草、白草等,此外如細葉莎草、雞眼草、蚊子草等亦為砇姟?4.膠東區:在山東半島部份,主要樹種為赤松、洋槐、麻櫟、五角楓等,赤松自山麓至山上均有分佈,且為其鄉土,此乃本區之特徵;草本以蚊子草、狗尾草、金狗尾草為最多。在海灘地上少有高大樹木,常見樹種如洋槐、旱柳等均為栽培者,野生木本植物有酸棗...

山东省之位置属于温带,植物分布为落葉闊葉林區,但在鲁中南及膠東區爲丘陵地带,落葉闊葉樹乃與針葉樹成混交林澑鶕∧谥匀粭l件,可将植物分布情况列為四區: 1.黃河冲積平原區:位於北部,為黄河三角州地帶,土壤含鹽分甚重,不宜於植物之生長。樹木只有檉柳、茶棵子等;草本以黄鬚菜、鹼蓬、茵陳蒿,獐毛、芒、蘆葦、黑三稜草等最為砇姟?2.魯西平原區:為西部之黄河冲積平原,多為農田,土壤含鈣甚多。區內無森林,常見之樹木有毛白楊、白楊、山楊、榆等?荼居泄费栏ⅠR唐、芒稷、白茅、藜、旋花、蒼耳、隱花草、荆三稜等。湖泊區域多蘆葦、荆三稜、蒲姜草、芡、菱等。3.魯中南區:為丘陵地區,平緩部分已闢為農田。山區有殘留森林,主要樹種為油松、侧柏、麻櫟、栓皮櫟、堅樺、椴等;土壤石灰質,側柏之繁盛為共特點。草本以禾本科為最多,常見的如野古草、白羊草、狗尾草、白草等,此外如細葉莎草、雞眼草、蚊子草等亦為砇姟?4.膠東區:在山東半島部份,主要樹種為赤松、洋槐、麻櫟、五角楓等,赤松自山麓至山上均有分佈,且為其鄉土,此乃本區之特徵;草本以蚊子草、狗尾草、金狗尾草為最多。在海灘地上少有高大樹木,常見樹種如洋槐、旱柳等均為栽培者,野生木本植物有酸棗、舖地胡枝子等;草本植物多蘆葦、狗尾草等。此區氣候由於受篞笳{節,雨量與溼度亦較高,故植物生長較其他三區繁盛,種類亦較多,亞熱带植物之分布亦多於他處,尤以海邊低地為甚。在自然地理上,秦嶺、淮河一線是中國南北氣候和土壤的重要分界線,也是植物的重要分界線。但是從山東的植物分布上,可以知道這條線並不能絕然的将植物分為南北二部分,因為山東仍是一个過渡的地帶,許多南方植物在魯南及膠東沿海都有分佈,如黄檀、山胡椒、烏桖、厚朴、王蘭、木犀、黄楊、谜葉樹等多种。在另一方面,北方植物分佈至山東為其最南界限者如糠椴、遼珍珠梅、遼磯松、榛等;而赤松、蒙古機、蒙椴等則南达苏北之雲台山。由此可加,山東之植物分佈上,仍在秦嶺、淮河一線之範圍内,如以淮河來作為植物之南北分界線,则并不能完全符合實際情况,尤以膠東沿海低地,南方植物種類繁多,可與淮河流域相此。因此,此一分界线之東端似有北移之必要。山東植物之分佈乃由環境条件综合影響之結果,但在不同地区,各種因素之作用並不一致,由於地形、土壤、温度和水分等之区别而使植物分布不同。本文所举植物種类和分布地點都是從各項资料所得到,作者将其分為四區,並初步提出了這種分区的理由和形成不同分布的原因。但限於材料的不够完全和水平的淺薄,因此本文的內容很不充實, 只能作为令後进一步研究山东植物地理的基础,希望大家提出补充和指出不正确的地方,而使这一项工作能够顺利的完成。

During 1955 and 1956 the pine barkbeetle, Myelophilus Piniperda L., seriously injured pine trees on the hills near by Kiang-Kan section at Hangchow, where the pine logs (firewoods)were piled for a considerable time before selling out. Most of the logs came down from Chien Teh (建德) and Zueng-An (淳安) along the Tsiang Tang River and were infested with immense number of the barkbeetle larvae. Results of study by the writers indicated that the serious infestation of pine shoots was due to spread of the beetles emerged...

During 1955 and 1956 the pine barkbeetle, Myelophilus Piniperda L., seriously injured pine trees on the hills near by Kiang-Kan section at Hangchow, where the pine logs (firewoods)were piled for a considerable time before selling out. Most of the logs came down from Chien Teh (建德) and Zueng-An (淳安) along the Tsiang Tang River and were infested with immense number of the barkbeetle larvae. Results of study by the writers indicated that the serious infestation of pine shoots was due to spread of the beetles emerged from the piles of log. The pine barkbeetle at Hangchow gave one brood a year, overwintering in pine shoots; up to late March and April they came down to the logs and dead woods in the forest, and made parent galleries between the bark and sapwood. The barkbeetle would take about a month to complete its life cycle. The results of trials and recommendations on control of the pest are given in the following: 1. Separate applications of 25% DDT emulsion, 50% wettable DDT and 6% wettable 666 on the pine logs at a rate of 1:100 dilution still gave 68%, 82% and 66% mortalities respectively on the 20th day. Therefore it was suggested that spraying any one of the above mentioned chemicals three times at 20-day intervals from late April to end of June would kill the emerged beetles. 2. To control the beetles in the pine shoots with 1: 60—1: 100 dilution of 6% wettable 666 was quite promising. 3. Flaming the pine logs or dead woods in April or May (the breeding period of the barkbeetles) for 2 minutes gave 100% mortality. Putting trap trunks in the forest and removering barks before transportation at Chien Teh and Zueng An were suggested.

1.松小蠹虫在杭州地区猖獗成災,主要是由于从錢塘江上游远來的松柴,攜带了大量的松小蠹虫幼虫而造成的;因此若能在松柴產地剝掉樹皮后,再行运輸是最有效的防治措施。2.根据初步观察此虫在杭州一年發生一代,新成虫在5月下旬到9月間为害当年生松梢;越冬成虫从3月下旬起离开越冬松梢,蛀進二年生松梢的梢端取食,并蛀入半枯死樹和衰老樹樹干或柴堆樹皮下產卵。3.为歼滅杭州地区松小蠹虫,根据試驗結果我們認为可采取下列几个措施:(1)自錢塘江上游运來的松柴在成虫未羽化前,進行噴藥,用1:100的25%DDT乳剂、50%可湿性DDT或6%可湿性666,每隔20天噴藥1次,以殺死羽化的成虫。(2)冬季1,2月间砍伐衰老松樹,在山区設置餌木誘集成虫產卵,然后集中处理,進行噴藥或燒灼。(3)新成虫的羽化盛期开始时,在松樹上噴射60—100倍的可湿性666液,毒殺为害枝梢的成虫以保护松樹生長。

 
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